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Physico-chemical and textural (sensorial and electromyographic) evaluation of idlis formulated with brown rice and pearl millet flours

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Idli (fermented rice cake) is a cereal based fermented product consumed mainly in breakfast. Traditionally, it is made from white rice but there is growing awareness about the consumption of whole grain like brown rice and non-conventional cereals like pearl millet. Thus in this study idlis were formulated using varying ratios of brown rice and pearl millet flours. The formulated idlis were evaluated for physicochemical properties and acceptance on hedonic scale. The texture of formulated idlis was evaluated using instrumental texture analyzer, through sensory panel and by electromyographic (EMG) technique. The increased addition of pearl millet flour significantly increased the water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and water solubility index of composite flours as well as fat, protein, ash and fiber content of the formulated idlis. The addition of up to 40% pearl millet flour was found acceptable by sensory panel. Further it is inferred that human subjects food texture perceptions can be significantly correlated with the EMG variables to comprehensively explain the food texture.
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Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization (2020) 14:2898–2906
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Physico-chemical andtextural (sensorial andelectromyographic)
evaluation ofidlis formulated withbrown rice andpearl millet ours
BhavnitaDhillon1 · NavdeepSinghSodhi1· SanchitaGandotra1· SahibKaur1· SunandaJaiswal1
Received: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published online: 2 July 2020
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020
Idli (fermented rice cake) is a cereal based fermented product consumed mainly in breakfast. Traditionally, it is made from
white rice but there is growing awareness about the consumption of whole grain like brown rice and non-conventional cere-
als like pearl millet. Thus in this study idlis were formulated using varying ratios of brown rice and pearl millet flours. The
formulated idlis were evaluated for physicochemical properties and acceptance on hedonic scale. The texture of formulated
idlis was evaluated using instrumental texture analyzer, through sensory panel and by electromyographic (EMG) technique.
The increased addition of pearl millet flour significantly increased the water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and
water solubility index of composite flours as well as fat, protein, ash and fiber content of the formulated idlis. The addition
of up to 40% pearl millet flour was found acceptable by sensory panel. Further it is inferred that human subjects food texture
perceptions can be significantly correlated with the EMG variables to comprehensively explain the food texture.
Keywords Idli· Physico-chemical· Sensory· EMG
Fermented foods are good source of nutrients, especially
proteins and amino acids [1] and their demand is increas-
ing globally as they are low in fat and cholesterol, and
high in minerals, dietary fibers and phytochemicals [2]. In
the fermentation process, the action of selected microbial
starter culture results in a product which is biochemically
and organoleptically unique [3]. The fermentation process
enhances the flavor and texture of the product and makes it
appealing for human consumption [2, 4].
Idli is a fermented steamed product having sour flavor,
conventionally made from cereals or legumes having soft
and spongy texture. It originated in southren India where it
is mostly consumed as a breakfast food commodity [5]. Idli
is now commercially available throughout the world as a
frozen food, as ready to cook premixes, and is also a favorite
item on menu in Indian restaurants worldwide.
Rice-based fermented commodities are associated with
divergence of the ethnicity of different communities [6, 7].
Rice is consumed by around two-third of the Indian popula-
tion as the chief source of food [8]. Brown rice is the entire
dehulled grain whose bran layer and germ are intact, and it
is rich in nutritional components like dietary fiber, phytic
acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, magnesium, iron, phyto-
chemicals and fiber [9].
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a low cost cereal
grain that can provide vital nutrients such as carbohydrates,
protein, vitamins and minerals at affordable prices for a
large population [10]. Millets can be added to the rice for
the preparation of idli [11]. Also the fermentation process
decreases the bitterness of pearl millet due to reduction in
phytic acid and polyphenol content [12].
Black gram is an ideal ingredient for preparing idli due to
the presence of mucilaginous material which acts as a source
of substrate for microorganisms during the fermentation
process. Albumins, globulins and glutelins are the primary
proteins present in black gram [10].
Texture is an important attribute of food which can be
related to its mechanical and physical properties. Instru-
mental and sensorial texture measurements are two con-
ventional texture assessing techniques which are still
largely used but have some limitations like one being truly
mechanical and the other is subjective which may include
biasness. Electromyography (EMG) is an upcoming
* Bhavnita Dhillon
1 Department ofFood Science andTechnology, Guru Nanak
Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab143005, India
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Dhillon et al. [24] reduced thirty one mastication parameters to five variables namely, total muscle activity, middle cycle time, early burst duration, amplitude and first interburst duration for representing independent clusters in their EMG study on brown rice flour cookies. While in electromyographic study on idlis, Dhillon et al. [36] reduced twenty eight mastication parameters into seven parameters namely, early burst duration, middle burst duration, middle interburst duration, burst duration, first burst duration, total burst duration per chew, and late muscle activity by cluster analysis. Kohyama et al. [25] used the methodology of cluster analysis followed by PCA (Principal Component Analysis) for reducing the number of independent mastication variables. ...
... The cumulative proportion of variance was found to be 57.7% for PC1and 76.1% for PC2 while performing EMG analysis on idlis made by brown rice and pearl millet flour. The PC1 represented relatively higher value of early burst duration, burst duration and late muscle activity while PC2 represented higher value of total burst duration per chew and middle inter-burst duration [36]. ...
... In the EMG study with snacks, sensory parameters like hardness and chewiness correlated with PC1 scores, while adhesiveness with second principal component scores [23]. In studies with cookies sensory parameters like chewiness, gumminess and adhesiveness correlated significantly with PC1 scores [24] while in case of idlis, mastication variables i.e. early burst duration, burst duration and late muscle activity were highly correlated significantly with sensory hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, fractrurability and adhesiveness [36]. This indicates that food texture can be explained by sensorial texture perceptions which in turn are correlated with the EMG parameters [37,38]. ...
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Electromyography (EMG) is an upcoming technique for food texture evaluation which has the potential to come up as a successful comprehensive texture evaluation method. EMG texture evaluation is in its development phase and its relations with conventional texture measurement techniques need to be established and evaluated. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of EMG masticatory variables with sensory texture and instrumental texture parameters as measured for different textured foods. Five food samples were purchased from the local market namely, dhokla, paneer, rasgulla, cake and jelly. Food samples were subjected to proximate analysis, sensory textural evaluation and two-bite tests using texture profile analyzer. Nutritional compositions of all the selected food materials were significantly (p ≤ 0.01) different values. Textural parameters like hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess showed highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) variations among different selected foods. The study was conducted on eight human subjects. Eighteen EMG mastication variables were obtained during chewing of these five different foods. Fifteen mastication variables were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) effective in explaining the variation in texture of the selected food samples. Mastication parameters were reduced from eighteen to five in number using cluster analysis. Correlation coefficients between EMG mastication parameters at different stages (early, middle and late), and sensory and instrumental texture parameters were found significant. Principal component analysis was conducted on various mastication parameters which resulted in two meaningful principal components, comprising of mastication time, total muscle activity, cycle time, early burst duration and early muscle activity, could explain a cumulative variance of up to 82%. The first principal component (PC1) scores correlated significantly with sensory texture parameters and instrumental texture parameters namely hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness gumminess and adhesiveness. PC1 showed correlation with sensory cohesiveness, chewiness and adhesiveness at (p ≤ 0.05) while with hardness at (p ≤ 0.10) and with gumminess at (p ≤ 0.20). For the instrumental texture parameters significant correlations were found with cohesiveness and gumminess at (p ≤ 0.05). The study revealed that EMG is capable of comprehensively quantifying the dynamic changes occurring in the mouth during chewing of different textured foods. So the information generated through EMG investigations can complement the sensory and instrumental textural analysis for designing new foods.
... The GI of Idli prepared from semolina and soy flour (75 and 25%) had significantly lower GI (74.17) as compared to GI of control idli (100). Dhillon et al. (2020) [34] formulated Idli using varying ratios of brown rice and pearl millet flours. The increased addition of pearl millet four significantly increased the fat, protein, ash and fiber content of the formulated idlis. ...
... The GI of Idli prepared from semolina and soy flour (75 and 25%) had significantly lower GI (74.17) as compared to GI of control idli (100). Dhillon et al. (2020) [34] formulated Idli using varying ratios of brown rice and pearl millet flours. The increased addition of pearl millet four significantly increased the fat, protein, ash and fiber content of the formulated idlis. ...
Full-text available
The present study was planned to develop and evaluate Idli with low glycemic index. Idli is a popular fermented breakfast food consumed in the Indian subcontinent mainly south India. Over the time period, it has also become popular in Northern India due to ease of making and its savoury taste. It is conventionally made mainly of rice and black gram. In order to make it diabetic friendly, Idli was developed using brown rice, soybean, Acacia nilotica and Coccinia indica. The Idli developed using brown rice in combination with black gram and soybean was found to be highly acceptable. Nutritional evaluation revealed 10.82 g/100g protein, 4.43 g/100g fibre. Antioxidant activity was analyzed in terms of phenolic content (5.32 mg GAE/100g) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (6.32 TE/100g). In-vitro starch and protein digestibilities were found to be 65.18 mg maltose/g and 79.46 percent, respectively. Percent mineral availability was in the range of 55 to 66 for different minerals. Glycemic index was found to be 50.83. The Idli incorporated with Coccinia indica and Acacia nilotica were not found acceptable.
... Therefore the reflection of the thing within the sensation features a fragmentary character, one-dimensional, not allowing its identification [10], [11]. If we remain within the phase of sensory reception, without the attribute of awareness, we couldn't detach ourselves from the animal world [12] In humans, the notice of the feeling puts into operation logical operators of analysis-evaluation, discernment-delimitation between the stimulus and its informational model, of designative reporting (the internal subjective image refers to the external stimulus that caused it the sensations are characterized by a series of qualities on the idea of which we will identify, compare, analyze, and interpret. These qualities are: modality, intensity, duration, affective tone and cognitive value. ...
Full-text available
The aim of the paper is to present sensory analysis of mint honey as a component of the promotion strategy of intensive beekeeping. Sensory analysis is part of the quality concept and is the method of examining a product with the help of basic human sensation.
... Sensory chewiness, gumminess and adhesiveness correlated significantly with the scores of first principal component. In a study by Dhillon et al. [37] on formulated idlis, it was found that the EMG parameters viz. early burst duration, burst duration and late muscle activity were found to be significantly correlated with sensory hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, fractrurability and adhesiveness. ...
Full-text available
The demand of health boosting conventional snacks is increasing among the consumers. Rice is gluten free, has superior amino acid profile and known to be non-allergic. Brown rice is the whole grain which offers nutritional benefits in addition to polished (white) rice like being rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals and good fats, due to its intact germ and bran layer. This study aimed at finding the use and acceptability of brown rice flour (BRF) as a replacement to refined wheat flour (RWF) in cookies. The BRF and RWF were analyzed for their proximate composition. Cookies were formulated with 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% replacement of RWF with BRF. The functional properties of these blends were evaluated. Formulated cookies were analyzed for their proximate composition, sensory parameters (on hedonic scale) and for sensory textural parameters. The addition of BRF resulted in an increase in water absorption capacity and decrease in oil absorption capacity of flour blends. The BRF incorporation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the fat, fiber and ash contents of the formulated cookies. The addition of up to 40% BRF was found acceptable by sensory panel with average liking score of 7 and above. Also electromyography (EMG) study of the chewing process of cookies was conducted and the acquired EMG parameters were correlated with sensory textural parameters for comprehensive understanding of the texture. The results indicated that sensorial texture perceptions can be correlated with the EMG parameters to comprehensively explain the food texture.
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Basmati, a popularly grown rice cultivar in India has a well-balanced combination of alluring aroma, fluffy texture, and elongated grain. These cultivars are commonly subjected to pretreatments namely steaming and parboiling to increase profitability. However, these processes may expressively affect the cooked rice textural attributes which can subsequently have an impact on the consumer acceptability. An upcoming textural evaluation technique namely electromyography (EMG), which is an in vivo, innovative and non-invasive procedure, was applied in this study to comprehensively elucidate the effect of these pretreatments on the cooked rice texture. The effect of steaming and parboiling on the physico-chemical characteristics of rice cultivars were also examined. For this study, raw, steamed and parboiled samples of Pusa 1121 and Pusa 1509 were selected. Steaming, which is used as an artificial aging process, resulted in increase in length to breadth ratio (L/B) while L/B ratio decreased with parboiling. Fat and ash contents increased with steaming and parboiling whereas moisture, protein and fiber contents decreased after these two post-harvest processes. Steaming had negligible effect on color of rice of both the cultivars and resulted in improved sensory aroma, taste, appearance, texture and overall acceptability. On the other hand, parboiling of rice resulted in darker rice with very low sensory acceptability. The bioelectrical activities of the chewing muscles, as acquired by EMG, during mastication of cooked rice samples were found to be reproducible. Out of twenty three acquired EMG parameters, fifteen masticatory parameters could significantly (p < 0.05) detect textural differences among the cooked rice samples. To summarize the results, a cluster analysis followed by principal component analysis was conducted which reduced these fifteen EMG parameters to two meaningful principal components namely PC1 and PC2. These two principal components, PC1 and PC2, were found to explain a data variance of 49.3% and 36.4%, respectively. In nutshell, EMG parameters namely chew number, amplitude per chew, middle amplitude, cycle time, early burst duration and late muscle activity related significantly (p < 0.05) with cooked rice sensory textural parameters signifying EMG’s applicability in successfully establishing the effect of steaming and parboiling on the textural attributes of cooked rice samples.
Dysphagia is a symptom that refers to difficulty during the progression of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the stomach. This may lead to malnutrition and negative effects on quality of life. Doctors and dieticians around the globe are looking for nutritious textured‐modified diets which are easier to chew and swallow thus could reduce the risks associated with choking in dysphagia patients. In this study, different functional liquid diets were formulated under International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) levels 0 to 2. The diets were made with incorporation of various fruits and vegetables to enhance their nutritional profile. The formulated liquid diets were analysed for their proximate composition, colour, antioxidant and sensory properties. The formulated liquid diets were high in nutrients and antioxidants. Also all the formulated products were highly acceptable based on various sensory attributes indicating their potential to be incorporated in the diet plan of dysphagia patients. Electromyography (EMG) study was conducted to acquire myoelectrical activities of both masseter and suprahyoid muscles during oral processing of liquid diets by human subjects. The acquired EMG oral processing parameters significantly (p<0.05) correlated with ease of swallowing and IDDSI levels. Hence, EMG technique provides in vivo texture evaluation and real‐time swallowing patterns and thus can be an effective approach for the formulation of texture‐modified diets for dysphagia patients.
Cereal grains constitute major source of carbohydrates, proteins, B-complex vitamins, vitamin E, fiber, and micronutrients. Traditionally, fermentation was the simple and inexpensive technique to increase the shelf-life, organoleptic properties, nutritional attributes, and functional qualities. Cereal fermentation was started with leavening wheat dough with yeast by ancient Egyptians and souring cereal-legume batters by ancient Indians. Fermentation of cereal grains leads to reduce the amount of nondigestible poly and oligosaccharides, helps in synthesis of some essential amino acids and increase in the level of vitamin B complex. It also creates optimum pH for degradation of antinutritional compounds in the cereals such as phytates, which may improve the bioavailability of soluble iron, zinc, and calcium in several folds. In recent times, evolvement of functional food era demands significant transformation in the field of nutritional sciences using sophisticated technological tools for fermentation, which will provide foundation for development of safe food products with unique nutritional and functional attributes. Therefore, objective of the book chapter is to summarize some of the indigenous fermented foods and beverages produced world-wide and recent technological interventions to commercialize these products to meet the emerging needs of people all over the world.KeywordsCereal grainsFermentationFunctional foodShelf lifeNutritional attributes
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Climate change can cause an increase in arid soils, warmer weather, and reduce water availability, which in turn can directly affect food security. This increases food prices and reduces the availability of food. Therefore, knowledge concerning the nutritional and technological potential of non-traditional crops and their resistance to heat and drought is very interesting. Pearl millet is known to produce small nutritious cereal grains, which can endure both heat and dry conditions, and is one of the basic cereals of several African and Asian countries. Although this species has been cultivated in Brazil for at least 50 years it is only used as a cover crop and animal feed, but not for human consumption. Nonetheless, pearl millet grains have a high potential as food for humans because they are gluten-free, higher in dietary fiber content than rice, similar in lipid content to maize and higher content of essential amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and lysine) than other traditional cereals, such as wheat and rye. In addition, the crop is low cost and less susceptible to contamination by aflatoxins compared to corn, for example. Most grains, including pearl millet, can be milled, decorticated, germinated, fermented, cooked and extruded to obtain products such as flours, biscuits, snacks, pasta and non-dairy probiotic beverages. Pearl millet also has functional properties; it has a low glycemic index and therefore it can be used as an alternative food for weight control and to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as diabetes. Thus, this review intends to show the potential of pearl millet as an alternative food security crop, particularly in countries, like Brazil, where it is not commonly consumed. Also this review presents different processes and products that have been already reported in the literature in order to introduce the great potential of this important small grain to producers and consumers.
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Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours), run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours) and run 13 (75.000% pearl millet, 20.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours). The pasting characteristics and rheological evaluation of the optimized blends were further evaluated in rapid visco units (RVU). Run 7 had the overall best pasting characteristics; peak viscosity (462 RVU), trough (442 RVU), breakdown viscosity (20 RVU), final viscosity (975 RVU), setback (533 RVU), peak time (5.47 min) and pasting temperature (89.60 °C). These values were found to be better than several composite flours consisting mixture of wheat and non-wheat crops. In addition, the rheological characteristics (measured by Mixolab) showed that run 7 is the best in terms of dough stability, swelling, water absorption and shelf stability. Composite flour with 85% pearl millet flour in addition to kidney beans and tigernut flours could therefore serve as a viable alternative to 100% wheat flour in bread production.
Brown rice is the unmilled rice with pericarp, the seed coat and nucellus, the germ or the embryo, and the endosperm. It is whole grain rice with intact bran layer and the inedible outer hull removed. Although it has several health claims, it is mostly consumed by a limited number of health conscious and nutritionally aware people. In this paper, we discuss the physiochemical properties of brown rice along with its health benefits, including certain cancers.
Rice is the most important crop in the world in terms of total developing world production and the number of consumers dependent on it as their staple. It is widely cultivated under flooded and upland culture and mainly grown and consumed in Asia. Semidwarf and hybrid rice contribute to increases in grain yield. Less than 5% of rice enters the international trade. Protein, starch, and lipids are present as main components of the rice grain. Its protein is of good nutritive quality and composed mainly of glutelin. Starch granules have a wide range in apparent amylose content (AC) among the cereals from waxy, low-amylose, intermediate-amylose, to high-amylose. The wide range in AC of varieties in production reflects the different preferences for cooked rice texture in Asia and elsewhere. Glycemic index correlates negatively with AC. The high content of γ-oryzanols and tocols contribute to the hypocholesterolemic and anticancer properties of undefatted rice.
The objective of this study was to deteimine the effects of texture of cooked rice on the natural chewing behavior of people who habitually consume rice. Eight Japanese cultivars varying in amylose content and protein content were selected and cooked rice samples with various texture were prepared. Instrumentally measured textural parameters were highly correlated with the amylose content but not with protein content. Electromyography (EMG) from both masseter muscles was recorded during natural eating for ten men. The number of chews, mastication time, and sum of muscle activities were significantly higher in the harder rice samples from high amylose cultivars. The burst duration and muscle activities per chew were also high; however, the interburst duration was low in rice with a high amylose content. EMG variables per chew were compared in the early, middle, and late stages of mastication. The amplitude and muscle activities decreased in the late stage, whereas the interburst duration and cycle time increased for all cultivars and the burst duration was similar. No significant correlations between EMG variables and protein content were found. Amylose content influences the texture of cooked rice and also chewing behavior, but the effects of amylose content were diminished at the late stage of mastication. EMG was useful for analyzing natural eating behavior as well as dynamic changes in texture during mastication of cooked rice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries.
The present study was designed to evaluate how typical Japanese staple foods – rice and rice cake – with different physical properties influence the patterns of muscle activity during chewing. Six normal adults were asked to eat rice and rice cake freely in a natural manner. Surface electromyographic recordings of the masseter and suprahyoid muscles were performed. There were large differences between the foods in terms of masticatory duration. The masseter activity per cycle was significantly greater for rice cake than for rice. The masseter activity gradually decreased as chewing progressed, although the suprahyoid activity did not change throughout the sequence of rice cake chewing. The results suggest that the process of bolus formation with rice cake is very different from that with rice in terms of jaw-closing and jaw-opening muscle activities. This study aimed to examine how the masticatory sequence adapts to variations in the initial properties of foods. This research may enhance our understanding of the oral physiology of bolus formation and changes in the physical properties of foods during chewing.
Most of the comments marked have a question mark at the end. As such the changes carried out by us need to be checked very carefully.
Currently UK fruit and vegetable intakes are below recommendations. Bread is a staple food consumed by approximately 95% of adults in western countries. In addition, bread provides an ideal matrix by which functionality can be delivered to the consumer in an accepted and convenient food. Therefore, enriching bread with vegetables may be an effective strategy to increase vegetable consumption. This study evaluated bread enriched with red beetroot, carrot with coriander, red pepper with tomato or white beetroot (40 g vegetable per 100 g) compared to white control bread (0 g vegetable) for consumer acceptance. Consumers (n = 120) rated their liking of the breads overall, as well as their liking of appearance, flavour and texture using nine-point hedonic scales. Product replacement and purchase intent of the breads were rated using five-point scales. The effect of providing consumers with health information about the breads was also evaluated. There were significant differences in overall liking (P < 0.0001), as well as liking of appearance (P < 0.0001), flavour (P = 0.0002) and texture (P = 0.04), between the breads. However, the significant differences resulted from the red beetroot bread which was significantly (P < 0.05) less liked compared to control bread. There were no significant differences in overall liking between any of the other vegetable-enriched breads compared with the control bread (no vegetable inclusion). The provision of health information about the breads did not increase consumer liking of the vegetable-enriched breads. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that vegetable-enriched bread appeared to be an acceptable strategy to increase vegetable intake, however, liking depended on vegetable type.