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Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization (2020) 14:2898–2906
Physico-chemical andtextural (sensorial andelectromyographic)
evaluation ofidlis formulated withbrown rice andpearl millet ours
BhavnitaDhillon1 · NavdeepSinghSodhi1· SanchitaGandotra1· SahibKaur1· SunandaJaiswal1
Received: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published online: 2 July 2020
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020
Idli (fermented rice cake) is a cereal based fermented product consumed mainly in breakfast. Traditionally, it is made from
white rice but there is growing awareness about the consumption of whole grain like brown rice and non-conventional cere-
als like pearl millet. Thus in this study idlis were formulated using varying ratios of brown rice and pearl millet ﬂours. The
formulated idlis were evaluated for physicochemical properties and acceptance on hedonic scale. The texture of formulated
idlis was evaluated using instrumental texture analyzer, through sensory panel and by electromyographic (EMG) technique.
The increased addition of pearl millet ﬂour signiﬁcantly increased the water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and
water solubility index of composite ﬂours as well as fat, protein, ash and ﬁber content of the formulated idlis. The addition
of up to 40% pearl millet ﬂour was found acceptable by sensory panel. Further it is inferred that human subjects food texture
perceptions can be signiﬁcantly correlated with the EMG variables to comprehensively explain the food texture.
Keywords Idli· Physico-chemical· Sensory· EMG
Fermented foods are good source of nutrients, especially
proteins and amino acids  and their demand is increas-
ing globally as they are low in fat and cholesterol, and
high in minerals, dietary ﬁbers and phytochemicals . In
the fermentation process, the action of selected microbial
starter culture results in a product which is biochemically
and organoleptically unique . The fermentation process
enhances the ﬂavor and texture of the product and makes it
appealing for human consumption [2, 4].
Idli is a fermented steamed product having sour ﬂavor,
conventionally made from cereals or legumes having soft
and spongy texture. It originated in southren India where it
is mostly consumed as a breakfast food commodity . Idli
is now commercially available throughout the world as a
frozen food, as ready to cook premixes, and is also a favorite
item on menu in Indian restaurants worldwide.
Rice-based fermented commodities are associated with
divergence of the ethnicity of diﬀerent communities [6, 7].
Rice is consumed by around two-third of the Indian popula-
tion as the chief source of food . Brown rice is the entire
dehulled grain whose bran layer and germ are intact, and it
is rich in nutritional components like dietary ﬁber, phytic
acid, thiamine, riboﬂavin, niacin, magnesium, iron, phyto-
chemicals and ﬁber .
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a low cost cereal
grain that can provide vital nutrients such as carbohydrates,
protein, vitamins and minerals at aﬀordable prices for a
large population . Millets can be added to the rice for
the preparation of idli . Also the fermentation process
decreases the bitterness of pearl millet due to reduction in
phytic acid and polyphenol content .
Black gram is an ideal ingredient for preparing idli due to
the presence of mucilaginous material which acts as a source
of substrate for microorganisms during the fermentation
process. Albumins, globulins and glutelins are the primary
proteins present in black gram .
Texture is an important attribute of food which can be
related to its mechanical and physical properties. Instru-
mental and sensorial texture measurements are two con-
ventional texture assessing techniques which are still
largely used but have some limitations like one being truly
mechanical and the other is subjective which may include
biasness. Electromyography (EMG) is an upcoming
* Bhavnita Dhillon
1 Department ofFood Science andTechnology, Guru Nanak
Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab143005, India