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Benincasa is a monotypic genus which belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae usually known as Ash Gourd and has synonyms like Wax Gourd, Winter Melon, White Gourd, Tallow Gourd, White Pumpkin, Ash Pumpkin, Chinese preserving Melon, Pith Gourd and Hairy Melon (when immature). Ash Gourd is mainly cultivated in the Old World tropics and is native to the Asian tropics (including India), mostly valued for its long storage life and good scope for value addition. It originated from South Asia including India, where mention of the fruit finds place in Ayurvedic preparations for the medicinal properties and mentioned in Ayurveda as ‘Khusmanda’ in Sanskrit. Its fruits contain various minerals and vitamins, having a relatively high level of K and Na, and low calorific value and no fat. From the Index of Nutrition Quality Value (INQV), it has been evaluated as a quality vegetable but rarely used as vegetable. In North India, it is suggested to sow October to November. Sowing in October can prevent Mosaic Virus to an extent. The famous; ‘Petha’ prepared as sweet cubes mainly originated from Agra, which was marketed as a processed product of Ash Gourd. It is valued for its medicinal attributes especially in Ayurveda for the cure of peptic ulcers. The fruit juice is used in Ayurvedic medicine for treating a range of ailments including insanity and epilepsy. Ash Gourd is found to be the rich source of macro and micro nutrients. Local landraces and released variety from different SAUs of ash gourd BAGS-2, BAGS-10, Pusa Shreyali scored highest concentration of Zn (62.44 mg Kg-1), P (0.62%) and Ca (10.00%) respectively. Highest concentration of magnesium was seen in BAGS-6 as well as Pusa Ujjwal i.e 5.60% where as Pusa Urmi and BAGS-10 found to be lowest i.e 1.80%. BAGS-9 (6598.50 mg Kg-1) recorded maximum concentration of iron followed by Pusa Shreyali (5230.40 mg Kg-1) and Kashi Surbhi (4852 mg Kg-1). Genotype BAGS-8 recorded maximum concentration of K (6.75%), S (0.80%) and Mn (229.70% mg Kg-1). Sensory evaluation of ash gourd local landraces i.e BAGS-11 and BAGS-11 (7.54 acceptability score with TSS of 2.03 0 brix) and BAGS-6 (overall acceptability 7.2) can be used for the well-known sweet dish petha and the nuggets (badi) preparation in villages correspondingly as value added products.
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... Ash gourd, also known as a Benincasa hispida, is in the Cucurbitaceae family. It comprises 96% water and is low in calories, fat, protein, and carbs (Pradhan, 2020). Its inner side has a thick white, delicious, and fresh tissue. ...
... Its inner side has a thick white, delicious, and fresh tissue. It has the name ash gourd because its seeds build up a waxy matter of gray on development (Pradhan, 2020). The biochemical activity of the fruit includes antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, detoxicant, and curative effects in treating various ailments. ...
Conference Paper
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Ash gourd and banana pseudo-stem tender cores contain more fiber and other nutrients that benefit human health. This study was carried out to compare the formulated jam alternative with ash gourd and banana pseudo-stem tender core and to evaluate its physio-chemical content against the control. The jam alternative was produced with five treatments (T1: Ash gourd only, T2: Banana pseudo-stem tender core pulp only, T3: Ash gourd pulp 50%: Banana pseudo-stem tender core pulp 50%, T4: Ash gourd pulp 30%: Banana tender core pulp 70%, T5: Ash gourd pulp 70%: Banana tender core pulp 30%) with different formulation incorporating ash gourd and banana tender core. The moisture, ash, fiber, pH, and titratable acidity were analyzed for the different jam alternative treatments. The results ranged from 5.10-7.14 % fiber, 0.26-0.37% ash, 2.81-2.92 pH, 1.08-1.58 mg per 100g as citric acid titratable acidity, and 19.01-21.53 % moisture content. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed between the treatments for moisture, ash, fiber, pH, and titratable acidity of jam alternative. Further, the sensory evaluation was conducted for the five different formulas with 20 untrained panelists using a nine-point Hedonic scale for taste, texture, color, odor, and overall acceptability. According to the sensory test, 100% banana tender core jam alternative (Treatment 2) was selected as the preferable sample out of the five samples. Conclusively, the jam alternative developed with a banana tender core was favored by the sensory panel.
... Cogn.], es una Cucurbitaceae, alógama que se cultiva principalmente desde el Sur y Este de Asia (Ekeke et al., 2019;Chomicki et al., 2020); valorada principalmente por su larga vida útil y buen margen de valor agregado. Los frutos se consumen de diferentes formas (Pradhan et al., 2020a), por lo que es de gran importancia en la alimentación, nutrición, biomedicina, medicina tradicional e industria farmacológica, en las zonas productoras (Gupta et al., 2019a(Gupta et al., , 2019bChomicki et al., 2020). ...
... Las magnitudes, sentido y significancia de las correlaciones entre el PEF y LAF, ANF, GRF, CSF, PSF y NSF (rF≥0,64) son de gran importancia en los procesos de selección, manejo y conservación de las semillas. Para el fitomejorador y el productor, la selección de genotipos de alta producción de semillas y pulpa representan componentes valiosos para el consumo y transformación (Chomicki et al., 2020;Pradhan et al., 2020a), y como garantía de supervivencia de la especie (Nansikombi et al., 2019). ...
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Correlations and path analysis are important strategies to improve the selection of agronomic traits of commercial interest in various crops. The objective of this work was to estimate the correlations between 14 biometric characteristics of the fruit and the seed, and the path analysis for the weight of the fruit in B. hispida. 10 families of half siblings were evaluated, in a completely randomized design with five repetitions. Fruit weight showed direct significant phenotypic correlations with pulp thickness, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds, seed cavity and seed weight, whose coefficients ranged between 0.64 * and 0.91 **, respectively. Seed length showed a significant direct association with the volume of a seed and the weight of a seed, with records of 0.66 * and 0.83 **, respectively. The width of the seed and the volume of a seed showed a correlation of 0.88 **, while the density of a seed presented a significant inverse correlation with the width of the seed and the volume of a seed, with records of-0.73 * and-0.89 **. Indirect effects mainly explained the significant correlation of fruit weight with the variables fruit width, seed cavity, seed weight and number of seeds. The length of the fruit presented the greatest direct and indirect effects on the weight of the fruit. The weight of the fruit and the length of the fruit can be used in the selection of B. hispida to obtain genotypes with greater weight and number of seeds per fruit. Temas Agrarios 2021. Este artículo se distribuye bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons Attrubution 4.0 ( by-nc/4.0/, que permite copiar, redistribuir, remezclar, transformar y crear a partir del material, de forma no comercial, dando crédito y licencia de forma adecuada a los autores de la obra.
... Benincasa is a monotypic genus with a single cultivated species [Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn, 2n = 2x = 24] (Pradhan et al., 2020). The importance of the species is given by its cultural and collective value in food, nutrition, biomedicine, traditional medicine and pharmacological industry, beverages, charcuterie, delicatessen, handicrafts, cultural and religious traditions, among others (Chomicki et al., 2020). ...
... The fruits can be cylindrical, oblong or rounded, depending on the cultivar; provided with a thick wax in the epidermis when they mature and reach a weight of up to 13.67 kg (Pandey et al., 2015). The seeds, located in the center of the fruit, are oval-elliptical, flattened, smooth and colored light yellow, they measure between 1.0 and 1.5 cm long and 0.5 to 0.8 cm wide, however, their dimensions vary with the shape of the fruit (Pradhan et al., 2020). ...
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The objective of the study was to evaluate the morphometry, viability and germination of B. hispida seeds, at the Universidad de Córdoba, Colombia. Eight biometric characteristics were measured in a sample of seeds taken at random from a balanced compound originating from 50 fruits. The external and internal morphological description was made on a sample of 10 seeds. Seed viability was estimated by the tetrazolium test, using the combination of two staining times (2 and 3 hours) and three concentrations of (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%), under a design completely randomized, with six treatments and four repetitions of 50 seeds. The germination test (PRUGER) was performed in a mesh house with four repetitions of 50 seeds to estimate eight physiological parameters of germination. The morpho-metric characteristics of thickness, length and width of seeds showed reduced phenotypic variation, compared with the weight, density and volume of a seed, with variation coefficients greater than 11.7%. The seed, ovoid and flattened, presents an embryo with its cotyledons wrapped in a protective membrane. The viability, determined with tetrazolium, was 89.5-96.5%, while the PRUGER was 100%, with no statistical differences between them (P≥0.05). The combination of 0.5% tetrazolium with 2 hours is sufficient to determine the viability of the seed. Germination elapsed from 6 to 19 days after sowing, with a germination speed index of 0.22, average daily germination of 5.26%, peak value of 5.33 and germination value of 28.
... However, Kumarasamy & Radhakrishnan (2022) have already provided evidence of the therapeutic effects of B. hispida as an antipyretic, to cure urinary tract infections, and to control mental disorders. The fruits also treat peptic ulcers, the common cold, and constipation, while the seeds assist get rid of tapeworm and other intestinal worms (Pradhan et al. 2020). ...
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Background: India is a land of diverse ethnicity with plethora of ethnic foods. One of the ethnic foods is Posa kumura(a form prepared from matured fruit of Benincasa hispida) which is consumed in Assam. However, being not so popular, till date the there is no written document to provide an evidence of its origin. Methods: The present ethnobotanical study consists of both online (Google form) and offline (field visits and interviews) survey with 918 informers of the state having different gender, age groups and occupation through semi- structured questionnaires along withIn this article an attempt has been made to document the contemporary process of making Posa kumura by means of survey through a semi-structured questionnaire along with the preliminary phytochemical analysis. Results: The findings revealed that of 918 respondents (559 male, 358 female and 01 transgender) from 35 districts of Assam, 372 consumes Posa kumura in various forms. Of the 372 people, 75.81% opined that the matured Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. is placed in shade for varying periods of time for conversion to Posa kumura. Though the production process reported is similar, it is different in terms of how people intend to consume. Frying of Posa kumura (49%) was the most favoured mode of consumption followed by curry (27%), dry (6%) and pitha (6%). The age-old health benefits claimed by the consumer of Posa kumura includes improved digestion, anti-diabetic, promotes weight loss, etc. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, amino acids, phytosterols, saponins, coumarins. However, phenolics, tannins, phlobatannins, triterpenoids, lignins, quinones, anthraquinones, resins, fixed oils and fats were absent. Besides, Posa kumura also enhances milk production and helps prevent foot and mouth disease of cows. Conclusion: Thus, it can be inferred that the functional ingredients of this food lead to improvement in health in a holistic way.
... It was originated from South Asia including India and it is widely grown throughout South and South East Asia, including Myanmar, Malaysia, China, Japan and almost all countries of South East Asia as a prominent crop. It cannot survive the extreme cold [1]. Ash gourd is one of the important palatable cucurbitaceous vegetables grown extensively throughout the tropical and subtropical countries [2]. ...
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Recently, farmers are shifting to organic farming and are interested in the adoption of various plant and animal waste as nutrient sources in organic agriculture to supply the nutrients for getting the expected yield. Currently, farmers believe that the application of panchagavya and fish extracts play a major role in enhancing the biological efficiency of crop plants. Hence, a field study was conducted to assess the effect of foliar application of panchagavya, fish extracts and organic substances on yield and quality of ash gourd under organic farming during Kharif, 2020 at Murungai village in Tiruchirappalli district of Tamil Nadu. The results of the study indicated that foliar application of Panchgavya @ 3%, and fish extracts @ 0.5% along with soil application of FYM @25 t/ha, Groundnut cake @ 100 kg/ha and Neem cake @ 200kg/ha recorded significantly higher fruit yield (25.55 t/ha) compared to other treatments. Further, nutrient contents of ash gourd were studied under various foliar applications of organics and the fruit pulp was used for analysis. The quality parameters viz., protein content of fruit (0.54 g/100 g), Fat (0.13 g/100 g), carbohydrate (2.44 g/100 g), Fibre (1.14g/100 g), Zinc (0.14mg/100 g), Iron (0.44 mg/100 g) recorded were significantly higher with the application of Panchagavya, fish extract and oil cake application. Therefore, it is found that foliar application of Panchgavya @ 3%, and Fish extracts @ 0.5% along with FYM (25 t/ha), Groundnut cake (100 kg/ha) and Neem cake (200 kg/ha) could be used for getting more yield under organic farming system.
... Los frutos pueden ser cilíndricos, oblongos o redondeados, dependiendo del cultivar; provistos de una gruesa cera en la epidermis cuando maduran, llegando a pesar hasta 13,67 kg (Pandey et al., 2015;Tadkal et al., 2019). Las semillas, ubicadas en el centro del fruto, son ovales-elípticas, aplanadas, lisas y de color amarillo claro, miden entre 1,0 y 1,5 cm de largo y 0,5 a 0,8 cm de ancho (Tadkal et al., 2019;Pradhan et al., 2020). B. hispida es de utilidad en las economías campesinas y en los cultivos de pancoger, pero muy poco investigadas en cuanto a la conservación de su germoplasma, identificación e inventario de ecotipos, obtención y producción de semillas, desarrollo de paquetes tecnológicos, cosecha, postcosecha y transformación en general (Ekeke et al., 2019;Gupta et al., 2019;Tadkal et al., 2019). ...
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The main objective of this research study was to quantify the genetic parameters of 16 fruit and seed traits of Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn from Montería (Colombia). Ten families of half siblings (FHM) were evaluated in a completely randomized design with five replications. The results showed differences only between FHM for seed width (SW). The estimates of genetic variability were higher in SW and seed thickness, where the genetic component represented 81.58% and 45.91% of the phenotypic variance. The greatest heritability in broad sense (h2 A = 81.58%) and strict sense (h2 E = 13.05%) occurred in SW. Expected genetic gain expressed as a percentage of the mean occurred in SW and seed volume, being 60% higher than that of the general mean. In conclusion, the genetic parameters obtained here indicate that selecting fruits with broad, thick, and voluminous seeds would allow obtaining vigorous seedlings for propagation.
... This vegetable is grown in tropical and subtropical regions and it contains water, carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins [2] . It has a long storage life and also known by the names wax gourd, white gourd, winter melon, white pumpkin and so on [3] . Ash gourd is monoecious and hence it depends on insects for pollination [4] . ...
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Eleven species of bees under 8 genera were collected from flowers of ash gourd [Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.] from Malappuram district of Kerala, India. Out of the 8 genera present, 7 belong to family Apidae and the highest number of individuals belong to genus Tetragonula Moure. Diversity of bee pollinators of ash gourd in the study area is in a good state.
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An experiment was conducted at All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops ,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar in two seasons viz. kharif, 2015 and kharif ,2016,with the objective to find out suitable ash gourd genotypes for earliness and high yield under Odisha conditions out of 18 ash gourd genotypes (11 landraces collected from different districts of Odisha and 7 released varieties). Results revealed that in respect of fruit yield, the genotype Kashi Surbhi (10134.686 g/plant) was the best followed by Kashi Dhawal(7678.655 g/plant), Pusa Sabji Petha(6626.995 g/plant), Pusa Urmi (6376.530 g/plant) and BAGS- 8(6124.365 g/plant). Kashi Surbhi was also the earliest in respect of fruit setting while BAGS-2 was noted for highest number of female flowers per plant (39.50).The genotype BAGS- 1 recorded the maximum number of fruits per plant (4.965) while fruit weight was highest in Kashi Dhawal.. BAGS-7 produced maximum number and weight of seeds per fruit. The characters number of seeds /fruit and weight of seeds/fruit having high GCV, heritability and GA(%) are under the influence of additive gene action. It may be concluded that the genotypes Kashi Surbhi and Kashi Dhawal can be recommended for cultivation in Odisha.
Mature fruits of 19 advance lines of ash gourd (Benincasa hispida) were used to study the changes in bio-chemical parameters during storage. Fresh and stored (75 days at ambient temperature) fruits were analyzed for protein (mg/100 g pulp), fat (mg/100 g pulp), total sugar (%), dry matter content (g/100 g pulp), pectin (g/100 g pulp), vitamin C (mg/100 g pulp), calcium (mg/100 g pulp), and crude fibre (g/100 g pulp). Fruit spoilage was recorded at every 20 days on a 0-4 scale. Fruits did not deteriorate up to 80 days of storage, and some black spots on the fruit surface developed after 80 days. Genotypes IVAG-502, IVAG-50, IVAG-88 and IVAG-71 did not deteriorate up to 100 days, while no spoilage was observed in Hybrid-600 up to 120 days. In fresh fruits, maximum protein (690 mg) was recorded in genotype IVAG-90, followed by IVAG-54-1 (666 mg), while genotype PAG-3 had minimum (243.9 mg). In stored fruits, the protein content ranged between 238 mg (PAG-3) to 612 mg (IVAG 54-1). The fat content ranged between 99 to 106 mg in fresh fruits compared with 95 to 104 mg in stored fruits. The total sugar in fresh fruit was recorded between 0.80% (IVAG-88) and 3.89% (IVAG-3), while it was recorded in the range of 1.77 to 4.72% in stored fruits. The maximum dry matter was recorded in BH-21 (4.85 g) and minimum in IVAG-223 (4.00 g) in fresh fruit. This study showed that biochemical parameters like sugar content, crude fibre, calcium, and dry matter content increased, while vitamin C and pectin content decreased during fruit storage.
Benincasa hispida (B. hispida) is recommended in Ayurveda for the management of peptic ulcers. Therefore, anti-ulcerogenic activity of different extracts of B. hispida (fresh juice, supernatant and residue fraction of centrifuged juice, alcoholic and petroleum ether extract) were studied in aspirin plus restraint, swimming stress, indomethacin plus histamine and serotonin-induced ulcers in rats and mice. The oral feeding of different doses of the extract significantly reduced the ulcer index produced by various ulcerogens. The anti-ulcerogenic effect was dose-dependent in stress induced model of ulcer and not in other models. B. hispida probably has a CNS component in prevention of stress induced ulceration. However, antihistaminic, anti-cholinergic effects and prevention of disturbance in gastric micro-circulation as possible modes of action cannot be ruled out. Chronic toxicity studies carried out for 3 months revealed no deleterious effect of fresh juice of B. hispida on various hematological and biochemical parameters studied. Thus, extracts of B. hispida may be considered to be a drug of natural origin possessing anti-ulcer activity.
Uti Li Zation And Improvement Of Ash Gourd (Benincasa Hispida THUNB
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