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THE EFFECT OF BORON SUPPLEMENTATION ON FREE TESTOSTERONE ACTIVITY IN THE BLOOD DURING MUSCLE STRENGTH TRAINING OF VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

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Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / SCIENCE, MOVEMENT AND HEALTH
Vol. XX, ISSUE 1, 2020, Romania
The journal is indexed in: Ebsco, SPORTDiscus, INDEX COPERNICUS JOURNAL MASTER LIST,
DOAJ DIRECTORY OF OPEN ACCES JOURNALS, Caby, Gale Cengage Learning, Cabell’s Directories
54
Science, Movement and Health, Vol. XX, ISSUE 1, 2020
January 2020, 20 (1): 54 - 58
Original article
THE EFFECT OF BORON SUPPLEMENTATION ON FREE TESTOSTERONE
ACTIVITY IN THE BLOOD DURING MUSCLE STRENGTH TRAINING OF
VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS
SHARAIF B.1, AL BUSAFI M.1, AL KITANI M.1, NASR ALDEEN N.1
Abstract
Objective. Boron is found naturally in the environment, plants absorb it from the soil because it is essential
for its growth, and humans achieve it thanks to the consumption of plant-based foods such as fruits and
vegetables (The human body contains about 0.7 mg per kilo of boron weight).The aim of this investigation was
to explore the effect of boron supplementation on free testosterone activity in the blood during muscle strength
training of volleyball players.
Methods. Sixteen volleyball players, Eltayaran club, divided into two groups. The experimental group (n =
8) take boron supplement contains boron mineral salts the boron supplement has been taken in a daily dose
(2MG) in the last 4 weeks in the program for the experimental group. In the days that there is no weight training,
In the morning after breakfast and in the days when weight training was done, two doses were used in the
morning after breakfast and one in the meal, which precedes the training, based on the expert opinion. and
control group (n = 8) (placebo) performed traditional exercise. Subjects were required to read and complete a
health questionnaire and informed consent document; there was no history of injuries, diabetes or recent surgery.
Results. The results showed statistically significant differences:
1. between the experimental group and control group in Free Testosterone After effort for posttest to the
experimental group. No Significant Difference Free Testosterone at rest
2. between the experimental group and control group in Leg Static strength, Back Static strength, Vertical
Jump, Seated Medicine Ball Throw for posttest to the experimental group
Conclusion. In conclusion, our data suggest that (4) weeks boron supplementation could improvement of
Free Testosterone After effort,Leg Static strength, Back Static strength, Vertical Jump, Seated Medicine Ball
Throwin volleyball players.
Keywords: boron supplementation, free testosterone, strength, volleyball.
Introduction
The hormonal system is one of the most
important organs in the body that respond to the
exercise activity, which regulates the rates of
chemical activity of different cells and tissues of the
body, but the nervous system is characterized by
rapid response to changes in the internal
environment or external, while the response of the
endocrine system is slower but the impact is Deeper
and lasts longer. Changes in the activity of these
glands are therefore responsible for the response
and adaptation of the activity. (JM. Seddon, et al.
1994).
Testosterone is the hormone steroid hormone
(a steroid hormone), which is derived from
cholesterol (a cluster of androgens) androgen group
in the man is producing large amounts of
testosterone by means of leading cells (leydig cells)
in the testes and a small amount of adrenal gland,
increasing the level of hormone Testosterone in
puberty causes maturation of the genitals or sperm
production and the development of sexual
characteristics and characteristics such as facial hair
growth, coarseness, and muscle tone. Testosterone
continues to rise until the age of 40 and then begins
to fall to five times its maximum age (CT. Sempos,
et al. 1996).
Natural testosterone levels in blood plasma: -
(K. Häkkinen, et al. 1988) reported that
the levels of natural testosterone are as follows:
- In adult males (300-100) mg per deciliter.
- In adult females (30-95) mg per deciliter.
- In males before maturity less than (100) mg
per deciliter.
- In females before maturity less than (40)
mg for each deciliter. (V. Cinar, et al. 2009).
The function of the hormone is to increase
the amount of protein produced in the body
Nerprotein synthesis by increasing the conversion
of amino acids to proteins and increase the bonds of
nitrogen in many tissues, as a result of the effect on
the activation of this form of the transgenic carrier
DNA-Transcription and increase the composition of
1College of Education, Physical Education Department,Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
Email: amr297@aswu.edu.eg
Received 8.12.2019 / Accepted 5.01. 2020
Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / SCIENCE, MOVEMENT AND HEALTH
Vol. XX, ISSUE 1, 2020, Romania
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55
the ) M. RNA is shown more clearly in the muscles
and on other tissues such as liver and kidney.
It is also mentioned that structural effects
increase the formation of red blood cells as well as
stimulate bone growth by activating the secretion of
growth hormone (GH). The hormones act together
to stimulate bone growth, which is responsible for
the rapid increase in growth.
Athletes always look for what they can
compete and help them to do their best. It is obvious
that the best and most effective way to develop
natural athletic abilities is through good training and
ideal nutrition together. "To achieve the best results
from the training program, it may be worth
considering supplemental ingredients containing
food. (H. Hussein & S. Mohamed 2009)
(Kh. Samia, 2008). says that dietary
supplements are a formula derived from natural,
animal, vegetable or other food ingredients, which
are present in various forms (tablets, capsules,
liquids, powders) To increase the proportion of the
body or muscle cells to obtain the necessary energy
or to increase the size of the muscle cell and
according to the effectiveness of specialization to
obtain the highest achievement. The components of
dietary supplements are based on specific
percentages of the substance they contain and may
contain one or more substances.
The discovery of the importance of Boron
began only in the 1980s, but the relationship with
the gain of muscles is even more recent. And it was
from this moment that this mineral gained the
spotlight between the guys who train hard and who
fight daily for an insane shape.
First, they discovered that Boron acts in the
regulation of other minerals within the human body.
After that, that influenced bone health.
Boron is found in fruits, vegetables, tubers
and oilseeds. It is also in smaller amounts in meats
and other animal products, grains and seasonings.
It is estimated that the habitual consumption
of the Brazilian population is 0.934 mg of boron per
day - less than 10% of the amount presented in the
study that proved the benefits of Boron for those
who want to gain muscle mass.
Boron is found naturally in the environment,
plants absorb it from the soil because it is essential
for its growth, and humans achieve it thanks to the
consumption of plant-based foods such as fruits and
vegetables (The human body contains about 0.7 mg
per kilo of boron weight).
Boron is found especially in dried fruits such
as plums and apricots, also in soya, nuts, wine and
beer. Boron has been found in animal tissues,
although it does not appear to accumulate in enough
quantity.
This is because most foods do not contain
high amounts of Boron. To achieve the study's 10
mg goal, you would need to eat:
45 apples red; or
5.4 kg broccoli; or
24 glasses of grape juice; or
13 carrot; or
430g of almonds.
That is why, if your goal is to use Boron in
favor of your physical development, the best route
is supplementation.
Better, not: unique. Because the other option
would be eating all day - which would compromise
your workout and your diet, preventing any result.
(MR. Naghii, 1999)mentions that boron is
the effect of the nutrient component and has shown
that boron supplementation has increased the
concentration of steroid hormones in blood plasma
and has led to a significant increase in the
concentration of 17-beta (17-B-Estradiol) (P
<0.004). Testosterone increased in plasma (T) and T
/ E2 increased significantly. However, there was no
disturbance in plasma lipids.
testosterone is key to increasing lean mass
and developing muscle. So, of course Boron's
performance is interesting to those who have those
goals. (H. Hussein & S. Mohamed 2009)
emphasizes that the main goal of muscle strength
training is to try to reach the highest level possible
in sports competitions to win competitions. The
athlete develops muscle strength through weight
training, which is one of the best ways to develop
the physical elements that work on To increase
muscular capacity as well as improve athletic
performance and adds that training with heavier the
fastest way and the best way to grow muscle and
prepare for work and is the best means of training
and effective goal to equip the individual fitness
overall fitness.
Most studies have agreed that weight
training increases muscular capacity and a small
percentage indicates that this increase is
accompanied by short muscles and restricted
movement of the joint. However, research results
indicate that this can be modified with special
flexibility exercises. It is known that swimming
alone does not develop the muscle strength required
for players to achieve maximum performance, and
as a result, muscle strength is developed with more
difficult resistance, which can be achieved by
weight training.
(H. Hussein & S. Mohamed 2009) report that
exercise, renews muscle tissue and helps in the
structure of hormones that provide anaerobic
interactions, and increases the formation of muscle
Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / SCIENCE, MOVEMENT AND HEALTH
Vol. XX, ISSUE 1, 2020, Romania
The journal is indexed in: Ebsco, SPORTDiscus, INDEX COPERNICUS JOURNAL MASTER LIST,
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actin and myosin in the muscle if the pressure is
severe.
(C.D. Hunt & J.P. Idso, 1999) reported that
there was a difference in the results of research and
studies conducted in this field. There was some
discrepancy regarding the increase of the hormones
of the genitourinary genitals, especially the
hormone (Fsh) Follicle stimulating hormone,
hormone L (Luteinizing Hormone L), during
physical training or not.
More and more studies and research have
come and, among them, the main finding - or at
least main for who trains: Boron can increase free
testosterone.
Therefore, the aim of this investigation was
to explore the effect of boron supplementation on
free testosterone activity in the blood during muscle
strength training of volleyball players
Methods
Sixteen volleyball players, Eltayaran club,
divided into two groups. The experimental group (n
= 8) take boron supplement contains boron mineral
salts the boron supplement has been taken in a daily
dose (2MG) in the last 4 weeks in the program for
the experimental group. In the days that there is no
weight training, In the morning after breakfast and
in the days when weight training was done, two
doses were used in the morning after breakfast and
one in the meal, which precedes the training, based
on the expert opinion. and control group (n = 8)
(placebo) performed traditional exercise. Subjects
were required to read and complete a health
questionnaire and informed consent document;
there was no history of injuries, diabetes or recent
surgery.
Experimental Approach to the Problem
Two groups (experimental and control)
performed a pre and post - The researchers followed
the experimental group with weight exercises for 12
weeks and the boron supplement was taken for 4
weeks.
Conditions of sample selection:
Gestational age 5.80 ± 1.47 (year), free
testosterone before and after exertion (rest time),
(after training), age 19.6 ± 8430. (Year)
Respectively 18.79 ± 3.05, 20.02 ± 2.91 (mg / ml)
Boron is a mineral necessary for the human
body, especially to maintain strong bones and
joints, but it is in debate and study whether it is an
essential mineral for human beings. It can be found
in different forms such as, for example, sodium
borate, boron chelates or sodium tetraborate
decahydrate.
The boron supplement contains boron
mineral salts and is one of the rare mineral salts
proven scientifically. It works to increase the
hormone. The boron supplement has been taken in a
daily dose (2MG) in the last 4 weeks in the program
for the experimental group. In the days that there is
no weight training, In the morning after breakfast
and in the days when weight training was done, two
doses were used in the morning after breakfast and
one in the meal, which precedes the training, based
on the expert opinion
Testing Procedures
1- Measurements were carried out in the study
variables of the two study groups. Blood
samples were withdrawn by a specialist before
performance.
2- A high-intensity training module was carried
out from the weight-bearing training for the
sample and RM1 for the sample.
3- Blood samples were withdrawn by a
specialist doctor after the performance directly.
Training method used:
The researcher used the interval method of
12) weeks as a period to implement the
proposed program with a load of (3) three
units per week for each unit of (50) - (70)
minutes. The program consists of three
periods each period consists of (4) The
average of the high and then the maximum
at the end of the program and the
distribution of the load in the primitive on
the strength training without weighting and
weight training exercises to deliver weight
training at the end of the program to 80%
without burdening 20% of the time and
intensity of the program.
Statistical analysis
All statistical analyses were calculated by
the SPSS statistical package. The results are
reported as means and standard deviations (SD).
Differences between two groups were reported as
mean difference ±95% confidence intervals (mean
diff ± 95% CI). Student’s t-test for independent
samples was used to determine the differences in
fitness parameters between the two groups. The
p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results
Table 1. Anthropometric Characteristics Training experience of the Groups (Mean ± SD)
Group
N
Age [years]
Weight [kg]
Height [cm]
Experimental
8
19.17 ± 0.4
79 ± 2.87
184 ± 3.67
Control
8
19.09 ± 0.6
78 ± 3.43
182 ± 4.11
Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / SCIENCE, MOVEMENT AND HEALTH
Vol. XX, ISSUE 1, 2020, Romania
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Table 1 shows the age and anthropometric characteristics of the subjects. There were no significant
differences observed in the anthropometric characteristics for the subjects in the different groups.
Table 2. Mean ± SD and "T" Test between the two Groups (experimental and control)
In testosterone concentration
Mean ± SD
Control group
Significance
Free Testosterone atrest
18.19 ±0.21
NS
Free TestosteroneAfter effort
18.99 ±0.08
S
Table 2 shows that Significant Difference between the experimental group and control group in Free
Testosterone After effort for posttest to the experimental group. No Significant DifferenceFree Testosterone at
rest.
Table 3. Mean ± SD and "T" Test between the two Groups (experimental and control)
In strength variables.
Mean ± SD
Experimental
group
Control group
Significance
Leg Static strength
75.28±4.09
72.11±2.47
S
Back Static strength
55.11 ± 4.15
52.24±3.76
S
Vertical Jump
44.24± 2.64
48.66± 2.82
S
Seated Medicine Ball Throw
7.96±0.3
6.61±0.12
S
Table 2 shows that Significant Difference between the experimental group and control group in Leg Static
strength
Back Static strength, Vertical Jump, Seated Medicine Ball Throwfor posttest to the experimental group.
Discussion
That testosterone hormone is an important
role in muscle growth, which is considered the
factor influencing the increase in muscle inflation in
men compared to women if both of them implement
the same training program, testosterone is not only
responsible for the inflation of muscle, but there is
also the proportion of testosterone to the hormone.
The higher the estrogen, the greater the muscle
There were statistically significant differences
between the mean of the experimental group and
the control in the free testosterone variable after the
effort in the direction of the dimensional
measurement, indicating that there are statistically
significant differences in favor of the distance
measurement of the first experimental group.(JL.
Copeland, et al. 2002).
The increase in free testosterone by Boron
has been proven in a scientific study conducted in
2011 by the Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine
and Biology¹. That's why everyone who trains in
search of an insane shape needs to pay attention to
this mineral.(AA. Ferrando, NR. Green, 1993)
The advantages of Boron supplementation
go beyond the increase in free testosterone and the
gain of muscle mass. The mineral offers several
other health benefits, all scientifically proven.
In addition, Boron assists in the modulation
of the immune and inflammatory process, reducing
symptoms such as inflammation, pain and edema,
as shown in this study published in the Journal of
Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology (C.D.
Hunt & J.P. Idso, 1999) With this, Boron
supplementation can aid recovery and improvement
of the immune system.
of course, it is much easier to obtain the
amounts needed to obtain this effect through
supplementation than consuming Boron through
"conventional" food, since food does not have large
amounts of the mineral.
Results are consistent with the study of (NR.
Green & AA. Ferrando 1994; TV. Bhasker, et al.
2017; TA. Armstrong & JW. Spears. 2001). which
is the most important result is the rise of
testosterone.
The results are not consistent with the study
of (K. Karkoulisa, et al. 2008) The most important
of which is the absence of statistically significant
results in testosterone.
The results are consistent with the study of
(FH. Nielsen, et al.1987)the most important of
which is the absence of statistically significant
results in free testosterone.
Conclusion
our data suggest that (4) weeks boron
supplementation could improvement of Free
Testosterone After effort, Leg Static strength, Back
Static strength, Vertical Jump, Seated Medicine
Ball Throw in volleyball players.
Aknowledgements
Thank you for all of subjects who
participated in our experiment.
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Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / SCIENCE, MOVEMENT AND HEALTH
Vol. XX, ISSUE 1, 2020, Romania
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Effect of dietary boron on growth performance
  • T A Armstrong
  • J W Spears
Armstrong TA, Spears JW., 2001, Effect of dietary boron on growth performance, calcium and phosphorus
Cabell's Directories 58 metabolism, and bone mechanical properties in growing barrows
Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / SCIENCE, MOVEMENT AND HEALTH Vol. XX, ISSUE 1, 2020, Romania The journal is indexed in: Ebsco, SPORTDiscus, INDEX COPERNICUS JOURNAL MASTER LIST, DOAJ DIRECTORY OF OPEN ACCES JOURNALS, Caby, Gale Cengage Learning, Cabell's Directories 58 metabolism, and bone mechanical properties in growing barrows. J Anim Sci.; 79: 3120-3127.