ArticlePDF Available

The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Infographics is the representation of data and information using graphics. The use of infographics attracts the attention of users and explains complex information quickly and clearly. This study explores the new trends of using infographics in two different models of Arabic and English online newspapers that are Al Bayan website and USA Todaywebsite. An analysis of infographics that have been published in these both online newspapers was conducted. The dominant type of infographics used in both online newspapers is type-based graphics. USA Today used more types-based graphics. KEY WORDS: infographics, visual storytelling, online journalism, new media.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Issue B
Vol. 17, No. 1
Shawwal 1441 A.H. / june 2020 A.D.
ISSN : 1996 - 2339
A Refereed Scientific journal
29
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers
Manar Imad Daher
College of Communication - University of Sharjah
Sharjah - U.A.E.
Received on : 19-12-2018 Accepted on : 28-03-2019
Abstract:
Infographics is the representation of data and information using graphics.
The use of infographics attracts the attention of users and explains complex
information quickly and clearly. This study explores the new trends of
using infographics in two different models of Arabic and English online
newspapers that are Al Bayan website and USA Todaywebsite. An analysis
of infographics that have been published in these both online newspapers
was conducted. The dominant type of infographics used in both online
newspapers is type-based graphics. USA Today used more types-based
graphics.
Keywords: Infographics, Visual Storytelling, Online Journalism, New
Media.
https//:doi.org/10.36394/jhss/17/1B/15
The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers (29-51)
30 University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
Introduction:
With an ever-growing emphasis on the visual component in news
         
present complex information in an easily accessible manner(1), has become
a relatively common element in online journalism.
The internet has changed the practice of the news reportingnot
only in printed news, but in all traditional channels. According
toFranklin,technological advances are multiplying the outlets for
storytelling, and, as a result, changing the way people get their news(2).
Journalists tell stories based on their investigations. Data visualization is an
appropriate communication medium for storytelling, in particular when the
story also contains a lot of data(3). However, these data stories told by data
journalists differ from traditional forms of storytelling(4). The recent design
revolution, which brought modular design, infographics and increased
color, has made today’s newspapers more attractive, more navigable and
easier to comprehend than ever before(5). Currently, the use of infographics
          
newspapers.
(1) M.Smiciklas, The Power of Infographics: Using Pictures to Communicate and Connect
With Your Audiences,( Indiana, 2012), Que Publishing, 2nd. ed., pp. 13-20.
(2) B. Franklin, Key Concepts in Journalism Studies, (London,2005), Sage UK, 1st. ed.,
pp. 240-252.
(3) Robert Kosara& Jock Mackinlay, Storytelling: The Next Step for Visualization, IEEE
Computer, (2013) 46,5, pp. 44-50.
(4) Edward Segel& Jeffrey Heer, Narrative Visualization: Telling Stories with Data, IEEE
Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, (2010) 16,6, pp. 1139-1148.
(5) Sandra H. Utt & Steve Pasternak, Update on Infographics in American Newspapers,
Newspaper Research Journal, (2000) 21,2, pp. 55-66.
Manar Imad Daher (29-51)
31
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020

Nowadays, infographics is the basic and essential component of online
newspapers. Infographics is the representation of data and information
using graphics. The use of Infographics attracts the attention of users and
explains complex information quickly and clearly.All the major newspapers
also started
e-newspapers editions. The new media users want to consume much
more information within very short time and here infographics plays a
major role. Although the use of infographics has proliferated in recent
years, it remains unclear the use of it in online newspapers.Moreover, the
increase of data visualization in online newspapers requires rethinking
how infographics is reshaping the representation boundaries of news
storytelling.The main purpose of this paper is to explore thenew trends
in use of infographics in online newspapers.In addition, it attempts to
clarifythe kinds of infographics that are used in online newspapersto
effectively present complex information for the readers. This paper explores
the differences between Arabic and English online newspapers regarding

newspapers by analyzing the content of infographics of two examples of
online newspapers: AlBayan and USA Today.In addition, the study focuses

gap in the literature about theuse of infographics especially in Arab online
newspapers.
Brief Theoretical background:
In this fast information age, it is important to present and design
information to the readers. The newspaper design and presentation
also change as per the time and technology. Therefore, one of the main
challenges to current journalism is the adaptation of journalistic content
to a technological panorama which is always changing. The challenge is
The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers (29-51)
32 University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
      
Media richness theory was used as a theoretical framework in this
paper. Media richness theory (MRT) was introduced in 1986 by Richard
L. Daft and Robert H. Lengel. Leaning on information processing theory
for its theoretical foundation, MRT was originally developed to describe
and evaluate communication media within organizations. In presenting
media richness theory, Daft and Lengel sought to help organizations cope
with communication challenges, such as unclear or confusing messages, or
   (6).
Other communication scholars have tested the theory to improve it, and
more recently Media Richness Theory has been retroactively adapted to
include new media communication mediums, such as improved video and
online conferencing. Although media richness theory relates to media use,
rather than media choice, empirical studies of the theory have often studied
what medium a manager would choose to communicate over, and not the
effects of media use(7). Since its introduction, media richness theory has been
applied to contexts outside of organizational and business communication
such as: nursing and Distance education and e-books.
Online newspapers are distinguished by their unique features such as
the interactivity, the use of multimedia and infographics, the immediacy
of feedback, and the ability toprovide an electronic archive of previous
editions of the newspaper. Then, the richness of the online newspapers is
increasedwith these characteristics.
(6) R.L.Daft; R.H. Lengel , Organizational Information Requirements, Media Richness
and Structural Design,Management Science,(1986) 32,5, pp. 554-571.
(7) A. Dennis & S. Kinney, Testing Media Richness Theory in New Media: The Effects of
Cues, Feedback, and Task Equivocality, Information Systems Research,(1998) 9,3, pp.
256-274.
Manar Imad Daher (29-51)
33
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
  
information to change understanding within a time interval”(8). . Media
richness theory states that all communication media vary in their ability
to enable users to communicate and to change understanding(9). The
degree of this ability is known as a medium’s “richness.” This theory
places all communication media on a continuous scale according to their
ability to adequately communicate a complex message. Media that can
overcome different frames of reference and clarify ambiguous issues are
richer whereas communications media that require more time to convey
understanding are deemed less rich. In addition, the main purpose of

the equivocality of a message. If a message is equivocal, it is unclear and
     
For example, infographics used to present complex information quickly
and easily which saves time and efforts to understand the information are
considered to have higher levels of media richness than written media.
In their 1988 article regarding media richness theory, Daft and Lengel
state, “The more learning that can be pumped through a medium, the richer
the medium.”Media richness is a function of four characteristics that are:
1. Immediacy of feedback: The ability of the medium to allow users
to quickly respond to the communication that is being received.
Moreover, the key reason of using infographics in online newspapers
is to present complicated information quickly. Then, users can
immediately respond to the news that published.
2. Capacity to include personal focus: Every media has different
(8) R.L. Daft ; R.H. Lengel, Organizational Information Requirements, Media Richness
and Structural Design,pp. 250.
(9) A.R. Dennis; J.S. Valacich, Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media
Synchronicity, IEEE Computer Society,Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Hawaii
International Conference on Systems Sciences. (1999), pp. 10.
The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers (29-51)
34 University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
levels of personal focus, especially when media incorporates more
personal feelings and emotions; the message gets conveyed fully in
better terms. The readers of online newspapers can notice the role of


3. Conveyance of multiple cues: There are various ways in which the
medium of communication information is reached, and these cues
can be either visual or auditory. For example, using infographics
to show evils of smoking by using a combination of cues like stop
symbol, numbers of deaths by smoking, with an illustration of
someone who suffering in a hospital bed.
4. Variety of language carried: It refers to the range of meaning that
can be sent using language symbols like numbers or using natural
language. Numbers indicate precision while natural language helps
convey various concepts and ideas. Infographics used to clarify
media content by using symbols, numbers, charts, and so on.
Literature review:
The literature on infographics studies indicates that varying schools of
thought dominate the research on the role and use of newspaper graphics:
are they used mainly to complement an article’s content or to grab a reader’s
attention – or perhaps do both?(10).
Several American studies have examined the usage of infographics and
attempted to determine if it is increasing or decreasing. For instance, Smith
and Hajash(11) described the use of infographics in 30 US daily newspapers.
They found that infographics are an important aspect of how newspapers
(10) Sandra H. Utt & Steve Pasternak, Update on Infographics in American Newspapers,
pp. 55-66.
(11) E.J. Smith ; D.J. Hajash, Information Graphics in 30 Daily Newspapers, Journalism
Quarterly,(1988)65,3, pp. 714-718.
Manar Imad Daher (29-51)
35
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
communicate information. Maps, followed by bar charts, were the most
used type of infographics. A large proportion of the graphics in dailies were
found in the business section. Little incidence of embellishment was found
in the graphics, leading Smith and Hajash to conclude that they are being
used as basic communication tools and not as creative devices.
Utt and Pasternack conducted three studies related to the use of
infographics: their 1989 study(12) found that most papers had been
redesigned to include more color and graphics, and more than half of
the daily newspapers published between three and six infographics each
day, with many of them in color. A notable percentage was on page Al
and others were sprinkled throughout various sections of the publication.
Their 1993study(13) found that 78.1 percent of the newspapers examined
had infographics on their front pages and almost half ran color infographics
every day. In their 2000study(14) , almost half of the 125 newspapers they
examined ran more than six infographics on an average weekday.
Another study “The Importance of Explanatory Infographics in
Journalism” by Henriquez in 2014(15) focused on the declining use of
explanatory infographics in the newspaper and news magazine industry
in the United States because of the nation’s struggling economy and other
forces affecting the print news industry. This thesis discussed the evolution
and value of explanatory graphics in print news reporting and provides a
feasible plan on how to integrate them in today’s downsized newsroom
environment. This study concluded that with the decline of print news,
(12) S.Utt ;S. Pasternack, How They Look: An Updated Study of American Newspapers
Front Pages,Journalism Quarterly, (1989)66,3, pp. 621-627.
(13) S.Utt ; S.Pasternack, Infographics Today: Using Qualitative Devices to Display
Quantitative Information, Newspaper Research Journal,(1993) 14,3/4, pp. 146-155.
(14) Sandra H. Utt & Steve Pasternak, Update on Infographics in American Newspapers,
pp. 55-66.
(15) H. Henriquez, The Importance of Explanatory Infographics in Journalism, Master’s
thesis, Savannah College of Art and Design,(2014).
The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers (29-51)
36 University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
and as online and digital publishing continue to take a larger share of the
communication market, there is a need to continually search for better
ways to disseminate information to readers. While, Crosten(16) tested the
     
– content over style – in three national US newspapers. He found that
graphics sampled in the Wall Street Journal displayed the highest average
amount of data while those in the New York Times and USA Today had
    
A study “Visualizing the News: An Analysis of a Year in Interactive
News from The New York Times and The Washington Post”(17) by Maria T.
Olivo in 2015 explores how The New York Times and The Washington Post
incorporate principles of design and data visualization to present complex
information for their readers. The results from the quantitative analysis
show that The New York Times is more likely to publish infographics as
part of larger stories instead of presenting them as news items on their own.
And most of the infographics (63%) were linked to a story, which means
that data visualization is being used to enrich stories.
The literature also shows that newspapers consider journalism values
such as accuracy when editing infographics, but it does not show that
infographics in newspapers adhere to journalistic standards(18). However,
there are no clear-cut answers on the effects of infographics and what forms
work the best.
(16) M.J. Crosten, A Content Analysis of Quantitative Graphics: Graphics in Three U.S
Newspapers, Paper presented to the Visual Communication Division of AEJMC,
(Kansas 1994).
(17) T.M. Olivo, Visualizing the News: An Analysis of a Year in Interactive News from
The New York Times and The Washington Post, (2015). Thesis. Rochester Institute of
Technology.
(18) E. Vines, Is This Journalism? A Study of Whether the Snapshots on the Front Page
of USA Today Adhere to Journalistic Standards, Master’s thesis, Louisiana State
University,(2002), pp. 2–14.
Manar Imad Daher (29-51)
37
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
Kelly(19) concluded that sidebar stories were more effective than
graphics at aiding reader recall.Wanta, W. & J. Remy(20) found that recall is

information in graphics.
Research Questions:
Drawing on the literatures, the following questions is poised to test the
current use of infographics in theonline newspapers:
1. What are the most used types of infographics in online newspapers?
2. What are the most topics of online newspapers that use infographics?
3. To what extent are the used infographics related to their topics in
online newspapers?
4. To what extent are the used infographics clear in online newspapers?
5. Where are infographics placed in online newspapers pages?
6. What are the differences between Arabic and English online
newspapers regarding the use of infographics?
Research Design:
To answer the research questions, an analysis of infographics of two

approach to study the infographics environment in online newspapers. It
provides a quantitative and objective description of the use of infographics
in online newspapers.The study focuses on the various topics and issues
that use infographics in the online newspapers. Moreover, the sample
includes two online newspapers: Al Bayan and USA Today.
(19) D.J.Kelly, The Data-Ink Ratio and Accuracy of Newspaper Graphics, Journalism
Quarterly, (1989) 66,3, pp. 632-639.
(20) W. Wanta; J. Remy, Secondary School Students Reading, Newspapers, Cognition and
Reasoning Feature, Newspaper Research Journal, (1995)16,2, pp.112.
The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers (29-51)
38 University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
Al Bayan is one of the oldest and the most widely spread online
newspaper in UAE and is owned by powerful and rich establishments. In
addition, it is one of the UAE online newspapers among the leading Arab
newspapers in implementing recent technology. Whereas, USA Today
shares the position of having the widest spreading of any online newspaper
in the United States with The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times.
It has a daily readership of nearly 3.2 million.
The infographics that have been published in these both online
newspapers between 1/5/2017 and 7/5/2017 are randomly analyzed.
Infographics was considered as a unit of analysis.
A total of 375 stories were found: 188 byAl Bayan and 187 by the
USA Today. Infographics were examined by using the following recording
units: 1) type-based graphics; 2) chart-based graphics; and 3) illustration-
based graphics. The study also examined the topics, locations, clarity
of infographics, and the relationship of infographics with topics.All the
infographics categories were nominally coded.
Manar Imad Daher (29-51)
39
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
Research results:
Out of the 375 stories, the study found that the most frequently used
infographics in the online newspapers were type-based graphics (58.4%),
followed by illustration-based graphics (34.7%) and chart-based graphics
(6.9%). The dominant use of type-based graphics is due to the attempts to
enhance the appearance of these kind of newspapers. (Figure1)
In type-based graphics, the most dominant kinds were pull quotes, lists and
summary. In the illustration-based graphics, the most dominant types were
drawings and illustrations, icons and logos, and maps. In the chart-based
graphics, the most dominant types were bar charts, tables, and line charts.(Table
1).
The results indicate the dominance of type-based graphics, such as pull quotes
and lists, that do not demand a lot of skill and effort to be produced.
58.4%
34.7%
6.9%
Figure 1: Types of infographics in online newspapers
Type-based graphics Illustration-based graphics Chart-based graphics
Table 1: Types of infographics in online newspapers
Percentage
In type-based graphics, the most dominant kinds were pull quotes, lists
and summary. In the illustration-based graphics, the most dominant types
were drawings and illustrations, icons and logos, and maps. In the chart-
based graphics, the most dominant types were bar charts, tables, and line
charts.(Table 1).
The results indicate the dominance of type-based graphics, such as pull
quotes and lists, that do not demand a lot of skill and effort to be produced.
The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers (29-51)
40 University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
Table 1: Types of infographics in online newspapers Percentage
Type-based graphics Pull quotes
Lists
Summary
Sidebars
Timelines
Quotations collections
Q & A
Step by step guides
Checklists
Ratings
Bio Box
Glossary
30.6
15.1
11.9
2.7
5.0
7.8
7.8
2.3
5.0
2.3
8.2
1.4
Illustration-based
graphics
Drawings and illustrations
Maps
Icons and logos
Diagrams
Tables
76.2
4.6
16.9
2.3
34.6
Chart-based graphics Bar charts
Line charts
Pie charts
Pictorial charts
46.2
11.5
3.8
3.8

Today and Al Bayan online newspapers and their use of lists (Chi square
= 196.8, df = 120, p < 0.0001); bar charts (Chi-square = 172.8, df = 125,
p < 0.0001); and maps (Chi-square = 56.5, df = 40, p < 0.0001). The USA
Today online newspaperusesmore types-based graphics such as: (Pull
quotes 24.8%, lists 16.3%, Q&A 11.6%) by 69%, while 47.9% of types-
based graphics used in Al Bayanonline newspaper.
Manar Imad Daher (29-51)
41
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
Infographics are most frequently used in online newspapers to illustrate
information on the socialtopics with 22.1 % of all issues. 19.5 % of the
analyzed infographics cover issues on science and health. 16.0 % cover
sports, 13.9 % economics, and travel and tourism with 11.5%. Politics is
rarely discussed with the help of infographics 6.4 %.Another 10.7% could
not be assigned clearly and were labeled as other. (Figure 2)
16.3%, Q&A 11.6%) by 69%, while 47.9% of types-based graphics used in Al
Bayanonline newspaper.
Infographics are most frequently used in online newspapers to illustrate
information on the socialtopics with 22.1 % of all issues. 19.5 % of the analyzed
infographics cover issues on science and health. 16.0 % cover sports, 13.9 %
economics, and travel and tourism with 11.5%. Politics is rarely discussed with
the help of infographics 6.4 %.Another 10.7% could not be assigned clearly and
were labeled as other. (Figure 2)
The USA Today online newspaper uses infographics mainly in certain topics:
21.4 percent were used in economic issues, 20.3 percent in social issues, 16.6
percent in science and health. Whereas Al Bayan online newspaper uses
infographics in these topics: 23.9 percent were used in social issues, 22.3
percent in science and health, and 20.7 in sports topics.
22%
19%
16%
14%
12%
11%
6%
Figure 2: The Topics that use infographics of online
newspapers
Society Science and Health Sports Economics Travel and tourism Other Politics
The USA Today online newspaper uses infographics mainly in certain
topics: 21.4 percent were used in economic issues, 20.3 percent in social
issues, 16.6 percent in science and health. Whereas Al Bayan online
newspaper uses infographics in these topics: 23.9 percent were used in
social issues, 22.3 percent in science and health, and 20.7 in sports topics.
In addition, the study concluded the vast majority of the infographics
in USA Today and Al Bayan, which used to visualize the contents, were
highly related to the topics by 96.0%. While 4.0% of these infographics
were not related to the topics, because they do not visualize or clarify the

The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers (29-51)
42 University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
In addition, the study concluded the vast majority of the infographics in USA
Today and Al Bayan, which used to visualize the contents, were highly related
to the topics by 96.0%. While 4.0% of these infographics were not related to the
topics, because they do not visualize or clarify the written data. (figure 3).
This result support “an Analysis of a Year in Interactive news from The New
York Times and The Washington Post” which concludes (21) that most of the
infographics (63%) were linked to a story, which means that data visualization
is being used to enrich stories.
While figure 4 show that 80.3% of the use infographics in Al Bayanand USA
today online newspapers were clear, and 19.7% were not. Based on a study
Moving Graphics: The Effects of Interactive Infographics on Media
96%
4%
Figure 3 :The relevence of the used infographics in the
online newspapers' topics
Related Not related
(21) T.M. Olivo, Visualizing the News: An Analysis of a Year in Interactive News from The New York Times and The Washington Post.
This result support “an Analysis of a Year in Interactive news from The
New York Times and The Washington Post” which concludes(21) that most
of the infographics (63%) were linked to a story, which means that data
visualization is being used to enrich stories.

USA today online newspapers were clear, and 19.7% were not. Based on a
study “Moving Graphics: The Effects of Interactive Infographics on Media
Users”which found that the clear graphical visualizations seem to facilitate
users’ recall more. Then, they can recall the information easier and faster.
(21) T.M. Olivo, Visualizing the News: An Analysis of a Year in Interactive News from The
New York Times and The Washington Post.
Manar Imad Daher (29-51)
43
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
Users”which found that the clear graphical visualizations seem to facilitate
users' recall more. Then, they can recall the information easier and faster.
Further, the study found that much of infographics were published in the top of
the webpages by 49.1%, 36.5% in the middle, and 14.4% were published in the
bottom of the webpages. The reason for the high use of infographics at the top
of webpage is to show complex information quickly, which allow the users to
consume much more information within very short time. No significant
difference was found between USA Today and Al Bayan online newspapers in
placing infographics in the webpage. (figure5).
80%
20%
0%0%
Figure 4: The Clarity of the infographics in online
newspapers
Clear Not Clear
Further, the study found that much of infographics were published
in the top of the webpages by 49.1%, 36.5% in the middle, and 14.4%
were published in the bottom of the webpages. The reason for the high
use of infographics at the top of webpage is to show complex information
quickly, which allow the users to consume much more information within

and Al Bayan online newspapers in placing infographics in the webpage.

There is a significant correlation between the location of infographics in web
page and the type of these infographics. (Chi-square =62.167,significance=
.000). The type of infographics, which is illustration-based graphics, is mostly
located in the top of the webpage. This is supported by somestudies that show
that 90 percent of the information that we remember is based on visual impact.
Conclusion:
Infographics are a powerful way to distill and convey complex information as a
visual narrative. With the use of various components in combination, a well-
defined Infographics can be designed which can be simple to understand and
influential to attract readers. In recent years, the number of infographics has
generally increased in online newspapers, due to the use of technology,
competition between the newspapers and the impacts of globalization and
internet, etc.Both of online newspapers use infographics on most of their
webpages. Much of these infographics where published at the top of webpages
to attract and to catch a reader on the webpage longer than others. Because of its
nature and its features, the infographics attract the curiosity of readers, who
understand well the visual and extremely fragmented language.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Top Middle Bottom
Figure 5 :The location of infographics in the online
newspapers webpages
The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers (29-51)
44 University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
        
infographics in web page and the type of these infographics. (Chi-square

based graphics, is mostly located in the top of the webpage. This is
supported by somestudies that show that 90 percent of the information that
we remember is based on visual impact.
Conclusion:
Infographics are a powerful way to distill and convey complex
information as a visual narrative. With the use of various components in
      

number of infographics has generally increased in online newspapers,
due to the use of technology, competition between the newspapers and
the impacts of globalization and internet, etc.Both of online newspapers
use infographics on most of their webpages. Much of these infographics
where published at the top of webpages to attract and to catch a reader on
the webpage longer than others. Because of its nature and its features, the
infographics attract the curiosity of readers, who understand well the visual
and extremely fragmented language.
          
infographics, particularly type-based graphics, which do not require a lot
 
was found between USA Today and Al Bayan online newspapers in using

these online newspapers in a number of topics, design formats and editing
styles of infographics.
On the whole, the study explores the infographics environment in
online newspapers, and it attempts to clarify how infographics were used in
storytelling presentation by online newspapers. Nevertheless, it is essential
Manar Imad Daher (29-51)
45
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
to pay attention to the people who produce infographics, how they produce
it or the different types of infographics they use.
Limitations:
Although there is much remains to be done, this work generates

There are some limitations to this study. The main limitations are expressed

which is very short period to analyze a huge number of infographics. This
may lead to neglect some kinds of infographics that may be published later.
The second limitation isthe inability to interview graphic journalists
  
infographics.
Recommendationsand future research:
More research should be done on the development of using infographics
especially in different Arab countries. Future research should focus on the
obstacles, problems and drawbacks that Arab online newspapers encounter
in using infographics and producing them locally. Upcoming studies
should also address the perceptions of infographics held by journalists
and newspaper staff.Moreover, further research should examine the
characteristics of graphic journalists in the Arab world in general and in the
UAE in particular, on their perceptions of infographics and on the factors
shaping the infographics environment in the online newspapers.
The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers (29-51)
46 University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
Appendices:
Content analysis code sheet
Appendices:
Content analysis code sheet
Coder instruction Sheet
1. Types of infographics:
In term of:
Coder instruction Sheet
1. Types of infographics:
In term of:
Type-based graphics: is infographics designed by means of the
word or text.
1. Pull quotes: a brief, attention-catching quotation taken from
the main text of an article and used as a subheading or graphic
feature.
2. Lists: a number of connected items or names written, typically
Manar Imad Daher (29-51)
47
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
one below the other.
3. Summary: a brief statement or account of the main points of
the article.
4. Sidebars: a narrow vertical area that is located alongside the
main display area, typically containing related information as
additional or explanatory material.
5. Timelines: it shows major events over a period of time.
6. Quotations collections: A collection of storytelling quotes
from relevant sources that provide added insight to the story.
7. Q & A: Simple listing of questions posed to a source and the
source’s responses.
8. Step by step guide: guide to explain progress gradually and
carefully from one stage to the next as a process.
9. Checklists: A list of information that readers can use to help
them prepare for an event.
10. Ratings: An evaluation of something on a comparative scale.
11. Bio box: A list of relevant, statistical information about one or
more of the sources in the story.
12. 
better understand the accompanying story.
Chart-based graphics: is infographics designed by means of the
       
1. Tables: A collection of related data held in a structured format
and It consists of columns, and rows.
The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers (29-51)
48 University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
2. Bar Charts: A diagram in which the numerical values of
variables are represented by the height or length of lines or
rectangles of equal width.
3. Line Charts: A chart displays information as a series of data
points called ‘markers’ connected by straight line segments.
4. Pie Charts: A chart in which a circle is divided into sectors that
each represent a proportion of the whole.
5. Pictorial charts: A chart of data comparison which use relative
sizes of repetitions of the same icon or symbol to show data
relation.
Illustration-based graphics: is infographics designed by means of
the illustration.
1. Drawings and illustrations: A picture or a drawing that used to
explain or prove something in the story.
2. Maps: A diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea
showing physical features, cities, roads, etc.
3. Icons and logos: A symbol or other small design adopted by
an organization to identify its products, uniform, vehicles, etc.
4.       
structure and workings of something; a schematic
representation.
2. Topics in online newspapers:
In term of:
Politics: Articles that related to the politics.
Economics: Articles that related to the economics.
Manar Imad Daher (29-51)
49
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
Sports: Articles that related to sports.
Travel and Tourism: Articles that related to the travel and tourism
among countries.
Society: Articles about celebrities, social activities, society issues,
cultures and traditions, books.
Science and Health: articles related to the health and science.
Others: stories not sorted within all up articles.
3. Relationship of infographics to topics:
In term of:
Related to topics: it is related to the topics when it shows the
importance of the topic, it uses appropriate colors, visuals and
graphic elements that simplify and clarify the data.
Not related to topics: It ignores the importance of the topic, it uses
inappropriate colors and it is not visualizing or clarifying the written
data.
4. The clarity of infographics:
In term of:
Clear: It is clear means it is easy to be understood and it uses
readable font formats and size, common visuals and symbols, and
the space between data and graphics.
Not clear: It is unclear when it uses unsuitable colors, unreadable
fonts, unknown symbols and visuals, and no spaces between the
elements.
The Use of Infographics in Online Newspapers (29-51)
50 University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020
5. Location of infographics in webpage
In term of:
Top: The infographics is in the top of the webpage.
Middle: The infographics is in the middle of the webpage.
Bottom: The infographics is in the end of the webpage.
Manar Imad Daher (29-51)
51
University of Sharjah Journal for Humanities & Social Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 1 (B), June 2020

  






USA Today



USA Today
 
