Coating the solid dosage form, such as tablets, is considered common, but it is a critical process that provides different characteristics to tablets. It increases the value of solid dosage form, administered orally, and thus meets diverse clinical requirements. As tablet coating is a process driven by technology, it relies on advancements in coating techniques, equipment used for the coating process, evaluation of coated tablets, and coated material used. Although different techniques were employed for coating purposes, which may be based on the use of solvents or solvent-free, each of the methods used has its advantages and disadvantages, and the techniques need continued modification too. During the process of film coating, several inter-and intra-batch uniformity of coated material on the tablets is considered a critical point that ensures the worth of the final product, particularly for those drugs that contain an active medicament in the coating layer. Meanwhile, computational modeling and experimental evaluation were actively used to predict the impact of the operational parameters on the final product quality and optimize the variables in tablet coating. The efforts produced by computational modeling or experimental evaluation not only save cost in optimizing the coating process but also saves time. This review delivers a brief review on film coating in solid dosage form, which includes tablets, with a focus on the polymers and processes used in the coating. At the end, some pharmaceutical applications were also discussed.
Recently naturally acquired excipients with wider scope compared to synthetic excipients are widely used in novel drug delivery systems which directly or indirectly influence the extent and/or rate of drug release and absorption with reduced toxicity. In this regimen, gums obtained from natural sources which are inert, nontoxic, less expensive, biodegradable, biocompatible, etc., hold their role as excipients in novel drug delivery systems (tablets/nanoformulations/transdermal patches/gels). They have notable applications in pharmaceutical products as binders, disintegrants, suspending agents, emulsifiers, etc. Gums specifically as gelling or matrix-forming agents suit the requirement in novel drug delivery systems are one of the interesting fields of emerging research. Here the proposed book chapter will focus on the properties and characterization techniques of natural gums with a specific role as pharmaceutical excipient along with its relevance towards pharmaceutical applications in the development of novel pharmaceutical formulations.
A maçã (Malus domestica) é uma fruta mundialmente produzida e consumida. Quando minimamente processada, seu metabolismo, frescor e qualidade sensorial se alteram, diminuindo sua vida de prateleira e tornando sua comercialização um desafio para a indústria. Neste estudo, o objetivo foi desenvolver e aplicar o revestimento comestível ativo à base de gel de Aloe vera (40% m/v) e goma de semente de feno-grego (0,5% m/v), enriquecido com compostos ativos, como o íon de cálcio e antioxidantes, como os ácidos oxálico e ascórbico, na conservação de maçãs cv. Fuji minimamente processadas, armazenadas em ambiente refrigerado a 0±0,5°C e 8±0,5°C por 28 dias. As amostras de maçã revestidas foram estudadas quanto à propriedade físico-química do pH e ao crescimento microbiológico (bactérias mesófilas e bolores e leveduras). Os atributos de qualidade foram afetados pelo tempo e temperatura de armazenamento e pelo revestimento aplicado. Durante todo o período de armazenamento refrigerado, o pH permaneceu próximo de 4,5 e 4,3 nas temperaturas de 0°C e 8°C, respectivamente. O crescimento de microrganismos foi maior a 8°C e o revestimento mais eficaz em inibir o crescimento de bolores e leveduras foi o de goma de feno-grego. Já à 0°C, o melhor resultado obtido foi com a combinação de gel de Aloe vera e goma de feno-grego. Os dados obtidos na pesquisa evidenciaram efeitos positivos dos revestimentos na qualidade da maçã minimamente processada como uma técnica inovadora e sustentável para manter a qualidade da fruta.
Objective: The objective of this work was to the development of natural and modified gum based sustained-release film-coated tablets containing poorly water-soluble drug. Methods: Tamarind seed gum (TSG), fenugreek seed gum (FSG), sodium trimetaphosphate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium alginate (SA), and nifedipine (NFD) were used. The core tablets of nifedipine were prepared and evaluated for weight, diameters, thickness, hardness, and disintegration time. The core tablets were coated using 2% w/v solution of TSG, MTSG, FSG, and MFSG. The in vitro release rate of drug from these coated tablets was compared with the release rate of drug from the tablets coated with 2% w/v of HPMC. Results: The tablets coated with natural and modified TSG sustained the release of the drug up to 11 h and 14 h, respectively, and natural and modified FSG sustained release the drug up to 9 h and 11 h, respectively. The tablets coated with HPMC sustained released the drug up to 15 h. The drug release profile of tablets coated with modified TSG was comparable to the release profile of tablets coated with HPMC. Conclusion: On the basis of the release profile, it is concluded that unmodified and modified TSG can be used as release rate-controlling membrane.
Objective: The objective of this work was to investigate the film coating potential of natural and modified, tamarind seed gum and fenugreek seed gum using propranolol HCl as model drug. Materials and Methods: Tamarind seed gum (TG), fenugreek seed gum (FG), sodium trimeta phosphate (STMP), propranolol HCl, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium-alginate (SA). Core tablets of propranolol HCl were prepared and evaluated for weight, disintegration time, diameter, hardness, friability and disintegration time. The core tablets were coated using 2% w/v solution of TG, MTG, FG, MFG. The in-vitro release rate of drug from these coated tablets was compared to the release rate of drug from the tablets coated with 2% w/v of HPMC. Result: The tablets coated with natural and modified tamarind seed gum sustained the release of the drug up to 11hrs and 12hrs, respectively and natural and modified fenugreek seed gum sustained release of the drug up to 8hrs and 10 hrs respectively. The tablets coated with HPMC sustained release of the drug up to 14 hrs. The drug release profile of tablets coated with modified tamarind seed gum was comparable to the release profile of tablets coated with HPMC. Conclusion: On the basis of the release profile it is concluded that unmodified and modified TSG can be used as release rate controlling membrane.
Aim: In Oral drug delivery is the most prefer and convenient option as the oral route provides most active surface area among all drug delivery system for administration of different drugs. Frequently conventional dosage form produces extensive range of fluctuation in drug concentration in the bloodstream and tissues with consequent unwanted toxicity and poor efficiency. The maintenance of concentration of drug molecules in blood plasma within therapeutic index is very critical for efficient treatment. These factors as well as factors such as repetitive dosing and unpredictable absorption direct to the concept of oral sustained release dosage formulations. Methodology: Various reports were taken from review or research articles and other online available literature. Conclusion: In this review articles covers all the biopharmaceutical and physiochemical factors of formulation and development of sustained release dosage forms, which gives idea for selection of drug molecules to develop of sustained release dosage formulation successfully.
Aim of this review is to compile the current literature with special focus on role of natural polymers on mucoadhesive
drug delivery system. Mucodhesion refers to bond formed between two biological surfaces or a bond connecting a
biological and a synthetic polymer surface. Under this drug delivery, buccal mucosa is the preferred site for both
systemic and local drug action because the mucosa has a rich blood supply and it relatively permeable. Different
bioadhesive dosages form available in market such as Chewing gum, tablets, Patches, Hydrogel, Thiolated tablets. In
this review article the Application of natural mucoadhesive polymers advantages, disadvantages and future prospects
in Buccal drug delivery has been discussed.
Keywords: Anatomy of oral mucosa, buccal, mucoadhesive polymer, permeation, dissolution.
Mucilage from the seeds of Trigonella foenumgraecum (Fenugreek, Fam: Leguminosae) was extracted by multiple maceration technique using water as solvent. High percentage of yield (24%) was obtained by using acetone as non-solvent. Physical characteristics of mucilage such as solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, pH and viscosity were studied. Diclofenac diethylammonium was used as model drug for the formulation of gel and its compatibility with mucilage was proved by FTIR spectroscopy. Eight batches of drug loaded gels with concentrations of mucilage ranging from 2.75, 3.0, 3.25 and 3.5% were formulated by using glycerin and PEG-400 as plasticizers. the pH and in vitro diffusion profiles were studied. the gel prepared with 3.25% of mucilage and 10% glycerin as plasticizer showed better drug release when compared with marketed formulation.
Todayâ€™s fast and furious life style one of the major factors, which precipitate the diabetes mellitus. The treatment of diabetes mellitus, which includes the use of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents sulfonylurea, biguanides. Diabetes mellitus one of the major disorder which is growing at faster rate second after cancer. Long-term use of these medications will create unwanted side effects, resulting uncontrolled increase in blood sugar as well as complications with heart diseases also diabetics are highly prone to different types of microorganism and it will affect immune system of body. To avoid such problems herbal medications has greater advantages. Instead of using these types of allopathic formulations, it is beneficial to use Ayurvedic formulations for better management of diabetes mellitus. In this review, around hundred of herbal plants were showing hypoglycemic activity and still they are using as home remedies for the effective treatment for diabetes mellitus.
In current study, fenugreek gum (FG) plant derived product was investigated as a release retarding polymer. The octenyl succincate anhydride derivative of fenugreek gum (OSFG) was synthesized to introduce hydrophobic property and investigated for its drug release retarding property with reference to FG. The reaction was carried out in anhydrous conditions at different temperature (40–98 °C) using NaHCO3 as a mild base catalyst and the influences of three factors such as reagent/substrate concentration, reaction temperature and time on the degree of substitution of OSFG were studied. Highly water-soluble metoprolol succinate (MPS) and poorly water-soluble carbamazepine (CBZ) were selected as model drug as for release studies. It was observed that increase in reaction temperature and reagent concentration resulted in high degree of substitution with significant decrease in viscosity. Reaction carried out at 98 °C for 2 h showed high degree of substitution (0.133) with moderate retention of viscosity compared to plain FG. FTIR, DSC, XRD, solid state CPMAS 13C-NMR, and SEM studies provide structural information of synthesized OSFG. MPS ER tablet prepared with drug:OSFG:FG at the weight of 1:4:2 and CBZ ER tablet with drug:OSFG at the weight ratio of 1:3, respectively. Both formulations showed similar drug release profile compared to marketed formulations. Optimized tablet formulations were found to be stable under stability condition according to ICH guidelines. It was concluded that the developed formulations with OSFG have a release retarding property and can be used alone or in combination with other polymers for a controlled release.
In this study, highly purified galactomannan containing Fenugreek gum was isolated by newly reported method and investigated for its surface and emulsification property. A comparative studies were carried out with other galactomannan containing natural emulsifiers like locust bean gum, guar gum and non galactomannan anionic xanthan gum. The results revealed that highly purified fenugreek gum has better surface and interfacial tension reducing property amongst all gums used in this study. Emulsion prepared with 0.6% highly purified fenugreek gum showed greater reduction in droplets size with greater surface area compared to Guar gum, Locust bean gum and Xanthan gum emulsion. Zeta potential values indicated that highly purified fenugreek gum emulsion showed greater repulsive forces and was able to form more stable emulsion compared to other gums. No coalescence or phase separation was observed during storage.
A new nasal drug delivery system of diazepam has been developed with a natural mucoadhesive agent from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L). The mucoadhesive strength, viscosity, gelling property and in vitro drug release characteristics through franz-diffusion cell using excised bovine nasal membrane of this natural mucoadhesive agent was found to be higher in comparison to synthetic polymers, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and carbopol 934, which are conventionally used for similar purpose. This patient friendly, needle free dosage form may replace the diazepam injections in future.
A binder holds powders together to form granules and also provides the cohesiveness required for the binding of the granules under compression to form a tablet. Since Fenugreek seeds produce high viscosity mucilage at low concentration levels, the objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the binder effects of this mucilage in tableting. The mucilage of Trigonella foenum- graecum L. seed was extracted and evaluated as a tablet binder in three different model drugs in term of solubility. Calcium acetate (CA), theophylline (TH) and ibuprofen (IB) were chosen as models of freely soluble, slightly soluble and practically water insoluble, respectively. Granules containing 0.1-2.5% of the mucilage were prepared and pressed using Kilian KS single punch tableting machine. Corn starch and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30) were selected as standard binders. The physical properties of the granules (bulk density, flow-ability and granule strength) and the tablets were assessed. The results showed that a 2.5% concentration of the new binder compared well with standard binders at least for properties studied herein. At this concentration level, CA tablets showed the highest mean value in tablet hardness but prolonged disintegration times and dissolution rate. Also, the binder prolonged the disintegration time and dissolution rate of TH tablets. However, IB tablets showed the least mean value in tablet friability and moderate disintegration time-dissolution rate. The binder of Fenugreek seeds mucilage sustains the dissolution rate of water soluble drugs.
The purpose of the study is to formulate and evaluate a new, cheap and effective natural suspending agent that can be used as an effective alternative for traditional suspending agent. The study procedure involved extraction of suspending agent from the Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seeds, solubility testing of the mucilage obtained, phytochemical testing, determination of swelling index, preparation of paracetamol suspension (blank), determination of sedimentation volume, measurement of viscosity, and determination of flow rate. The study showed that the extraction of fenugreek seeds had 8% w/w of suspending agent. The natural suspending agent was soluble in hot water and cold water. The photochemical test showed contains carbohydrates, alkaloids, proteins and amino acid. The swelling index was found to be 150%. The sedimentation volume by using fenugreek as a suspending agent shows highest sedimentation volume then acacia, tragacanth and paracetamol alone. Fenugreek can be employed as a stabilizer of choice and high viscosity is desired especially in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.
Fenugreek gum was extracted from defatted, deactivated fenugreek seeds (produced in Canada) at 10°C for 2h to give a yield of 22% with only 2.36% protein contaminates. Further purification of fenugreek gum was achieved by treating the gum solution with pronase to reduce the protein contaminates to 0.57%. High performance size exclusion chromatography showed that the enzyme treatment did not affect the molecular weight of the galactomannans. Monosaccharide and methylation analysis suggested that the extracted fenugreek galactomannans were highly substituted and the ratios of galactose to mannose were from 1.00:1.02 to 1.00:1.14. Although fenugreek gum exhibited higher molecular weight compared to locust bean gum and guar gum, the intrinsic viscosity and rheological behavior of fenugreek gum were reduced. This was attributed to the influence of the substitution patterns of the galactose on the mannosyl backbone chain. The purified fenugreek gum demonstrated less surface activity compared to the unpurified gum, which is in contradiction with the results reported in the literature. Detailed structural characterization of fenugreek gum has been done in order to elucidate the structure–functionality relationship of this gum and it will be reported in a subsequent paper.
Calcium pectinate-fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl was developed through ionic-gelation. Effects of pectin and FSM amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h) were optimized using 3(2) factorial design. The DEE (%) was within the range of 63.16±2.88 to 96.03±4.67% (w/w). The in vitro drug release from these beads (56.64±1.47 to 93.63±4.52% over 10h) was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern (R(2)=0.993 to 0.997) with super case-II transport mechanism. The average size of beads was within 1.47±0.14 to 2.08±0.18mm. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and mucoadhesivity of these beads were influenced by pH of the medium. The optimized beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.
The aim of the study was to investigate the properties of sodium valproate tablets that were dry powder-coated with pre-plasticized Eudragit L 100-55. Polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350) was used as primer to facilitate initial coating powder adhesion. Solubility parameters were employed to determine the wetting properties of the PEG 3350 primer. Additional PEG 3350 within the powder coating formulation was required to enable powder adhesion to the tablet cores. The application of a subcoat of either Eudragit E PO or Eudragit RL PO facilitated adhesion of the enteric polymer to the tablet cores and reduced the amount PEG 3350 required in the coating formulation. Since reduction of the PEG 3350 content produced less water-vapor permeable films, the enteric coating level necessary to control the drug release was decreased. PEG 3350 and Methocel K4M were incorporated in both Eudragit E PO and Eudragit RL PO subcoating formulations as pore forming agents. The influence of the pore forming excipients on physicochemical properties of free powder-cast films was investigated. The miscibility of the PEG 3350 and Methocel K4M in the film coating was correlated with their ability to function as pore forming agent.
A polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graceum L (family Fabaceae) was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. Methocel hypomellose K4M was used as a standard controlled release polymer for comparison purposes. In this study the effect of lactose on the release behaviour of propranolol hydrochloride from matrices formulated to contain the fenugreek mucilage also was investigated. An increase in concentration of the mucilage in matrices resulted in a reduction in the release rate of propranolol hydrochloride comparable to that observed with hypomellose matrices. The rate of release of propranolol hydrochloride from fenugreek mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug:mucilage ratio. However, the mechanism of release from matrices containing drug:mucilage ratios of 1:1, 1:1.25, 1:1.5, and 1:2 remained the same. The kinetics of release, utilising the release exponent n, showed that the values of n were between 0.46-0.57 indicating that the release from fenugreek mucilage matrices was predominantly by diffusion. The presence of lactose in matrices containing mucilage increased the release rate of propranolol hydrochloride. This is due to a reduction in tortuoisity and increased pore size of channels caused by lactose through which propranolol diffuses and therefore diffusion of water into the tablet is facilitated.
Evaluation of fenugreek seed husk as tablet binder
Manoj M Nitalikar, Rama A Patil, Swati D Dhole,
Dinesh M Sakarkar, 2010. Evaluation of fenugreek
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Formulation of fenugreek husk as tablet binder
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Nitalikar MM, Patil RA, Dhole SD, Sakarkar DM,
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Sciences, Volume 7-Issue 6, 773. 1077-1092. DOI -10.22270/jmpas.v7i6.773
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R S Bishnoi
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Dispersible Tablets: An Overview
Naveen Kumar, Sonia Pahuja, 2019. Dispersible
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