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There is a growing public interest in fruits labeled as "superfood" (functional food). A "superfood" should have a high content of bioactive substances with a positive impact on human health. Seven different cultivars of goji berry fruits (Lycium chinense Mill.) grown in northwestern Poland were evaluated for its physicochemical parameters, antidiabetic and antioxidant activity, and polyphenol content. The length of 1-year-old shoots ranged from 36 cm ('Big Lifeberry') to 82 cm ('Korean Big'). Cultivars from the group of Big were characterized by the biggest fruits (17.3-24.2 mm) with the greatest weight of 100 fruits (96.7122.1 g). 'Big Lifeberry' contained high amounts of L-ascorbic acid (408 mg 1000/g) and provitamin A (190 mg 1000/g) and showed high antidiabetic (α-amylase IC50=33.4 mg/mL; α-glucosidase IC50=9.9 mg/mL) and antioxidant activity (ABTS·+ 6.21 and FRAP 5.58 mmol T/100 g). 'Big Lifeberry' was also characterized by a high total content of polyphenols (43.64 mg 100/g). Furthermore, the nitrite content in all the cultivars tested was at a relatively low level. Among the examined cultivars, the most attractive one concerning the consumers' point of view of the size, weight and high content of health-promoting compounds is 'Big Lifeberry'.
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... Lycium chinense (Solanaceae), commonly known as goji berries or wolfberries, is considered one of the healthiest foods in the world because of its highly beneficial nutritive and antioxidant properties (Kruczek et al., 2020a). Goji fruits contain various nutrient, such as polysaccharides, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidants with high biological activity (Wojdyło et al., 2018;Sá et al., 2019;Kruczek et al., 2020a). ...
... Lycium chinense (Solanaceae), commonly known as goji berries or wolfberries, is considered one of the healthiest foods in the world because of its highly beneficial nutritive and antioxidant properties (Kruczek et al., 2020a). Goji fruits contain various nutrient, such as polysaccharides, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidants with high biological activity (Wojdyło et al., 2018;Sá et al., 2019;Kruczek et al., 2020a). ...
... These berries have been used in herbal medicine and as a health food for thousands of years. Goji is grown in areas that have not been polluted by civilization or pesticides for centuries, particularly in China, Southeast Asia, Europe, and North America (Kulczyński and Gramza-Michałkowska, 2016;Sá et al., 2019;Kruczek et al., 2020a). ...
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In recent years, Lycium chinense (goji) has become increasing popular because of its public acceptance as a “superfood”. Hence, the present study aimed to develop a rapid production technology by using in vitro culture to produce plants with high health value, throughout year and in desired quantities. A micropropagation protocol for growing L. chinense ‘No 1’ and ‘New Big’ cultivars was developed. The explants were grown on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of meta-Topolin (0.4-0.8 mg L-1), and WPM and RA without plant hormones. Among the tested combinations, the maximum regeneration rate (95-97%) with the mean shoot length of 3.53-4.12 cm and mean shoot number of 1.42–1.58 (‘No 1’ and ‘New Big’, respectively) was recorded for plants grown on MS with 0.6 mg L-1 mT and WPM. For in vitro rooting, healthy roots (4.71-4.91 cm) were obtained on MS with the addition of 20 ppm chitosan. A maximum of 70–80% plantlets (‘No 1’ and ‘New Big’, respectively) regenerated on the medium with chitosan were successfully acclimatized and established in the mixture of 90% peat and 10% perlite under field conditions.
... L. chinense Mill. berries contain multiple mineral and organic compounds (i.e., vitamins B 1 , B 6 , A, C, E), with potential to repair epidermal damage, and showing excellent effects on cardiovascular and cholesterol levels [3,4]. Goji leaves are also a rich source of bioactive compounds that can be used as additive in health-promoting preparation [5,6]. ...
... berries contain multiple mineral and organic compounds (i.e., vitamins B 1 , B 6 , A, C, E), with potential to repair epidermal damage, and showing excellent effects on cardiovascular and cholesterol levels [3,4]. Goji leaves are also a rich source of bioactive compounds that can be used as additive in health-promoting preparation [5,6]. In support of such traditional properties, modern studies indicate that extracts from content of these components in the soil. ...
... No. (4)(5)(6)(7)(8) 11.00 ± 0.52b 3.87 ± 0.18a 11.39 ± 0.48b 4.00 ± 0.21a 0.91 ± 0.04B 0.75 ± 0.03A Mg (2-4.4) 5.89 ± 0.17b 2.87 ± 0.09a 7.50 ± 0.27c 3.04 ± 0.11a 1.11 ± 0.05A 1.02 ± 0.05A Na (no data) 4.22 ± 0.23c 2.17 ± 0.19b 4.60 ± 0.25d 1.82 ± 0.13a 4.03 ± 0.19B 3.82 ± 0.15A 1 Means followed by the same letter in lines do not differ significantly at P = 0.05 according to Tukey multiple range/small letters for leaves, capital-fruit. 2 Optimal content for leaves according to Glonek and Komosa [15]. ...
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There is a growing interest among the public in fruit with a positive impact on human health. Two goji berry cultivars ('No. 1' and 'New Big') were propagated in vitro, grown in an orchard and then evaluated for macro-and microelements and harmful heavy metals (i.e., Pb, Ni, and Cd). The leaves and fruit were also assessed for nutritional value, polyphenols and the antimicrobial activity of the leaves. 'New Big' was characterized by a higher content of macro elements in the leaves (in vitro and orchard) and a higher content of microelements in the fruit. The harmful substances content was below the minimum value. Furthermore, neither the fruit nor the leaves contained cadmium. This study also indicated that leaves had a higher content of polyphenols compared to the fruit. The fruits were characterized by their health-promoting capacities, while the leaves were characterized by their antibacterial activity. Among the Gram-positive bacteria, the most sensitive strain was Bacillus subtilis, and among the Gram-negative bacteria, it was Proteus vulgaris. Taking into consideration the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for minerals, goji berries can be declared to be a source of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and P.
... Moreover, the results showed that the higher the amount of polyphenols in the parasite was, the higher the antiradical activity, reducing activity, and high the ability to inhibit the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase (Table 5). Many authors have confirmed such dependencies (Podsedek et al., 2014;Kruczek et al., 2020). However, a higher scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species can be observed when they are complexed with metals than with polyphenols alone, particularly flavonols (Corso et al., 2020). ...
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Plant parasitism by other plants, combined with abiotic environmental stress, offers a unique opportunity to study correlational nutritional relationships in terms of parasite–host interactions and their functional roles in nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Our study analysed the transfer of selected mineral elements, including heavy metals, from soil to different organs in hosts (Punica granatum and Fraxinus angustifolia) and from hosts to the expansive holoparasite (Orobanche laxissima) in cinnamonic soil habitats in Georgia (Caucasus). We also identified other correlated trophic and bioactive effects in the parasite–host relationship. O. laxissima was characterized by a high accumulation tendency for micro- and macroelements, such as K and Ca, and heavy metals, such as Zn, Ni, and Cd. Parasites can reduce the concentration of heavy metals in host tissues owing to this high accumulation tendency. In total, 85 compounds were identified in the examined parasite and its hosts. Despite the distinct phytochemical content of species of the infected host, the parasite produced specific metabolites with dominant phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), with acteoside and crenatoside being the primary dominant compounds - ca. 98% of all polyphenols. Polyphenols in parasite specimens that are correlated with Cu and Zn are antagonistic to polyphenols correlated with Fe, Pb, Cr, and Ni. The profile of polyphenols in the host species was both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct from the profile of the compounds in the parasite and between hosts (only acteoside in group PhGs was common between the parasite and Fraxinus host), which indicates the existence of a unique compound biosynthesis pathway in the parasite. Our results demonstrated that the parasite, particularly in its flowers, exhibited higher polyphenol content, antioxidative effects (ABTS-+, DPPH, and FRAP), and inhibitory effects.
... Pectin content was analyzed according to the Morris method described by Pijanowski et al. [23]. The content of provitamin A in fruits was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and fluorescence detection (Knauer K-1001 pump and Knauer K2001 UV detector-Knauer GmbH Berlin/Germany); Beckman ODS column (5 µm), dimensions 150 × 4.6 mm, column temperature 25 • C) [24]. ...
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Recently, there has been a trend towards healthy food. Consumers are looking for products that have health-promoting properties in addition to their taste. Actinidia fruit, apart from being tasty, contains valuable macro and micronutrients, vitamins, polyphenols and pectins. Tested cultivar Sientiabrskaja belong to Actinidia arguta and cultivars Geneva, Issai and Ken’s Red to A. kolomitka. They well tolerate conditions of moderate climate with negative temperatures in winter. To improve fruit quality, an additional summer pruning of the plants was performed at the time of ripening. After the second additional cutting of Actinidia shoots, an increase in the content of N, P and K in fruit was observed. The additional pruning also had a beneficial effect on the change in fruit color. The fruits were darker, especially in the cultivars Geneva and Ken’s Red. This is related to the ripening of fruit and an increase in anthocyanin content. Additional summer pruning caused changes in the polyphenol content-the amount of phenolic acid and flavan-3 ols decreased, while the level of anthocyanins increased. The antioxidant capacity also increased as well as fruit size, dry matter, pectin and Soluble Solid Content (SSC) content. The acidity of the fruit also decreased which positively affects the taste of the fruit. The highest content of polyphenols and L-ascorbic acid was found in ‘Sientiabrskaja’ fruit; but the highest antioxidant activity (determined Free Radical Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl-DPPH•, ABTS•+ and Ferric Antioxidant Power-FRAP) was found in fruit with red skin coloring and anthocyanins-‘Issai’ and ‘Ken’s Red’.
... UV detector -Knauer GmbH Berlin/Germany); Beckman ODS column (5 μm), dimensions 150×4.6 mm, column temperature 25 °C) (Kruczek et al., 2020). ...
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Recently, there has been a trend towards healthy food. Consumers are looking for products that have health-promoting properties in addition to their taste. Actinidia fruit, apart from being tasty, contains valuable nutrients. They are high in vitamin C, polyphenols, and pectins and low in calories. These pro-health properties allow kiwiberry fruit to qualify in the group of so-called superfoods. All tested cultivars belong to two species of Actinidia, well tolerating conditions of moderate climate with negative temperatures in winter. The cultivars differed significantly in mineral content, color, firmness, weight and content of antioxidant substances. Summer pruning (lightening) increased the content of N, P, K, extract, and NO3 and resulted in darker fruit color. However, it slightly decreased the content of polyphenols. 'Sientiabrskaja' can be recommended for consumption as the cultivar richest in polyphenols and with the highest health-promoting values.
... Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Also, plant polyphenols are natural antioxidants and are considered to have protective effects to quench singlet oxygen (Chensom et al. 2019;Kruczek et al. 2020). According to Dragišic Maksimovic et al. (2007) the deposition of Si in higher plants is associated with co-precipitation of Si and lignin which can be induced by the polymerization of phenols. ...
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Mineral nutrients are necessary for the growth and development of plants. Previous studies have concentrated mainly on silicon-accumulating plants, while less work has been conducted on non-accumulating plants such as Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don. In this study, we investigated the responses of morphological (plant height, root length, fresh and dry weight, no. of flowers) and biochemical (proline, malondialdehyde MDA, catalase CAT activity, total chlorophylls, carotenoids, total polyphenol, and NO 3 ) traits of petunia to external application of commercial silicon solution (Hydroplus™ Actisil) after 5 weeks of in vitro culture and 6 weeks under greenhouse condition. Actisil was supplemented into the MS medium (in vitro) at concentrations of 0 (control), 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg L ⁻¹ , or supplied via irrigations at a concentration of 0 (control) and 200 mg L ⁻¹ in one, two, and three applications under greenhouse conditions. The addition of silicon to the MS medium decreased plant height (22–41% of control) and root length (53–70% of control). In contrast, in greenhouse-grown petunia irrigation of silicon increased plant height (145% of control ) and root length (176% of control). Petunias treated with Actisil had greener leaves compared to the control. This was also confirmed by higher concentrations of chlorophyll. Conversely, increased concentrations of proline, MDA, and total polyphenol and higher CAT activities may indicate that silicon provokes a stress response of the in vitro plants. Actisil treatment in the concentration of 200 mg L ⁻¹ was found to positively affect the growth and flowering of the greenhouse-grown petunia.
... Nevertheless, due to their (Fragaria vesca L.) grown in salinity conditions specific taste and intense aroma and high antioxidant content, wild strawberries are valued and sought by the fresh fruit markets, the processing industry, confectionery and cosmetics industries. That contributes to a high market value of Fragaria vesca, which may encourage farmers to increase the cultivation area of this species (Muñoz et al., 2011;Oancea, 2011;Dias et al., 2016;Kruczek et al. 2020). The literature so far has focused mainly on the evaluation of the influence of Tytanit® on the yield and its quality in various plant species. ...
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Progressive global warming and decreasing freshwater resources are forcing to look for alternative solutions in plants cultivation. The use of saltwater and cultivation in saline areas becomes increasingly common. Wild strawberry is a rich source of antioxidant compounds beneficial for human health. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Tytanit® on the physiological activity of wild strawberry grown under different salinity levels (32.5, 50 and 100 mM L-1 NaCl). Assimilatory pigments content, free proline concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence and relative water content were measured at two phenological phases BBCH 15 and 60. Results analysis revealed that the applicability of Tytanit® to mitigate physiological stress in wild strawberry caused by salinity did not produce the desired effect.
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Potatoes are considered very important staple and antioxidant-rich tubers in human diet. The present study evaluated the bioactive, antioxidant, antidiabetic and inhibition of lipid peroxidation properties of cooked and uncooked Irish potatoes. The samples were subjected to total phenolic (TPC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoids (TFC), ascorbic acid (AsA) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity analyses using spectrophotometric method. Also Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition were assayed. The results revealed that there is no significant (p < 0.05) difference in TPC and TAC of the potatoes samples but there was a significant (p < 0.05) enhancement in TFC and reduction in AsA of the cooked potatoes. There is also dose-dependent inhibition in DPPH and α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. The IC50 revealed that cooked sample has significant higher (p <0.05) inhibition in the enzymes assay. The lipid peroxidation was also reduced upon incubation with Irish potato samples but higher inhibition was exhibited by the cooked potato. In conclusion, this study has shown that Irish potato can be a good functional food in the management of diseases. Keywords: Phenolics, Flavonoid, α-glucosidase, α-amylase, Lipid peroxidation.
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Potatoes are considered very important staple and antioxidant-rich tubers in human diet. The present study evaluated the bioactive, antioxidant, antidiabetic and inhibition of lipid peroxidation properties of cooked and uncooked Irish potatoes. The samples were subjected to total phenolic (TPC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoids (TFC), ascorbic acid (AsA) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity analyses using spectrophotometric method. Also Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition were assayed. The results revealed that there is no significant (p < 0.05) difference in TPC and TAC of the potatoes samples but there was a significant (p < 0.05) enhancement in TFC and reduction in AsA of the cooked potatoes. There is also dose-dependent inhibition in DPPH and α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. The IC50 revealed that cooked sample has significant higher (p < 0.05) inhibition in the enzymes assay. The lipid peroxidation was also reduced upon incubation with Irish potato samples but higher inhibition was exhibited by the cooked potato. In conclusion, this study has shown that Irish potato can be a good functional food in the management of diseases.
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There are several thousand different cultivars of apple trees but only a limited number are cultivated on an industrial scale. Old cultivars can be useful, for example, in the processing industry due to their different composition. In many cases, they have higher organic acid content. The content of mineral components, colour, and polyphenols in the fruit of 7 old apple tree cultivars, growing in the Wolinski National Park, was studied. The changes that occurred in the fruit after freeze-drying were also evaluated. The trees from which the fruit was picked for analysis, despite the lack of chemical protection, were fruiting and the apples had only a few symptoms of damage caused by pests or diseases. The fruit was characterised by a high soluble solids content (14.4-16.4%), in which sugars and especially fructose dominated. The number of organic acids varied greatly and ranged from 0.27 (Oberlander Himbeerapfel) g to 1.07 g/100 g (Winter Goldparmane). The content of polyphenols in fresh apples ranged from 186 mg (Horneburger Pfannkuchenapfel) to 354 mg/100 g (Winter Goldparmane) and increased after freeze-drying from 666 mg (Weisser Winterkalvill) to 1486 mg/100 g (Winter Goldparmane). The dominant group of polyphenolic compounds was phenolic acid. The freeze-drying process caused unfavourable changes in the colour of the pulp. The fruits of Oberlander Himbeerapfel cultivar were most susceptible to these changes. However, the least darkened fruit of Horneburger Pfannkuchenapfel.
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The holoparasitic genus Cistanche (Orobanchaceae) has been the most widely used and well known genus in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. This is the first study that reports the phytochemical profile of Cistanche armena – an endemic species from Armenia and evaluates the composition and biological activity in relation to specific organs of the parasite (flowers vs stem with tuber) and its interaction with two host species: Alhagi maurorum (Fabaceae) and Salsola dendroides (Chenopodiaceae). We identified polyphenolic compounds using the UPLC-PDA-MS/MS method and quantified the antioxidative effects; inhibitory activities; polyphenol, nitrate III and nitrate V contents; ABTS +, DPPH, and FRAP activities; and colour parameters. A total of 28 polyphenolic compounds were tentatively identified. In C. armena, 9 compounds belonged to the phenylethanoid glycosides, mainly acteoside, B-hydroxyverbascoside and echinacoside, and in its hosts, 19 compounds belonged mainly to hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavanols. The profile of polyphenols in the host species was qualitatively and quantitatively different than the profile of the compounds in the parasite; this indicates the existence of a unique pathway of compound biosynthesis in the parasite. The colour and the amount and bioactivity of the polyphenolic compounds found in Cistanche were very diverse and depended on both the host plant and their location (organs) in the parasite. The stem and tuber of Cistanche hosted by Salsola had the highest polyphenol content, which was approximately 4 times higher than that in the stem and flowers of Cistanche individuals that parasitized A. maurorum. In addition, the stem and tuber of Cistanche that parasitized S. dendroides was characterized by the highest antioxidant activity (ABTS +, DPPH and FRAP) and high inhibitory activities. Conversely, the amount of polyphenols in the host Alhagi was 12 times higher than that in S. dendroides. These results highlight the importance of C. armena as a promising source of functional and bioactive ingredients (harvested from potential cultivation, not from natural endangered localities) and also draws the attention of future researchers to an important aspect regarding the parasite organ and the host's influence on the harvested material of various parasitic herbs.
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