Status and benchmarking of the deuteron induced Tritium and Beryllium-7 production cross sections in Lithium

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The current status of the experimental and evaluated data for the tritium and beryllium-7 production cross sections of the deuteron induced reaction on the lithium isotopes was studied. The all relevant cross sections measured by activation, charged particle and neutron spectrometry were considered. The evaluated cross sections from the latest versions of the main evaluations ENDF, JEFF, TENDL and FENDL were compared with experimental data. They were additionally validated against the measured 3H and 7Be inventories in the thick lithium target. It was found that new measurements of 6,7,natLi(d,xt) cross sections above 5 MeV and tritium thick target yields up to 40 MeV as well as substantial upgrade of ENDF, JENDL, TENDL and FENDL are urgently needed. Otherwise the use of these evaluations for the assessment of the radioactive inventories in the d-Li neutron sources will deliver substantially wrong results.

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The joint evaluated fission and fusion nuclear data library 3.3 is described. New evaluations for neutron-induced interactions with the major actinides \(^{235}\hbox {U}\), \(^{238}\hbox {U}\) and \(^{239}\hbox {Pu}\), on \(^{241}\hbox {Am}\) and \(^{23}\hbox {Na}\), \(^{59}\hbox {Ni}\), Cr, Cu, Zr, Cd, Hf, W, Au, Pb and Bi are presented. It includes new fission yields, prompt fission neutron spectra and average number of neutrons per fission. In addition, new data for radioactive decay, thermal neutron scattering, gamma-ray emission, neutron activation, delayed neutrons and displacement damage are presented. JEFF-3.3 was complemented by files from the TENDL project. The libraries for photon, proton, deuteron, triton, helion and alpha-particle induced reactions are from TENDL-2017. The demands for uncertainty quantification in modeling led to many new covariance data for the evaluations. A comparison between results from model calculations using the JEFF-3.3 library and those from benchmark experiments for criticality, delayed neutron yields, shielding and decay heat, reveals that JEFF-3.3 performes very well for a wide range of nuclear technology applications, in particular nuclear energy.
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We describe the new ENDF/B-VIII.0 evaluated nuclear reaction data library. ENDF/B-VIII.0 fully incorporates the new IAEA standards, includes improved thermal neutron scattering data and uses new evaluated data from the CIELO project for neutron reactions on ¹H, ¹⁶O, ⁵⁶Fe, ²³⁵U, ²³⁸U and ²³⁹Pu described in companion papers in the present issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. The evaluations benefit from recent experimental data obtained in the U.S. and Europe, and improvements in theory and simulation. Notable advances include updated evaluated data for light nuclei, structural materials, actinides, fission energy release, prompt fission neutron and γ-ray spectra, thermal neutron scattering data, and charged-particle reactions. Integral validation testing is shown for a wide range of criticality, reaction rate, and neutron transmission benchmarks. In general, integral validation performance of the library is improved relative to the previous ENDF/B-VII.1 library.
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Angular distributions of deuterons elastically and inelastically scattered on 7Li nuclei with excitation of the 0.478 MeV (Jπ = 1=2-) level, and tritons from the 7Li(d; t) 6 reaction, corresponding to transitions to the ground (Jπ = 1+) and low-lying excited states (Jπ = 3+ and 0+) of the 6Li nucleus were measured at the 25 MeV energy. The experimental data were analyzed within the framework of the coupled reaction channels and a modified distorted-wave methods. The values of the spectroscopic factors and the asymptotic normalization coefficients for the 7Li → 6Li + n vertex were extracted.
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Partial wave analysis of four reaction channels, coupled in a unitary way, is performed to fit about 4700 data points from 69 experimental references. The data encompass integrated and differential cross-sections, and polarization data. The energies, total and partial widths, and reduced width amplitudes of the resonances are extracted by finding the complex S-matrix poles. The application is to 8Be resonances up to an excitation energy of 26 MeV. The presence of an extremely broad Jπ = 2+ “intruder” resonance is confirmed (π is parity), while a new 1+ and very broad 4+ resonance are discovered. A previously known 22 MeV 2+ resonance is likely resolved into two resonances. The experimental JπT = 3(+)? resonance at 22 MeV is determined to be 3−0 (T is isospin), and the experimental 1−? (at 19 MeV) and 4−? resonances to be isospin 0.
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An evaluation of A = 5-7 was published in Nuclear Physics A708 (2002), p. 3. This version of A = 7 differs from the published version in that we have corrected some errors dis- covered after the article went to press. The introduction an d introductory tables have been omitted from this manuscript. Reference key numbers are in the NNDC/TUNL format.
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We report on a study of the structure of the unbound nucleus 7He utilizing the proton-removal reaction 2H(8Li,3He)7He. Combining the present results with those of our prior measurements of the neutron-adding reaction 2H(6He,p)7He, a consistent picture emerges for the low-lying excitations in 7He. Specifically, the negative-parity sequence of resonances, in order of excitation energies, is consistent with 3/2-,1/2-, and 5/2-. The stable-beam reactions 2H(7Li,t)6Li and 2H(7Li,3He)6He were also measured. The results are compared with the predictions of nuclear structure models, including those of ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations.
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Neutron emission spectra and production rates of radioactive nuclide 7 Be in the (d,n) reactions on thick lithium and 9 Be targets have been measured for 25 MeV deuterons at the Tohoku University AVF cyclotron (K¼110) facility to provide basic data for the design of the intense neutron source, International Fusion Reactor Material Irradiation Test Facility (IFMIF). Neutron spectra were measured with the time-of-flight method at ten laboratory angles between 0 and 90 by using a beam swinger system. Data were obtained down to $1 MeV from the highest energy, using a two-gain NE213 de-tector system. Induced radioactivity of 7 Be was measured by detecting the 478 keV -rays from 7 Be with a pure Ge detector. The experimental results of neutron spectra revealed clearly the entire shape of the neutron emission spectrum and the angular dependence including so called ''high energy tail'' extending up to $40 MeV. The present data at 0 are in reasonable agreement with corresponding value by Lone et al. at 23 MeV above $5 MeV, but show large discrepancy in the lower energy region. The results of 7 Be production for both nuclei were much larger than expected by the cal-culation with a recent code IRAC.
The TENDL library is now established as one of the major nuclear data libraries in the world, striving for completeness and quality of nuclear data files for all isotopes, evaluation methods, processing and applied performance. To reach this status, some basic principles have been applied which sets it apart from other libraries: reproducible dedicated evaluations when differential data are available, through determination of nuclear models implemented in TALYS and their parameters, completeness (with or without experimental data), format and processing standardization, automation of production and reproducibility. In this paper, we will outline how such an approach has become a reality, and recall some of the past successes since the first TENDL release in 2008. Next, we will demonstrate the performance of the latest TENDL releases for different application fields, as well as new approaches for uncertainty quantification based on Bayesian inference methods and possible differential and integral adjustments. Also, current limitations of the library performances due to modelling and needs for new and more precise experimental data will be outlined.
This paper presents a general overview of nuclear data evaluation and its applications as developed at NRG, Petten. Based on concepts such as robustness, reproducibility and automation, modern calculation tools are exploited to produce original nuclear data libraries that meet the current demands on quality and completeness. This requires a system which comprises differential measurements, theory development, nuclear model codes, resonance analysis, evaluation, ENDF formatting, data processing and integral validation in one integrated approach. Software, built around the TALYS code, will be presented in which all these essential nuclear data components are seamlessly integrated. Besides the quality of the basic data and its extensive format testing, a second goal lies in the diversity of processing for different type of users. The implications of this scheme are unprecedented. The most important are:1. Complete ENDF-6 nuclear data files, in the form of the TENDL library, including covariance matrices, for many isotopes, particles, energies, reaction channels and derived quantities. All isotopic data files are mutually consistent and are supposed to rival those of the major world libraries.2. More exact uncertainty propagation from basic nuclear physics to applied (reactor) calculations based on a Monte Carlo approach: “Total” Monte Carlo (TMC), using random nuclear data libraries.3. Automatic optimization in the form of systematic feedback from integral measurements back to the basic data. This method of work also opens a new way of approaching the analysis of nuclear applications, with consequences in both applied nuclear physics and safety of nuclear installations, and several examples are given here. This applied experience and feedback is integrated in a final step to improve the quality of the nuclear data, to change the users vision and finally to orchestrate their integration into simulation codes.
A particle selection technique developed in the MIT cyclotron laboratory has been applied to the study of the angular distributions of inelastically scattered deuterons at a bombarding energy of 15 Mev, the angular distributions of the (d, d′) reactions from Li6 (Q=-2.19 Mev), Li7 (Q=-4.61 Mev), Be9 (Q=-2.43 Mev), C12 (Q=-4.43 Mev), Mg24 (Q=-1.37 Mev), and Al27 (Q=-2.23 Mev, Q=-2.75 Mev) were obtained. These data were analyzed according to the nuclear interaction theory of Huby and Newns, the electric interaction theory of Mullin and Guth, and from the standpoint of compound nucleus formation. The behavior of the angular distributions indicates that for small angles (large impact parameters) electric interaction contributes appreciably. However, for large angles (small impact parameters) the nuclear interaction theory fits the data better. Consideration of the cross sections involved favors the nuclear interaction theory. Compound nucleus formation does not appear to play a major role in inelastic deuteron scattering. Improved theoretical treatments of the problem should make possible the determination of the spins and parities of nuclear states not easily reached by other reactions.
Light nuclei reactions are required for a number of practical applications: they are used extensively in nuclear physics research as neutron sources, and as standards for the normalization of absolute reaction cross-sections. Nuclear reactions with light nuclei are useful in non-destructive testing and in the determination of isotopic compositions when other analytical methods are not adequate for obtaining the required information. The information presented in this handbook consists of nuclear reaction cross-sections and scattering cross-sections for the interaction of hydrogen and helium isotopes with nuclei of Z is less than or equal to 5. The evaluated integral and partial differential cross-sections presented here have been derived from a large body of compiled information, and encompass data for both exo-energetic and endo-energetic reaction channels. The evaluated data are presented in the form of sets of coefficients for fitted polynomials which ensures reliable interpolation of the data using contemporary computer methods.
In order to improve the quality of deuteron-induced activation data required for the safety design of the IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), we have measured (1) the activation cross-section of natLi(d,x)7Be in the deuteron-energy range from 7 to 39MeV and (2) the production rates of radioactive nuclides in thick targets for natLi(d,x)7Be, natC(d,x)7Be, and 27Al(d,x)7Be, 22Na, 24Na reactions at 40MeV using the AVF cyclotron of Tohoku University. We have also estimated the production rates of these nuclides in the thick targets below 40MeV using the cross-sections obtained in this study.The present data compared favorably with other experimental data, IAEA-recommended data, and the data obtained using the recent nuclear reaction code TALYS and the activation code IRACM, which is based on the ALICE-F code. Some calculation results showed marked disagreement with the experimental data.
The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is our latest recommended evaluated nuclear data file for use in nuclear science and technology applications, and incorporates advances made in the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0. These advances focus on neutron cross sections, covariances, fission product yields and decay data, and represent work by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in nuclear data evaluation that utilizes developments in nuclear theory, modeling, simulation, and experiment.
Angular distributions of (d, t), (d, He3), (d, p), and (d, d') reactions have been obtained using a natural lithium target. Butler type calculations for l=1 transfer fit all of the above data except for the (d, d') reactions. A Q-value of 0.974+/-0.015 Mev has been assigned to the first excited level in Li8. The He5 ground state was observed with the two reactions Li7(d, alpha)He5 and Li6(d, He3)He5 for which the Q values were 14.26+/-0.09 Mev and 0.91+/-0.09 Mev, respectively.
The lithium concentration CLi is determined by means of various nuclear-physics methods [3-6]. Track autoradiography [3] and the instantaneous nuclear method [4] are suitable for determining the lithium distribution in thin layers, For a fast radioactivation method [6] it is necessary to build a special apparatus, and the choice of optimum conditions for the experiment become much more complicated as a result, Therefore, we propose that a variant of the activation method based on charged particles be used to study the distribution of diffused lithium in the bulk of a silicon crystal| in this method the radioactive nuclide 7Be (T~/2 = 53.3 days, E~=477 keV~ is formed as a result of the eLi(d, n)TBe and 7Li(d, 2n)TBe reactions in natural lithium [5] In this work we studied the lithium distribution in silicon subjected to high-temperature treatment, using the, procedure we had published earlier for obtaining information about the distribution of a chemical element after activation [7]. As the initial crystal we used n-type silicon of resistivity 10-300 ~ �9 cm and dislocation density < i0 ~ cm-2~ metallic lithium was evaporated onto the surface of the crystal in a vacuum (i0 -s Pa). After the evaporation the crystal was heated to 500-600~ after which it was held at that temperature for 2 h and slowly cooled. The prepared samples were irradiated for i0 h with a beam of 16-MeV deuterons (intensity 0,7 ~A) in the 150-cm cylotron of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbekh SSR (IYaF AN UzSSR). After I0 days the activity of the irradiated samples was measured with a spectrometer using a Ge(Li) detector (volume 40 cm ~, energy resolution 5 keV with respect to the 1332-keV line of ~~ The concentration of the element in the sample is most often determined by the absolute method when charged-particle radioactivation analysis is employed, To do this one must know the yield Y of the radionuclide at the given activation energy or its dependence on the charged-particle energy. Since the 7Be yield has to be refined at our energies, we determined the dependence Y(E) using the method of activation of thick targets [8]. For this purpose we chose an alloy of magnesium with lithium, in which a uniform distribution of lithium over the volume is guaranteed and the concentration is measured with sufficient accuracy. From an ingot we cut a rectangular wafer of thickness ~ 3m m, which we polished with a powder and then etched in acids to remove the surface inclusions, The prepared sample was bombarded with a deuteron beam of intensity 0.i ~A for i0 min. From the pulse recorded at the photopeak, knowing the detection efficiency of the detector and the measuring geometry, we used the formula given in [9] to determine Y for the initial deuteron energy Eo, We found Y for other deuteron energies (E = Eo -- AE) by successively removing layers of the ingot of thickness Ax that was equivalent to AE, The silicon and the magnesium alloy were ground with carbide powder and when the required layer (4-10 ~m) had been removed the samples were washed, dried, and their activity was measured, The function Y(E) for a thick target was found by using the distribution of the number of pulses in the photopeak of a y-ray emitted by the radionuclide 7Be in the magnesium alloy (Fig. i). It is seen that when E d = 16iMeV the value of Y approaches 2.5
Metallic targets of enriched Li⁶ and Li⁷ were bombarded with ; 14.8-Mev deuterons. The outgoing particies were magnetically analyzed and ; detected in nuclear emulsions or scintillation counters. Angular distributions ; for the following reactions were measured: Li⁶(d,p)Li⁷* 4.6 and 7.46 ; Mev, Li⁷(d,p)Li⁸* 2.28 Mev, Li⁷(d,t)Li⁶* 1.57 Mev Li/sup ; (d,d') Li⁶* 2.19 Mev, Li⁶(d, alpha )He⁴ ground state, Li⁶; (d, t)Liu⁵ and Li⁶(d,He³)He⁵. A search was made for ; other levels produced in these reactions and in the Li⁷(d,d')Li⁷* ; reaction. No new levels were observed; upper limits on the cross sections of ; unobserved levels are given. The results of the (d,p), (d,t), and (d,He³) ; reactions were compared with stripping theory and with the predictions of the ; shell model. The agreement is satisfactory. The Li⁶(d,t) and Li⁶; (d,He³) reactions produce a continuous spectrum of outgoing particles at ; each angle. The angular distribution of the tritons (or He³ particles) is ; strongly peaked forward and can be fitted with Butler curves having l = 1, r/sub ; 0/ = 6f, The spectra at small angles show a peak corresponding to the Li⁵ ; (or He⁵ ground state, butat large angles the peak disappears and the ; spectra are constant. The shape of the spectra can be explained by the Butler ; formula if the energy dependence of the reduced width is taken into account. The ; form of this dependence was deduced from the results of the nucleon-helium ; elastic scattering experiments. (auth);
An electronic version of the evaluated and experimental data on charged particles for thermonuclear applications (SaBa) was prepared on the base of handboo k "Nuclear Physics Constants for Thermonuclear Fusion", INDC(CCP)-326/L+F, VIENNA, 1991. Data on 100 channels for 52 reactions are presented in the Librar y. Program code was performed using the object-oriented programming environment Borland C++ Builder for Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows NT operating systems. Optimal set of data processin g procedures and friendly interface provide remarkable possibilities for the active use of this program for various applications in the field of ther monuclear fusion. It is available online (http:/, ../, ../, on CD-ROM or on a set of PC diskettes from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, upon request.
For the generation of evaluated nuclear data sets required for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility project, the basic features of the deuteron-lithium and neutron-lithium nuclear interactions are examined. Factors complicating the evaluation of deuteron-lithium reaction characteristics and weak points of previous calculations and evaluations are discussed. A new method to obtain double differential cross sections of particles emitted in d+Li reactions is described. The method is based on the diffraction approach, a modified intranuclear cascade model, and the usual evaluation techniques. The cross sections predicted by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for deuteron interactions in thick lithium targets. The study of neutron-lithium interactions is performed on the basis of different approaches: coupled channels, diffraction scattering, and direct breakup models.
Absolute cross sections have been obtained for the reactions 6Li(d,n3He)4He and 6Li(d,p3H)4He for deuteron energies from 100 to 800 keV. The energy spectra of particles from these reactions are continuums because of the three-body final state. Total cross sections as well as angular distributions have been obtained with accuracies of 10 to 17%. Comparisons of energy spectra are made to predictions of simple models.NUCLEAR REACTIONS 6Li(d,p3H)4He, Ed=0.1-0.8 MeV, 6Li(d,n3He)4He, Ed=0.2-0.8 MeV; enriched target; measured σ(Ed,θ,En), σ(Ed,θ,Ep), σt(Ed).
Absolute cross sections for (d,n), (d,p), and (d,α) reactions initiated by ~0.1 to ~1.0 MeV deuterons on 6Li have been obtained. Total reaction cross sections, with absolute accuracies of 8-13%, as well as measured differential cross sections are presented. The experimental procedures are discussed and a comparison with previous results is given. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 6Li(d,p), (d,α), Ed=0.1-~1.0 MeV; 6Li(d,n), Ed=0.2-~0.9 MeV; enriched target; measured σ(Ed,θ), σ(Ed).
Cross sections were determined for the 6Li(d, n)7Be reaction between 100 and 180 keV deuteron energy using the activation method. Different methods of extrapolation were employed and compared down to the energy region of astrophysical interest.
Angular distributions for the reactions 7Li(d, t)6Li and 7Li(τ, α)6Li were measured and analyzed in an energy region shown to be relatively free of compound nucleus resonance structure. Both front and back angle maxima in the measured angular distributions have been reproduced by the conventional DWBA without the inclusion of exchange effects. The zero-range DWBA calculation is a factor of 25 smaller than the 7Li(τ, α)6Li cross section and a factor of 2.5 to 4.5 smaller than the 7Li(d, t)6Li cross section. In a true finite-range calculation the large renormalization of the DWBA calculation is no longer necessary.
A newly developed computational procedure is presented for the generation of d-Li source neutrons in Monte Carlo transport calculations based on the use of evaluated double-differential cross section data. A new code McDeLicious was developed as an extension to MCNP4C to enable neutronics design calculations for the d-Li based IFMIF neutron source making use of the evaluated deuteron data files. The McDeLicious code was checked against available experimental data and calculation results of McDeLi and MCNPX, both of which use built-in analytical models for the Li(d, xn) reaction. It is shown that McDeLicious along with newly evaluated data is superior in predicting the characteristics of the d-Li neutron source. As this approach makes use of tabulated Li(d, xn) cross sections, the accuracy of the IFMIF d-Li neutron source term can be steadily improved with more advanced and validated data.
A new evaluation of the nuclear data for a particle transport calculations was performed for d + 6,7Li interactions in the energy region from 4 to 50 MeV incident energy. Use was made of the available new optical model potential for d + Li interactions. For the description of a neutron emission a new optical model potential for n + 9Be was elaborated for the neutron energies from 0.1 to 22 MeV. Global optical model potentials were used for the neutrons above 22 MeV and for protons, tritons, He-3 and alphas – in the whole energy range. The following nuclear processes were accounted for: particle evaporation and preequilibrium emission, stripping of the proton from the deuteron and direct interactions of deuterons with lithium nuclei. GNASH and ECIS96 codes were applied for the first two process descriptions, the Serber model was utilised for stripping processes and the DWUCK4 code was used for direct reaction processes modelling. Total neutron emission spectra were calculated as a sum of the spectra in all these processes. A complete transport file was finally prepared in ENDF-6 format covering the deuteron incident energies up to 50 MeV. The newly evaluated data are in good agreement with experimental data for neutron emission spectra. The evaluated data files were successfully tested with a modified version of the MCNP computer code.
A program has been undertaken for the production, processing, and ; distribution of cyclotron-produced, carrier-free radioisotopes on a world-wide ; basis. Although cyclotron-produced radioisotopes are inherently more expensive ; than reactor-produced radioisotopes, several conditious are enumerated under ; which their use is desirable, and in many cases mandatory. Several new isotopes, ; previously considered difficult to obtain, are now readily available. Procedures ; are detailed for the separation of 17 radioisotopes in carrier-free form: Be/sup ; 7/, Na²², V⁴⁸, Mn⁵², Ga⁶⁷, As⁷⁴, Sr⁸⁵, Y/.sup ; 88/, Cd¹°⁹, In¹¹¹, up 207/. Thick target yields are given for ; production of these radioisotopes from cyclotron irradiations with deuterons of ; 15 Mev energy and with protons of 8, 15, and 20 Mev energies. (auth);
Assessment of the 3 H and 7 Be generation in the IFMIF lithium loop
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The FISPACT-II User Manual
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The d -6 Li reactions
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Tritium Production from Lithium by Deuteron Bombardment
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R.L. Macklin and H.E. Banya, "Tritium Production from Lithium by Deuteron Bombardment", Phys Rev. 97 (1955) 753.
Li, and 6 Li(d,n) 7 Be Reactions
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Charged particle reaction cross sections relevant for nuclear astrophysics
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Cross sections for 6 Li
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L. Ruby, R.V. Pyle, Wong Yue-Chau, "Cross sections for 6 Li( 6 Li, 5 He) 7 Be, 6 Li(d,n) 7 Be and 19 F( 6 Li,p) 24 Na", Nucl. Science and Engin. 71(1979) 280.
Cross sections of Be-7 producing for the interactions of deuterons and tritons with lithium isotopes
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The neutrons from interaction reactions of deuterons with Lithium isotopes
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O.V. Bochkarev, V.A. Vukolov et al., "The neutrons from interaction reactions of deuterons with Lithium isotopes", Yadernaya Fizika 59 (1996) 1749.
Measurements of cross-sections for reactions 6,7 Li(d,t) with radiochemical methods
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S.N. Abramovich, L.N. Generalov and A.G. Zvenigorodskij, "Measurements of cross-sections for reactions 6,7 Li(d,t) with radiochemical methods", Proc. Int. Conf. on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology (Trieste, 1997), Italian Physical Society, 1997, p. 632.
Activation measurements of the integral cross sections of reactions 7 Li
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Zn, 65 Cu(d,2n) 65 Zn, 63 Cu(d,γ) 65 Zn
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Fundamental Problems of Nuclear Physics, Nuclei at Borders of Nucleon Stability, High Technologies
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L.N. Generalov, O.P. Vikhlyantsev, I.A. Karpov et al., "Measurement of 6,7 Li + d and 9 Be + d reaction cross sections", LXIX Int. Conf. "Nucleus-2019" on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear Structure "Fundamental Problems of Nuclear Physics, Nuclei at Borders of Nucleon Stability, High Technologies", 1-5 July 2019, Dubna Russia; Book of Abstracts, p. 116.
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Nuclear reactions induced by 3.70 MeV deuteron beam on Li-6
  • Huang Bingyin
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Huang Bingyin, Sun Zuxun et al., "Nuclear reactions induced by 3.70 MeV deuteron beam on Li-6, Li-7, C-12 and O-16 nuclei", Conf. on Nuclera Physics, Shanghai, China 1974, p. 89.
(d,t) reaction analysis on 7 Li, 11 B and 14 N at Ed = 18 MeV
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Yields of radioactive nuclides formed by bombardment of a thick target with 22-MeV deuterons
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P.P. Dmitriev, N.N. Krasnov, G.A. Molin, "Yields of radioactive nuclides formed by bombardment of a thick target with 22-MeV deuterons", Yadernye Konstanty 4 (1982) 38;