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Abstract

Black-fronted piping guan is an endangered Cracidae from the Atlantic Forest. It was formerly widespread but habitat loss and hunting negatively affected its occurrence and distribution. Despite the species conservation interest, little is known about it breeding biology. Here, we report two breeding events of Aburria jacutinga in Southern Brazil, with comments concerning seasonality and behavior.
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of C. cucullatus × C. pileatus
hybridisation in São Paulo state.
Acknowledgements
We thank the reviewers and
editors of Cotinga for their
comments and discussions on
earlier versions of this manuscript;
Fernanda Tavares Motta for
her initial revision; and Sandro
Leonardo Alves for sharing ideas
that improved our manuscript.
References
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Hybrid speciation leads
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an Amazonian bird. Proc.
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2. Benca, C. E. R. T., Zorzin, G.
& Carvalho, C. E. A. (2011)
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Marcelo Jordani Feliti
Rua Almirante Tamandaré
358, Jardim Bela Vista, CEP
09040-040, Santo André, SP,
Brazil. E-mail: mfeliti@gmail.com.
Cauê Rosetto Reis
Rua Ceilão 398, Parque Novo
Oratório, CEP 09270-490, Santo
André, SP, Brazil. E-mail: caue.
bio@hotmail.com.
Gabriel Magalhães Tavares
Rua Amazonas 30, Água Limpa,
CEP 27250-261, Volta Redonda,
RJ, Brazil. E-mail: gabriel_
magalhaestavares@hotmail.com.
Received 4 June 2019; nal
revision accepted 8 May 2020;
published online 22 June 2020
Breeding records of Black-
fronted Piping Guan Aburria
jacutinga in coastal Paraná,
southern Brazil
Black-fronted Piping Guan
Aburria jacutinga is endemic to
primary forests in the Atlantic
Forest biome3,9, where it was
formerly widespread. However,
habitat loss and fragmentation,
and intense hunting pressure
have driven it to extinction
throughout most of the original
range13, and the species is listed as
Endangered at national and global
levels4,11. In Brazil, A. jacutinga
has disappeared from the states of
Bahia and Espírito Santo, with few
modern records in Minas Gerais
and Rio de Janeiro (www.wikiaves.
com.br/mapaRegistros_jacutinga).
In addition to remnant populations
in Paraguay and Argentina1,5, most
recent reports are concentrated
in the southern Atlantic Forest in
Brazil, in the Serra do Mar.
Little is known concerning
its nesting biology. Although
captive-breeding programmes have
been successful13, there are few
reports of breeding in the wild,
and many gaps in our knowledge
concerning seasonality, breeding
sites and nests. Here we report
two breeding events of A. jacutinga
in the Lagamar region (Paraná,
Brazil) with comments concerning
seasonality. This region is covered
by a mosaic of areas subject to
varying levels of environmental
protection, resulting in one of the
largest Atlantic Forest remnants12
(Fig. 1), which makes it relevant
for conserving populations of
A. jacutinga.
We recorded the species on
four occasions during 2016–17 on
two slopes covered by continuous
primary forest (Fig. 1). Three
records were made in the Reserva
Natural Guaricica (25°46’S
48°39’W; 485 m) and one at the
Ornithos headquarters (25°14’S
48°46’W; 350 m), both in the
municipality of Antonina, Paraná.
Observations at Reserva Natural
Guaricica occurred in November
2016 (spring), January (summer)
and April 2017 (autumn). In
November 2016 we observed a pair
A. jacutinga that had apparently
been foraging on the ground y up
to the branch of a 20 m-tall tree.
In January, apparently the same
pair was seen vocalising below
the canopy, suggesting that they
were on territory (Fig. 2). In April
2017, we saw a third individual
with the same pair; all were
foraging around the same tree
where previously observed, c.10 m
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above ground, close to a Euterpe
edulis palm with ripe fruit. The
third individual was probably a
c.3-month-old juvenile according
to descriptions by Delacour &
Amadon6. In all three observations,
individuals were in the same tree,
suggesting that A. jacutinga is
a year-round resident that does
not migrate altitudinally, as also
reported by Galetti et al.8.
At the Ornithos headquarters
we observed an adult female (Fig.
3a) accompanied by two chicks
in September 2017 (spring); the
young were c.1-month-old, based
on their size and plumage6 (Fig.
3b). The adult female was foraging
in the understorey, directly below
a Euterpe edulis palm, and the
chicks were nearby, 50 cm above
ground.
There are few reports of A.
jacutinga in Paraná, although
historically it perhaps occurred
across the entire state11. These
breeding records reinforce the
importance of conserving one
of the last relicts of primary
forest in the region. Our
ndings corroborate previous
knowledge of the species’
breeding season, which starts
in August–September and ends
in late March6. In addition,
we emphasise the potential
of the region as a study area
to understand the population
dynamics and ecology of A.
jacutinga2. With poaching
one of the main threats to the
species3,8, our records highlight
the importance of private nature
reserves and the need for efcient
targeted measures against
illegal poaching, including law
enforcement and local community
awareness and engagement.
Acknowledgements
We thank the Sociedade de
Pesquisa em Vida Silvestre e
Educação Ambiental (SPVS) for
permitting our study at Reserva
Natural Guaricica, the Programa
de Pesquisa de Biodiversidade da
Mata Atlântica (PPBioMA) for
eld support and Coordenação
de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal
de Nível Superior (CAPES) for
scholarships. We also thank two
reviewers whose suggestions
improved the paper.
References
1. Benstead, P. & Hearn, R.
(1994) Some observations
of black-fronted piping
guan in Misiones Province,
Argentina. WPA News 46:
17–18.
2. Bernardo, C. S. S. & Clay,
R. P. (2006) Black-fronted
Piping guan Aburria
jacutinga. In: Brooks, D. M.
(ed.) Conserving cracids: the
most threatened family of
birds in the Americas. Misc.
Figure 1. Distribution of Black-fronted Piping Guan Aburria jacutinga in southern Brazil; black dots = recent records3,10; black
square = Ornithos headquarters; black triangle = Reserva Nacional Guaricica. The original distribution of Aburria jacutinga in
Brazil is indicated in pale grey, with Atlantic Forest remnants in darker grey7; the black line (left map) indicates the Lagamar
regional limits.
Cotinga 42
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(1973) Curassows and related
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Sharpe, C. J. (2020) Black-
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(2004) Livro vermelho da
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Brasília: ICMBio.
Gabriel De La Torre, Elvira De
Bastiani, Rafael Fratoni and
Fernando Freitas
Programa de Pós-Graduação
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Universidade Federal do Paraná,
Curitiba 81530 900, Brazil.
E-mail: gabrielmdelatorre@gmail.
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Luciano Breves
Projeto Ornithos, PR-340, 25,
Antonina 83370 000, Brazil.
Received 31 May 2019; nal
revision accepted 2 May 2020;
published online 22 June 2020
Figure 2. Black-fronted Piping Guan Aburria jacutinga, Reserva Nacional Guaricica,
Antonina, Paraná, Brazil, January 2017; (a) male perched; (b) female moving through
the understorey (Gabriel De La Torre)
Figure 3. Black-fronted Piping Guan Aburria jacutinga, Ornithos Headquarters,
Antonina, Paraná, Brazil, 17 September 2017; (a) adult female; (b) chick
(Luciano Breves)
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Article
Full-text available
We studied the Black-fronted Piping Guan (Pipile jacutinga), a medium-sized cracid (1.5 kg), endemic of Atlantic rainforest and considered endangered. We present density estimates of Black-fronted Piping Guans derived from line-transect surveys (total effort 5 2,246 km) across 11 protected areas (6 continuous mainland areas, 3 non-connected mainland areas, and 2 inshore islands) in Sa ̃o Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Both islands and the continuous mainland forests of Paranapiacaba massif had the highest density estimates of the species. The largest continuous mainland Atlantic Forest (Serra do Mar massif) had the lowest density estimates and the species was absent in some regions of this mountain range. All non-connected mainland forests also had low density estimates or absence of the species. Our data indicate the Black-fronted Piping Guan is not extremely sensitive to habitat disturbance and the major threat to its conservation is most likely from illegal hunting. The absence or low density estimates of the species in three survey sites is of special concern, because it is known guans are important in seed dispersal, which may have long-term consequences for forest regeneration.
Article
The jacutinga Pipile jacutinga was formerly one of the most abundant game bird cracids in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Nowadays this species is vulnerable to extinction due to hunting and habitat loss. The ecology of the jacutinga was studied at Parque Estadual Intervales, São Paulo, Brazil from October 1993 to December 1995 and in adjacent areas. Jacutingas were observed to feed mainly on the sugar-rich fruit of 41 species. We recorded a low index of abundance for the jacutinga (0·018) or c.1·7 birds/km2 at Intervales, one of the best protected areas within their range. Surveys carried out in the Atlantic forest of São Paulo found jacutinga populations in 14 localities. Probably < 1500 birds survive in the best protected areas. The species' stronghold in southeastern Brazil is in the mountains of Serra de Paranapiacaba, an area protected by several parks suffering from hunting and palm heart harvesting and threatened by a hydroelectric project.
Some observations of black-fronted piping guan in Misiones Province
  • P Benstead
  • R Hearn
Benstead, P. & Hearn, R. (1994) Some observations of black-fronted piping guan in Misiones Province, Argentina. WPA News 46: 17-18.
Black-fronted Piping guan Aburria jacutinga
  • C S S Bernardo
  • R P Clay
Bernardo, C. S. S. & Clay, R. P. (2006) Black-fronted Piping guan Aburria jacutinga. In: Brooks, D. M. (ed.) Conserving cracids: the most threatened family of birds in the Americas. Misc.
Ecology and conservation of cracids in the new millennium
  • R P Clay
Clay, R. P. (2001) The status and conservation of cracids in Paraguay. In: Brooks, D. M. & Gonzalez-García, F. (eds.) Ecology and conservation of cracids in the new millennium. Misc. Publ. Houston Mus. Nat. Sci. 2.
Curassows and related birds
  • J Delacour
  • D Amadon
Delacour, J. & Amadon, D. (1973) Curassows and related birds. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
Atlas dos remanescentes florestais da Mata Atlântica. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais
  • Fundação Sos Mata Atlântica
Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica (2016) Atlas dos remanescentes florestais da Mata Atlântica. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. http://mapas. sosma.org.br/ (accessed April 2019).