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Study on Invasive Alien Species – Development of risk assessments to tackle priority species and enhance prevention. Contract No 07.0202/2016/740982/ETU/ENV.D2. Final Report
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Risk assessment template developed under the "Study on Invasive Alien Species Development of risk assessments to tackle priority
species and enhance prevention" Contract No 07.0202/2017/763379/ETU/ENV.D.21
Name of organism: white perch Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789)
Author(s) of the assessment: Luke Aislabie, Hugo Verreycken, Daniel Chapman and Gordon H. Copp
Luke Aislabie and Gordon H. Copp – Cefas, Salmon & Freshwater Team, Lowestoft, England
Hugo Verreycken – INBO, Brussels, Belgium
Daniel Chapman – Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Scotland
Risk Assessment Area: The risk assessment (RA) area is the territory of the European Union, excluding the outermost regions.
Peer review 1: Felipe Ribeiro, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Peer review 2: Wolfgang Rabitsch, Umweltbundesamt, Vienna, Austria
This risk assessment has been peer-reviewed by two independent experts and discussed during a joint expert workshop. Details on the review
and how comments were addressed are available in the final report of the study.
Date of completion: 24 October 2018
General instructions:
Completing risk assessments can be time consuming. Risk assessors are guided to read all questions before completing each assessment to
determine where most detail needs to be provided.
Responses and justifying comments should be concise and directly answer the question being asked.
The risk assessment shall be based on the most reliable scientific information available, including the most recent results of international
research, supported by references to peer reviewed scientific publications. In cases where there are no peer reviewed scientific publications
or where the information provided by such publications is insufficient, or to supplement the information collected, the scientific evidence
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may also include other publications, expert opinions, information collected by Member States' authorities, official notifications and
information from databases, including information collected through citizen science. All sources shall be acknowledged and referenced.
The risk assessment shall be backed up by primary references. However, as the risk assessment is not a comprehensive review of the
biology or ecology of the species but rather needs to assess the relevant information, references to major monographic reviews are
acceptable for these points.
Questions in the risk assessment should be answered even where there is little information to support a response, with uncertainty in the
response clearly discussed. Where there is such a lack of information, the assessor shall state this explicitly.
Authors should not consider questions without specific instructions or explanatory comments less important as these are sufficiently self-
explanatory. In case of doubt or uncertainty, authors may contact wolfgang.rabitsch@umweltbundesamt.at for clarification.
Each answer provided in the risk assessment shall include an assessment of the level of confidence attached to that answer, reflecting the
possibility that information needed for the answer is not available or is insufficient or the fact that the available evidence is conflicting. See
Annex III for the documented method.
The author(s) of the risk assessment and the peer reviewers shall not be affiliated to the same institution.
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SECTION A – Organism Information and Screening
Organism Information
RESPONSE
A1. Identify the organism. Is it clearly a single
taxonomic entity and can it be adequately
distinguished from other entities of the same
rank?
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Metazoa
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Suborder: Percoidei
Family: Moronidae
Genus: Morone
Species: Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789)
Common name: White Perch
International common names:
English: narrow-mouthed bass; sea perch; silver perch; wreckfish
Spanish: lubina blanca
French: bar blanc d'Amerique; baret; cernier atlantique; perche blanche
Russian: morona
Synonym: Perca americana Gmelin, 1789
Hybrids: M. americana × M. chrysops (Not included in this assessment; there is little
information in the literature on this hybrid, which appears to be a less-successful hybrid than
that of M. saxatilis × M. chrysops)
Congener species: M. saxatilis, M. chrysops, M. mississippiensis
A2. Provide information on the existence of
other species that look very similar [that may
The only other organism that is likely to look very similar to M. americana is the Morone
hybrid (M. chrysops × M. saxatilis), which has been imported to some EU and neighbouring
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be detected in the risk assessment area, either
in the wild, in confinement or associated with
a pathway of introduction]
countries for aquaculture, and there are a few reports of specimens of this hybrid being captured
from EU rivers (Safner et al., 2013; Skorić et al., 2013; Kizak & Güner, 2014).
A3. Does a relevant earlier risk assessment
exist? (give details of any previous risk
assessment and its validity in relation to the
risk assessment area)
No, this is the first formal risk assessment known to have been undertaken on this species.
A4. Where is the organism native?
Sea areas: Atlantic, Northwest
Atlantic, Western Central
North America:
Canada: New Brunswick
Nova Scotia
Prince Edward Island
Quebec
USA: Connecticut
Maryland
New Jersey
Rhode Island
New Jersey
Delaware
Maryland
Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
(Froese & Pauly, 2004) (Fuller et al., 2006) (Able & Fahay, 2010)
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A5. What is the global non-native distribution
of the organism outside the risk assessment
area?
Figure 1 Map showing the native (beige) and non-native (mauve) distributions of white perch
Morone americana in North America (USGS, 2018). Use of map copy permitted as per USGS
Information Policies and Instructions: www.usgs.gov/information-policies-and-
instructions/crediting-usgs).
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Figure 2. Map of M. americana native range and introduced locations in North America, with
the salinity of relevant marine areas indicated (see Annex VI).
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A6. In which biogeographic region(s) or
marine subregion(s) in the risk assessment
area has the species been recorded and where
is it established?
None, however hybrids of two Morone species (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) has been
reported in open waters of Croatia (Safner et al., 2013), Serbia (Skorić et al., 2013) and Turkey
(Kizak & Güner, 2014), and the risk of reproduction of these hybrids in Germany has recently
been examined which was deemed to be elevated (Müller-Belecke et al., 2014, 2016).
A7. In which biogeographic region(s) or
marine subregion(s) in the risk assessment
area could the species establish in the future
under current climate and under foreseeable
climate change?
The regions that span the EU projected to be suitable under current climate are examined in
greater detail in the Q1.13, but in summary see Figure 3.
Figure 3. Proportion of projected suitable habitats within the RA area for M. americana by
region in Europe (see Annex VI).
A8. In which EU member states has the
species been recorded and in which EU
member states has it established? List them
with an indication of the timeline of
observations.
None of the EU member states have been recorded to have established populations of M.
americana.
A9. In which EU member states could the
species establish in the future under current
Current climate: Most EU member states, possibly including northern parts of Sweden and
Finland, but freshwater climate data were not available for the northern parts of those countries
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Alpine
Anatolian
Arctic
Atlantic
BlackSea
Boreal
Continental
Macaronesia
Mediterranean
Outside
Pannonian
Steppic
Biogeographical region
Proportion suitable
Scenario
current
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climate and under foreseeable climate change?
so .
Future climate: All EU member states because they have been reported to be able to spawn
between 10–16°C and in brackish (< 4 ppt) to freshwaters, which is sufficient for reproduction
under current climate conditions except for two countries whereas in the future its possible they
would be able to establish in all countries. (Mansueti, 1961; Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994; Able
and Fahay 2010).
A10. Is the organism known to be invasive
(i.e. to threaten or adversely impact upon
biodiversity and related ecosystem services)
anywhere outside the risk assessment area?
M. americana is classified as invasive in some parts of the USA and Canada (Cooke, 1984;
Boileau, 1985; Harris, 2006; Kuklinski, 2007; Cavaliere et al., 2010), and has been listed
amongst invasive species recorded in about five protected areas of the south Atlantic area of
North America (Benson et al., 2016). Example of this is shown in Q 1.26.
A11. In which biogeographic region(s) or
marine subregion(s) in the risk assessment
area has the species shown signs of
invasiveness?
None
A12. In which EU member states has the
species shown signs of invasiveness?
None
A13. Describe any known socio-economic
benefits of the organism.
M. americana is used as a food source for humans (Wisconsin Sea Grant, 2002) and is
considered to be a popular sport fish throughout the native range in North America, where
recreational angling for them for consumption is known to occur in the Mid-Atlantic states.
There is commercial fishing of the species, using trawls, haul seines and drift gill nets, in some
areas, with Chesapeake Bay (USA) being the most popular (Ballinger & Peters, 1978; Etnier &
Starnes. 1993; Animal Diversity Web, 2018; Page & Burr, 1991).
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SECTION B – Detailed assessment
Important instructions:
In the case of lack of information the assessors are requested to use a standardized answer: “No information has been found.”
The classification of pathways developed by the Convention of Biological Diversity shall be used For detailed explanations of the CBD
pathway classification scheme consult the IUCN/CEH guidance document2 and the provided key to pathways3.
With regard to the scoring of the likelihood of events or the magnitude of impacts see Annexes I and II.
With regard to the confidence levels, see Annex III.
PROBABILITY OF INTRODUCTION and ENTRY
Important instructions:
Introduction is the movement of the species into the risk assessment area.
Entry is the release/escape/arrival in the environment, i.e. occurrence in the wild. Not to be confused with spread, the movement of an
organism within the risk assessment area.
For organisms which are already present in the risk assessment area, only complete this section for current active or if relevant potential
future pathways. This section need not be completed for organisms which have entered in the past and have no current pathway of
introduction and entry.
RESPONSE
[chose one entry,
delete all others]
CONFIDENC
E
[chose one
entry, delete
all others]
COMMENT
none
very few
few
moderate number
low
medium
high
M. americana is not present in the risk assessment
(RA) area. Expansions from the NE coast of the
USA further west occurred mainly by natural
migration via canals. Other pathways described by
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2!https://circabc.europa.eu/sd/a/738e82a8-f0a6-47c6-8f3b-aeddb535b83b/TSSR-2016-010%20CBD%20categories%20on%20pathways%20Final.pdf!!
3!https://circabc.europa.eu/sd/a/0aeba7f1-c8c2-45a1-9ba3-bcb91a9f039d/TSSR-2016-010%20CBD%20pathways%20key%20full%20only.pdf!!
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many
very many
Fuller et al. (2008) are accidental introduction of
young of the year, produced in a hatchery, into a
reservoir, intentional stocking for sportfishing,
stock contamination from a striped bass stocking,
illegal stocking and via ships' ballast water. Only
the last pathway can possibly be an active pathway
of introduction into the RA area. There is no
evidence of introduction of white bass (eggs,
larvae, …) for aquaculture in the EU (Froese and
Pauly, 2018).
a. TRANSPORT -
STOWAWAY
(Ship/boat ballast
water)
b. TRANSPORT –
CONTAMINANT
Contaminant on
animals i.e. for
aquaculture
a). There are huge transports of ballast water
between the native range of M. americana (East
USA) to the RA area. However, up till now, no
populations or even specimens of M. americana
have been reported for Europe. New stricter
regulations for ballast water treatment are in force
since 2017 (Ballast Water Convention) so the
potential of introduction via ballast water would be
further limited.
b). Morone species, including M. americana
(Hushak et al., 1993), are of aquaculture interest,
and a hybrid of two Morone species has been
imported to some EU and neighbouring countries
(e.g. Israel) for aquaculture (Nelson, 1994), i.e.
Morone saxatilis × M. chrysops, with specimens
having been reported in open waters in Croatia
(Safner et al., 2013), Serbia (Skorić et al., 2013)
and Turkey (Kizak & Güner, 2014). This hybrid
seems to be considered as an attractive game fish in
Italy, Germany and Turkey (Roncarati et al., 2009;
Müller-Belecke et al., 2016). M. americana may be
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c. RELEASE IN
NATURE (Fishery
in the wild)
a stowaway in aquaculture transports of hybrid
Morone.
In the USA, M. americana have been stocked
intentionally in non-native waters by voluntary and
incidental agency stocking, and possibly by angler
introductions in other areas for sport fishing
(CABI, 2018). Intentional stocking of M.
americana in the RA area should not be possible or
should be well regulated as it concerns an alien
species (under the EU Regulation on the Use of
Alien Species in Aquaculture; European Council
2007) but illegal stocking by individual anglers for
sport fishing would be hard to prevent. Of course,
the anglers would first have to be able to obtain a
sufficient number of M. americana specimens,
transport them between North American and
Europe, which would be difficult to do with low
mortality rates.
TRANSPORT - STOWAWAY (Ship/boat ballast water)
intentional
unintentional
low
medium
high
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
low
medium
high
Although there are huge transports of ballast water
between the native range of M. americana (East
USA) to the RA area, the chance for M. americana
to be taken in ballast water tanks in large numbers
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very likely
seems small since M. americana spawn in shallow
waters and the eggs sink to the bottom. Despite the
daily shipping transport between native range and
Europe no single M. americana was ever recorded
in the RA area.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Survival of eggs or young-of-the-year fish in
ballast water tanks is likely to be low-to-moderate
due to ballast water treatment (e.g. filters, UV
radiation) and other sub-optimal conditions like
low dissolved oxygen, etc. as well as shear stress in
relatively confined spaces (Morgan et al., 1979).
Also, the exchange of ballast water from
fresh/brackish to sea water (if applied) will be
detrimental to young-of-the-year M. americana.
Reproduction will not occur since adult specimens
are unlikely to survive being taken up via ballast
water pumps.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
See Q1.5
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
If M. americana would arrive by ballast water, then
it would go entirely unnoticed until larger
specimens would be found in the receiving waters,
this happened to many aquatic species before (e.g.
in the Laurentian Great Lakes (USA), Vander
Zanden et al., 2010).
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
low
medium
high
Extensive daily transports occur between the native
range of M. americana and the RA area, so this
would also cover the most appropriate time of the
year for establishment.
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very likely
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
The organism would be transferred straight from
the ballast water into the receiving waters of the
main European ports, which are situated in
estuaries where circumstances suitable to the
species exist, mainly brackish water (North &
Houde, 2003).
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
In absence of detailed information on ballast water
exchanges between North America and the RA
area, it is difficult to predict whether or not M.
americana could be introduced via this pathway.
However, locations where ballast water could be
taken on in the native range could contain small M.
americana, but their survival through the pumps
and during the trans-Atlantic voyage would seem
to be unlikely – otherwise, the species would have
most likely been reported from somewhere in the
RA area.
TRANSPORT –
CONTAMINANT
(Contaminant on
animals e.g. for
aquaculture or
stocking)
intentional
unintentional
low
medium
high
The organism can be a contaminant of imported
fish for aquaculture/stocking. The source of M.
americana in two Kansas reservoirs is a result of
stock contamination from a striped bass stocking
(Fuller et al., 2018).
very unlikely
low
Production of Morone hybrids in Europe is limited
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unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
medium
high
to Italy, Portugal, France, Germany, Italy, with the
nearest non-EU state being Israel (Gottschalk et al.,
2005; FAO, 2018) and information on the import
of Morone species or hybrids to the RA area were
not accessible. Also stocking with Morone species
in the EU is undocumented with M. americana
infested transports of other Morone species in large
numbers from the native area to Europe therefore
seem unlikely.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
If live transport of Morone species were to be
organised, then survival during the passage would
be high as with other fish transports. Reproduction
during the transport is very unlikely.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
As the introduction of other Morone species for
aquaculture is intentional, no management
practices will be employed to kill the animals.
Therefore, M. americana would be likely to
survive in the absence of management practices. .
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
In the unlikely event of M. americana, a species
not the subject of aquaculture, to find its way into
an aquaculture facility that rears the hybrid M.
chrysops × M. saxatilis, then it is likely that M.
americana would go undetected in consignments of
the above-mentioned hybrid from the USA to the
RA area, especially if the consignments were those
of eggs or fry.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
low
medium
high
Live transports of Morone species for aquaculture
could be organised at any time of the year.
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very likely
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Successful incidental escape from an aquaculture
facility may happen, which is likely to be within
the vicinity of a water course and its estuary, where
circumstances suitable to the species exist, mainly
brackish water (North & Houde, 2003). The
occurrences of Morone hybrids in the Danube
attest this possibility (Safner et al. 2013; Skorić et
al. 2013).
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Since there is limited use of this species in
aquaculture in its native range, and no apparent
link with non-native species imported from the
native range and aquaculture in the RA area,
importation as a contaminant is unlikely.
RELEASE IN
NATURE –
Fishery in the wild
intentional
unintentional
low
medium
high
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
M. americana are being illegally stocked for sport
fishing in inland lakes in Indiana (Fuller et al.,
2018). In some Member States of the EU, illegal
stocking of non-native species for sport fishing has
happened (or still is happening) e.g. asp Aspius
aspius in the River Meuse in the Netherlands and
Belgium (Verreycken et al., 2007) (and probably
many more). This could also happen with M.
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americana provided a sufficient number of
specimens would be available in the RA area.
However, except for direct import from North
America, these fish would be very hard to get in
sufficient numbers to originate a viable population.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Morone species e.g. M. saxatilis have a high
tolerance for environmental stress such as elevated
temperature (28°C) or hypoxia (3 mg/L O2)
although a combination of stress factors will affect
their metabolic performance (Lapointe et al.,
2014). It can thus be assumed that M. americana
can survive transport and stocking, especially since
people who would perform the stocking would try
to keep the environmental factors during transport
as optimal as possible. Reproduction during the
introduction would be very unlikely since suitable
habitat is missing.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
As the introduction of other Morone species for
angling is intentional, no management practices
will be employed to kill the animals. Therefore, M.
americana would be likely to survive in the
absence of management practices. It would,
however, be easy to kill M. americana with
piscicides. But tracing and locating illegal transport
and stocking would be difficult.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
It will be difficult to trace and halt illegal stocking
of fishes. Although many MSs have fish
monitoring programmes, it could take several years
before M. americana was noticed, depending upon
the monitoring systems and public awareness at the
national, regional and local levels.
very unlikely
low
Live transports of Morone species for stocking
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unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
medium
high
could be organised at any time of the year.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Intentional stocking of fish species, e.g. for angling
purposes, would be expected to be transferred to
receiving waters that are suitable habitat for the
species. Many of the European waters seem to be
suitable habitat for M. americana (see Figure 3).
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Although illegal stocking of fishes for angling
purposes is an on-going problem (e.g. Aps et al.,
2004; Copp et al., 2010), illegal stocking of M.
americana in the RA area will be limited and thus
the likelihood of entry via this pathway unlikely.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Of all of the above-mentioned pathways, the
TRANSPORT – STOAWAY pathway is the most
likely way for M. americana to enter the EU. But
despite the large number of daily shipping
transports between the native range and Europe no
single M. americana was ever recorded in the RA
area even although most of the EU is suitable
habitat in current conditions.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Of all of the above-mentioned pathways, the
TRANSPORT – STOAWAY pathway is the most
likely way for M. americana to enter the EU. But
despite the large number of daily shipping
transports between the native range and Europe no
single M. americana was ever recorded in the RA
area.
However, trade may get more intense in the future
thus increasing the possibility of entry and, on top
of that, climate warming would slightly enlarge the
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number of MSs where suitable habitat would be
available. Therefore, the overall likelihood of entry
into the RA area based on all pathways in
foreseeable climate change conditions is estimated
as moderately likely.
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PROBABILITY OF ESTABLISHMENT
Important instructions:
For organisms which are already established in parts of the risk assessment area, answer the questions with regard to those areas, where
the species is not yet established. If the species is established in all Member States, continue with Question 1.16.
RESPONSE
CONFIDENCE
COMMENT
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
Low
medium
high
Comparison of the species’ current native and
introduced ranges in North America in terms
of Köppen-Geiger climate type (Peel et. al.,
2007) suggest largely similar climatic
conditions to the RA area, and this is further
supported by GIS-generated map overlays
(Figure 4), with parts of Central Europe
(Pannonian and Steppic regions) projected to
be particularly suitable. Not included in these
overlays are salinity levels and the presence of
water retention structures, which are well-
known barriers to migration (Ovidio &
Philippart, 2002).
Further uncertainty in these projections arises
from the fact that the species has not yet been
observed invading outside North America,
where it has a strong association with major
river systems. Based on the species mostly
occupying major river systems in North
America, the model identified large rivers as
the main limiting factor in Europe, but if the
species is able to invade smaller water courses
in Europe, then the suitable region could be
larger than estimated in Figure 4.
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Figure 4. Map of projected suitable habitat for
M. americana in the RA area (see Annex VI)
– See also Figure 3 for the proportions of
projected suitable habitat by biogeographic
region within the RA area.
The most compelling evidence available for
M. americana establishment risk comes from
Germany (Müller-Belecke et al., 2014, 2016),
where a recent study reported successful
spawning of the Morone hybrid (M. saxatilis x
M. chrysops) in static outdoor water tanks
without hormonal treatment, followed by the
collection of hundreds of “hatched larvae”.
This strongly suggests, given the lentic
condition of the outdoor tanks and the similar
climate range and environmental biology of
the parent species of the hybrid (Fuller 2018;
Fuller & Neilson, 2018), that natural
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reproduction of other Morone species, such as
M. americana, is likely.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
The abiotic conditions in its current
distribution are similar to the RA area and
there are no obvious differences between the
two to indicate that establishment would not
be likely in the risk assessment area.
very isolated
isolated
Moderately
widespread
widespread
ubiquitous
low
medium
high
The species occurs in fresh, brackish and
coastal waters. Usually found in brackish
waters or close to shore, however it can be
found in rivers or ponds usually over muddy
substratum. (Able & Fahay, 2010; Cabi,
2018). Transitional waters, which offer
conditions suitable to the species (North &
Houde, 2003; Able & Fahay, 2010), are
abundant throughout the RA area, suggesting
an elevated likelihood of establishment
throughout the region. (See also response to
Q1.13).
All EU countries except Hungary, Slovakia,
Austria, Luxembourg and the Czech Republic,
i.e. 82% of the EU, possess transitional waters
(Figure 5), with coastal and estuary habitat
representing 45 000 km2 of EU territory
(European Council 1992: Pariona, 2018). This
suggests the species would find suitable
habitat (see also Figures 3 and 4) throughout
most of the RA area.
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Figure 5. Map indicating the coastal and
transitional waters across Europe (EEA,
2018). (Use of map copy permitted as per
EEA Copyright Notice:
www.eea.europa.eu/legal/copyright).
N/A
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
There is no evidence to suggest, and it is
unlikely that, this species requires another
species to complete its lifecycle
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
The species has been shown to successfully
compete, and in some cases outcompete other
species. Based on examples from locations in
North America, such as the US state of
Indiana and the Great Lakes (e.g. Michigan)
where the species has been translocated, it is
likely that M. americana could establish
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within the RA area irrespective of competition
from native species (Encyclopedia of Life,
2018; Schaeffer & Margraf, 1986). Moreover,
being a species with high temperature and
salinity range limits (Able & Fahay, 2010),
this specie might circumvent any competition
effect by occupying different habitats .
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
The only known predator in the RA area is the
northern pike (Esox lucius), although it has
been known to be eaten by walleye (Sander
vitreus), which has at least two congeners in
Europe that could exert similar predation
pressure (biological resistance) (Ward and
Neumann, 1998): pikeperch (Sander
lucioperca), and Volga pikeperch (Sander
volgensis). Another potential predator is the
European catfish (Silurus glanis), which is
known to predate on a wide range of fish
species (Copp et al., 2009).However, there are
relatively few cases of biological resistance
amongst large-bodied fishes, and no such
biological resistance has been evidenced for
the species introduced range in North America
where at least as many potential predators
exist than the RA area, so it is unlikely
predators would impede establishment. Kudoa
sp. is a known parasite infecting this M.
americana, being present in other fish in RA
(Buton & Poyton, 1991; Yurakhno et al.,
2007), but no information about its potential
impact in the RA was found. Other predators
could predate on this species such as fish
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eating birds although this would not hinder it’s
establishment and no evidence to suggest
otherwise.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Given that the species has successfully
established in parts of the USA and Canada
which are outside of the native range, this
would indicate that M. americana could
establish within the RA area dependent on
where they are introduced. Another factor to
consider is there are a range of non-native
species that have established within the EU
such as top-mouth gudgeon and pumpkinseed
sunfish which would suggest that under
current management practices this is unlikely
to affect establishment of this species
(Leppäkoski et al., 2011).
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Existing management practices for brackish
waters and coastal areas are very limited so
this would help to facilitate establishment of
this species as there would be very little
disturbance to the habitat except for
commercial fishing vessels trawling. In
relation to lowland water courses, there is no
information to suggest that it would affect M.
americana from establishing. Ballast water
transport would be unlikely to facilitate
establishment due to the management
practices that are put in place due to the
filtration systems used.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
low
medium
high
M. americana inhabit coastal and transitional
waters which would suggest that any
eradication campaign would be likely to be
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likely
very likely
unsuccessful due to the ability of the species
to inhabit a range of habitats and they are
predominately found to be in brackish waters
(estuaries) and it is not possible to isolate the
water body, it would be impossible for all the
species to be eradicated (Williams &
Grosholz, 2008). If they were to be introduced
in to lakes or rivers that do not discharge into
the sea then it is likely that eradication could
be possible. However, if the river does
discharge into the sea then this would again
likely prevent the successful eradication of the
population.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
M. americana are known to spawn in fresh
waters in temperatures of between 10–16°C,
but spawning has been shown in temperatures
up to 20°C (Mansueti, 1961; Jenkins and
Burkhead, 1994; Able and Fahay, 2010). The
species does not show a preference with
regard to habitat type during spawning and
egg deposition (Zuerlein, 1981), however,
there is evidence of specific parts of rivers
being selected for spawning (Kraus & Secor,
2004). Optimal nursery conditions are
believed to involve turbid (food rich) brackish
areas with low salinities, which are predicted
to be influenced by river discharge (North &
Houde, 2003). This suggests that the species
could spawn in a range of different countries
within the RA area if they were to be
introduced into suitable open waters.
very unlikely
low
The adaptability of the species has received
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unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
medium
high
limited research however, there is some
information on habitat preferences, e.g.
temperature (Hall et al., 1979), and it has been
shown that when it has been introduced into a
water body, it can establish if the food source
and water quality is within its parameters
(Johnson & Evans, 1990). Laboratory
experiments provided evidence that
“differences in overwinter behaviour,
metabolism, and survival appear to be
adequate to account for observed differences
in survival of these species in the wild
(Johnson & Evans, 1991). Morone species e.g.
M. saxatilis have a high tolerance for
environmental stress such as elevated
temperature (28°C) or hypoxia (3 mg/L O2)
although a combination of stress factors will
affect their metabolic performance (Lapointe
et al., 2014). Moreover, considering both the
latitudinal range in the native area and the
different occupied habitats, M. americana is
highly like to exhibit some degree of
adaptability in the RA (Able & Fahay, 2010).
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Although no research has been carried out on
this, it is possible to come to the assumption
that due to this species prolific reproduction,
the species is very likely to establish with a
low genetic diversity in the founder population
(Jenkins & Burkhead, 1994).
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
low
medium
high
This species is known to be established within
large parts of The USA and Canada (CABI,
2018). This question is partially answered in
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likely
very likely
Q1.13 in relation to the similarities in climate
conditions. Bethke et al. (2014) reported
through various sources that M. americana are
“excellent competitors and invaders due to a
variety of life history traits…”, which
emphasises that it is likely they would be able
to establish within the RA area.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
It is unlikely that a casual population will be
possible to continue to occur because as
records shows, there is no indication that the
species is kept anywhere within the RA area
meaning that it’s not possible for continual
release or any similar methods. In Indiana
(USA), where the species is classified as
invasive, there are laws that force anglers or
someone that finds the species to kill them and
they could be prosecuted if released alive
(State of Indiana, 2005).
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
M. americana can tolerate a range of water
quality parameters such as salinity tolerances
and water temperature etc. which would allow
establishment in a range of locations in current
conditions located within the Pannonian and
Steppic biogeographic region as well as the
Continental, Boreal and Black Sea regions
(see Figure 3). Although the species is not in
the RA area yet, it is possible to assume due to
the parameters it can withstand, that if the
species was to get to the area through
abovementioned pathways, then it is very
likely they could establish.
very unlikely
low
With the increase in water temperatures
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unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
medium
high
forecasted through climate change, this would
suggest that more locations within the risk
assessment area will become more accessible
for M. americana especially in north and
central Europe as well as parts of the
Mediterranean and Atlantic biogeographical
regions (Lindner et al., 2010; Baki, 2018).
Although it is hard to give definitive answers
on how much temperatures will increase, it
has been shown that it is currently on a rising
trend and no evidence to prove otherwise
(www.GlobalChange.gov, 2018).
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PROBABILITY OF SPREAD
Important notes:
Spread is defined as the expansion of the geographical distribution of an alien species within the risk assessment area.
Repeated releases at separate locations do not represent spread and should be considered in the probability of introduction and entry
section. In other words, intentional anthropogenic “spread” via release or escape should be dealt within the introduction and entry section.
RESPONSE
CONFIDENCE
COMMENT
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
In North America, M. americana is known to
have actively migrated from its native range to
the Great Lakes region through canals and
waterways between drainage basins. The
introduction and spread of M. americana in the
USA is detailed in Fuller et al. (2008). If this
species were to be introduced in the RA area,
then it could spread easily through watersheds
because of the many connections between them.
The temperate climate in most of the area would
fit perfectly for the M. americana. As M.
americana is an estuarine species with a broad
salinity range (Natureserve, 2008; Able & Fahay,
2010), it probably can find suitable habitats
easily.
It is possible that natural disasters such as
flooding could provide an opportunity for M.
americana to spread across water bodies and
through rivers (Jackson et al., 2001).
However, M. americana have been classified as a
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partial migratory species. It has been known to
migrate from fresh to brackish waters or coming
in from the sea to freshwater to spawn. However,
no research has shown that they have migrated
across the sea which could limit their distribution
(Kerr & Secor, 2009; Chapman et al., 2012). In
fact, the population structure observed in the
native range supports this (Mulligan & Chapman,
1989; Bian et al., 2016). For example, if they
were found in the UK, it may be possible that
they will not migrate to mainland Europe and
establish a population. This would require human
intervention for dispersal across a sea.
All these dispersals are dependent on where the
species is first (and subsequently) introduced in
the RA area. The species is only semi-
diadromous, which means spread from one river
catchment to another would require a reduced-
salinity ‘bridge’ between adjacent river estuaries
in order to spread along a coastline.
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
In the USA, M. americana have been stocked
intentionally in non-native waters by voluntary
and incidental agency stocking, and possibly by
angler introductions in other areas for sport
fishing (CABI, 2018). Under EU legislation,
intentional importations of M. americana in the
RA area would be regulated under Use of Alien
Species in Aquaculture Regulation, and most
likely limited to enclosed facilities. But, once in
the EU, if unauthorised persons were able to
access the enclosed facilities, then illegal
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stocking by individual anglers for sport fishing
would be possible. This would seem unlikely due
to the necessary security measures associated
with enclosed aquaculture facilities.
It is possible humans could introduce them as a
means of sport fishing as they were in parts of
The USA (Wisconsin Sea Grant, 2002b).
Previously, it has been stocked into Kansas
reservoirs accidentally as it got contaminated
with a striped bass stocking (Fuller et al., 2018).
a. UNAIDED –
NATURAL
DISPERSAL
UNAIDED - NATURAL DISPERSAL
intentional
unintentional
low
medium
high
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
Introductions from the NE coast of the USA to
water bodies further west mainly happened
through active migration via canals (Fuller et al.,
2018). If M. americana would arrive in large
numbers in the RA area, e.g. via ballast water,
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then active migration would certainly be the main
factor for spread. However, since only young life
stages of M. americana (eggs, young-of-the-year)
are expected to be introduced, viable populations
will only be formed a few years after the
introduction (males may spawn for the first time
at age 2 years, and females usually by age 3
years).
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
The waters of the temperate part of the RA area
would offer a suitable habitat for the spread and
survival of M. americana, and also reproduction
would certainly be possible along this pathway
(cf. invasion history in the USA; CABI, 2018).
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
M. americana can easily be killed by rotenone
(acute toxicity to M. americana was anticipated
to be within recommended concentration levels
on product label for similar fish and was
corroborated by laboratory bioassay (LC100 of
0.15 mg/L Wujtewicz et al., 1997) or other
piscicides. However, it would be difficult (if not
impossible) to make an effective eradication in
the lower course of rivers, especially large ones.
Also, rotenone application is illegal in several EU
member states.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
There exists no dedicated monitoring of invasive
fish species in European rivers and canals, so
once introduced, M. americana would be able to
spread unnoticed until captured.
very unlikely
unlikely
low
medium
The organism would be introduced from ballast
water into the receiving waters of the main
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moderately likely
likely
very likely
high
European ports where ideal circumstances exist
(mainly brackish water) for survival of M.
americana. Spread from there to suitable habitat
will be easy.
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
The potential for spread based on this pathway
(CORRIDOR INTERCONNECTED
WATERWAYS) will depend on the success of
the primary introduction and entry pathway
(TRANSPORT -STOWAWAY (Ship/boat ballast
water)). If several independent introductions (in
different river basins) would occur then the
overall spread would be greater than when it
would with a single introduction.
very easy
easy
with some
difficulty
difficult
very difficult
low
medium
high
Spread of M. americana in the RA area through
‘CORRIDOR Interconnected waterways’ is
currently non-existing (no records of M.
americana in the area yet). However, would the
species arrive in the area, it would be difficult to
contain because natural dispersal is difficult to
prevent.
very slowly
slowly
moderately
rapidly
very rapidly
low
medium
high
The potential for spread will depend on the
number of introductions and the interconnectivity
of the waterways. Overall spread risk would be
greater in the case of several independent
introductions (in different river basins) than in
the case of a single introduction. !M. americana is
a semi-anadromous fish, which reduces slightly
its ability to migrate from one river estuary to
another. However, elevated precipitation on land
results in elevated river discharges, which leads
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to a much wider dilution of coastal marine waters
(in terms of salinity), and during such events, it is
likely that M. americana could migrate between
river estuaries of close proximity due to the
reduced-salinity bridge created during concurrent
high discharge events in the two neighbouring
river estuaries. Still this would be uncommon
events so spread though the RA area is likely to
be slow.
very slowly
slowly
moderately
rapidly
very rapidly
low
medium
high
Given the species’ temperature tolerances
(preferred mean temperature of coldest month
>0°C and <18°C; mean warmest month >10°C
(CABI, 2018)), climate change could potentially
exert an influence on dispersal throughout most
of the RA area. But see 2.11.
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MAGNITUDE OF IMPACT
Important instructions:
Questions 2.13-2.17 relate to biodiversity and ecosystem impacts, 2.18-2.20 to impacts on ecosystem services, 2.21-2.25 to economic
impact, 2.26-2.27 to social and human health impact, and 2.28-2.30 to other impacts. These impacts can be interlinked, for example a
disease may cause impacts on biodiversity and/or ecosystem functioning that leads to impacts on ecosystem services and finally
economic impacts. In such cases the assessor should try to note the different impacts where most appropriate, cross-referencing between
questions when needed.
Each set of questions starts with the impact elsewhere in the world, then considers impacts in the risk assessment area (=EU excluding
outermost regions) separating known impacts to date (i.e. past and current impacts) from potential future impacts (including foreseeable
climate change).
Only negative impacts are considered in this section (socio-economic benefits are considered in Qu. A.7)
QUESTION
RESPONSE
CONFIDENCE
COMMENTS
Biodiversity and ecosystem impacts
2.13. How important is impact of the organism on
biodiversity at all levels of organisation caused by
the organism in its non-native range excluding the
risk assessment area?
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
There is evidence that M. americana have had
adverse effects on biodiversity and ecosystems in
various locations in The USA and Canada see
response to A4 (Allan & Zarull, 1995; Schaeffer &
Margraf, 1987; CABI, 2018). For example, this
species has been known to predate on fish eggs,
adversely effecting on the recruitment of the
predated fish populations (Schaeffer et al., 1987),
e.g. in Lake Erie, predation on eggs of walleye
(Sander vitreus), white bass (Morone chrysops) as
well as cannibalism of their own eggs (Schaeffer et
al., 1987).
It remains unknown whether or not these reported
cases of M. americana predation on native fish
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eggs have exerted an adverse effect on biodiversity.
2.14. How important is the current known impact of
the organism on biodiversity at all levels of
organisation (e.g. decline in native species, changes
in native species communities, hybridisation) in the
risk assessment area (include any past impact in your
response)?
Not
applicable
low
medium
high
Not applicable because the species does not occur,
and has never occurred in the RA area.
2.15. How important is the potential future impact of
the organism on biodiversity at all levels of
organisation likely to be in the risk assessment area?
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
It is possible that the impacts will be similar to
those stated in Q2.13 because the species has
already been found to have these characteristics
when previously invaded other areas and there is
no evidence to suggest that this would be any
different if found in the RA area.
2.16. How important is decline in conservation value
with regard to European and national nature
conservation legislation caused by the organism
currently in the risk assessment area?
Not
applicable
low
medium
high
The species does not occur, and to our knowledge
never occurred, in the RA area, so no impact could
have been registered.
2.17. How important is decline in conservation value
with regard to European and national nature
conservation legislation caused by the organism
likely to be in the future in the risk assessment area?
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
If the species is found in the RA area, then it could
potentially influence native species of conservation
value with regard to European and national nature
conservation legislation due to predation on eggs as
seen in previous studies, although it has not been
known to cause a major effect (Schaeffer et al.,
1987). The Eurasian perch (P. fluviatilis) is
virtually identical to P. flavescens (Thorpe, 1977),
and there are likely to be other native species in the
RA area, e.g. Sander volgensis (a threatened and
protected species), that could also be adversely
affected if M. americana were to be introduced and
establish in the RA area
Ecosystem Services impacts
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2.18 How important is the impact of the organism on
provisioning, regulating, and cultural services in its
non-native range excluding the risk assessment area?
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
In its current non-native range, which does not
include the RA area, M. americana is known to
predate on the eggs of native fishes and to have the
ability to out compete other species for food. For
example, in Lake Erie, M. americana was found to
have predated on walleye (Sander vitreus), white
bass (Morone chrysops) as well as their own eggs
(Schaeffer et al., 1987). These pressures could
have an indirect, i.e. minor, impact on cultural
services.
2.19. How important is the impact of the organism
on provisioning, regulating, and cultural services
currently in the different biogeographic regions or
marine sub-regions where the species has established
in the risk assessment area (include any past impact
in your response)?
Not
applicable.
low
medium
high
The species does not occur, and to our knowledge
never occurred, in the RA area, so no impact could
have been registered.
2.20. How important is the impact of the organism
on provisioning, regulating, and cultural services
likely to be in the different biogeographic regions or
marine sub-regions where the species can establish in
the risk assessment area in the future?
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
With climate change predictions from Q2.28, it
provides evidence that establishment is possible
within the RA area in the future and the answer to
this question would be similar to the impacts in
Q2.18. There is no evidence to say a different
outcome would occur in the RA area. The main
difference would be that this species would be
predating and outcompeting different species
although some species are very similar to species
found within the RA area as stated in Q2.23.
Economic impacts
2.21. How great is the overall economic cost caused
by the organism within its current area of distribution
(excluding the risk assessment area), including both
costs of / loss due to damage and the cost of current
management
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
In terms of costing, there is no evidence to give a
monetary value on it but it has shown through
previous questions that is has impacted other
species which has had an effect on recreational
angling. An example is explained in Q2.23.
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2.22. How great is the economic cost of / loss due to
damage* of the organism currently in the risk
assessment area (include any past costs in your
response)?
*i.e. excluding costs of management
Not
applicable.
low
medium
high
The species does not occur, and to our knowledge
never occurred, in the RA area, so no impact could
have been registered.
2.23. How great is the economic cost of / loss due to
damage* of the organism likely to be in the future in
the risk assessment area?
*i.e. excluding costs of management
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
The possible negative impact of Morone
americana on ecosystem services is caused
predation on and competition with native species.
Morone americana is considered to have had a
moderate socio-economic impact in the Great
Lakes of North America (Fuller et al., 2018): “The
collapse of the walleye (Sander vitreus) fishery in
the Bay of Quinte (on the north shore of Lake
Ontario) coincided with an increase in the white
perch population and may have been a result of egg
predation and lack of recruitment (Schaeffer &
Margraf, 1987). Other recreationally/commercially
important species, such as white bass (Morone
chrysops), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and
species of forage fish are likely negatively affected
by white perch through competition, egg predation,
or hybridization.”
The Eurasian perch (P. fluviatilis) is virtually
identical to P. flavescens (Thorpe, 1977), and there
are likely to be other native species in the RA area,
e.g. Sander volgensis (a threatened and protected
species), that could also be adversely affected if M.
americana were to be introduced and establish in
the RA area. The ‘minor’ response reflects the
unlikelihood of M. americana being imported to
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EU countries due to current legislation in place to
prevent this species entering the RA area.
2.24. How great are the economic costs / losses
associated with managing this organism currently in
the risk assessment area (include any past costs in
your response)?
Not
applicable.
low
medium
high
The species does not occur, and to our knowledge
never occurred, in the RA area, so no impact could
have been registered.
2.25. How great are the economic costs / losses
associated with managing this organism likely to be
in the future in the risk assessment area?
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
See response to Q2.23. Although there are no
management costs in relation to the future, it is
hard to give an estimate due to there being no cost
estimates in relation to its current non-native range,
which does not include the RA area.
Social and human health impacts
2.26. How important is social, human health or other
impact (not directly included in any earlier
categories) caused by the organism for the risk
assessment area and for third countries, if relevant
(e.g. with similar eco-climatic conditions).
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
No direct information was found from the species
non-native range outside of the RA area with
regard to social, human health or other impact (not
directly included in any earlier categories).
2.27. How important is social, human health or other
impact (not directly included in any earlier
categories) caused by the organism in the future for
the risk assessment area.
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
With the species unlikely to established in the RA
area in the future due to legislation put in place to
prevent this however the response is similar to Q2.
26.!Possible wider societal impacts could arise if
the invasion has negative impacts on fisheries and
other ecosystem services (see 2.23) and starts to
threaten local livelihoods. However, there is no
evidence to indicate major impacts of this type
from the species’ current introduced range, which
does not include the RA area.
Other impacts
2.28. How important is the impact of the organism as
food, a host, a symbiont or a vector for other
minimal
minor
low
medium
No information was found on M. americana
exerting damage to other organisms (other than
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damaging organisms (e.g. diseases)?
moderate
major
massive
high
predation, mentioned previously), however with
any importation of non-native species from another
continent, there is a risk of infectious agents being
introduced. If M. americana were to be introduced
for any aquaculture use, then it would fall under the
EU Regulation on the use of alien species in
aquaculture (European Council, 2007) for which a
full risk analysis scheme has been developed,
including an assessment module specifically on
infectious agents (Copp et al., 2016). One parasite
group mentioned as associated with M. americana
is the myxosporean parasite genus Kudoa (Bunton
& Poynton, 1991), and a review of this genus lists
some European fish species of commercial and
agriculture interest as being susceptible (Moran et
al., 1999). The parasites and pathogens of this M.
americana are likely to infect other Moronidae
species native to RA (due to co-evolutionary
history and phylogenetic relatedness), with some
highly important in terms of fisheries management
and aquaculture (eg. Dicentrarchus labrax sea
bass).
2.29. How important might other impacts not already
covered by previous questions be resulting from
introduction of the organism? (specify in the
comment box)
NA
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
None come to mind.
2.30. How important are the expected impacts of the
organism despite any natural control by other
organisms, such as predators, parasites or pathogens
that may already be present in the risk assessment
minimal
minor
moderate
major
low
medium
high
There are reports that M. americana poses a
problem for freshwater fisheries managers due to
this species being excellent competitors and as
previously said feeding on eggs of native species
Study on Invasive Alien Species Development of Risk Assessments!
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area?
massive
(Madenjian et al., 2000; Gosch et al., 2010). M.
americana is likely to be a prey species to some
European piscivorous species of fish and bird, but
none is likely to exert a level of predation pressure
that would result in M. americana extirpation
should the species be introduced and establish itself
in RA area waters.
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RISK SUMMARIES
RESPONSE
CONFIDENCE
COMMENT
Summarise Entry
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
There exists the possibility of M. americana being
introduced to, and establishing in the RA area.!The
TRANSPORT STOAWAY pathway (ballast
water) is the most likely way for M. americana to
enter the EU. But despite the large number of daily
shipping transports between the native range and
Europe no single M. americana was ever recorded
in the RA area even although most of the RA area
is suitable habitat in current conditions. Deliberate
introduction (e.g. for aquaculture or angling) is less
likely as countries are unlikely to be interested in
this species because they have native fish species
of equivalent or higher commercial interest.
Similarly, there are other fish species native to
Europe that can be imported more easily from other
EU countries than would be the transport of M.
americana to Europe from North America.
Summarise Establishment
very unlikely
unlikely
moderately likely
likely
very likely
low
medium
high
M. americana have been shown to have the ability
to inhabit a wide range of aquatic environments
throughout its native and introduced ranges in
North America. The comparison of Köppen-Geiger
climate types (Peel et al., 2007) and the habitat
suitability (invasibility) modelling undertaken for
this RA (see Figures 3–5 here above) indicate that
the RA area currently possesses suitable climate
conditions for establishment of M. americana. In
view of these factors, the species is likely to
establish self-sustaining populations in the RA area
if introduced under both current and future climate
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conditions.
Summarise Spread
very slowly
slowly
moderately
rapidly
very rapidly
low
medium
high
M. americana is a semi-anadromous fish, which
reduces slightly its ability to migrate from one river
estuary to another. However, elevated precipitation
on land results in elevated river discharges, which
leads to a much wider dilution of coastal marine
waters (in terms of salinity), and during such
events, it is likely that M. americana could migrate
between river estuaries of close proximity due to
the reduced-salinity bridge created during
concurrent high discharge events in the two
neighbouring river estuaries. Equally, should the
species be imported and become established, the
risk of human-aided dispersal would increase,
given the propensity of humans to translocate and
release fish species for a wide variety of reasons,
including angling amenity (Copp et al., 2005, 2007,
2010; Britton & Davies, 2006).
Summarise Impact
minimal
minor
moderate
major
massive
low
medium
high
The literature evidence for the species’ introduced
range in North America (e.g. the Great Lakes)
suggests that it can exert both competitive and
predatory pressures on native fish species, but the
extent of adverse impacts on other taxonomic
groups, either directly (e.g. non-fish prey during
early ontogeny) or indirectly (i.e. food web
linkages) remains largely unstudied even in North
America. However, in absence of direct evidence
of native species extirpation due to M. americana
introductions, the likely impact of this species is
currently estimated to be moderate, but with a
caveat of low confidence.
Conclusion of the risk assessment
low
low
Overall, the range of risk responses and there is a
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moderate
high
medium
high
generally low-to-moderate level of confidence
associated with some aspects of the risk
assessment. For this species, the overally risk, if it
gains entry to the RA area is considered to be
moderate, and that is with an overall moderate
level of confidence. Whereas, escapee specimens
of the Morone hybrid (M. saxatilis x M. chrysops)
are known to persist in water courses of some EU
countries (e.g. Safner et al., 2013; Skorić et al.,
2013), and apparently has the capacity to spawn in
Continental European climate conditions (Müller-
Belecke et al., 2014, 2016). This suggests that the
indicated moderate risk level for M. americana is
appropriate. Given this information, as well as
information acquired (during this RA) that refer to
impacts of the three parent Morone species in their
introduced North American ranges, it is
recommended that a risk assessment be carried out
for the EU on the Morone hybrid (M. saxatilis x M.
chrysops).
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Distribution Summary:
Please answer as follows:
Yes if recorded, established or invasive
if not recorded, established or invasive
? Unknown; data deficient
The columns refer to the answers to Questions A5 to A12 under Section A.
For data on marine species at the Member State level, delete Member States that have no marine borders. In all other cases, provide answers for
all columns.
Member States
Recorded
Established
(currently)
Established
(future)
Invasive
(currently)
Austria
?
Belgium
?
Bulgaria
?
Croatia
?
Cyprus
?
Czech Republic
?
Denmark
?
Estonia
?
Finland
?
France
?
Germany
?
Greece
?
Hungary
?
Ireland
?
Italy
?
Latvia
?
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Lithuania
?
Luxembourg
?
Malta
?
Netherlands
?
Poland
?
Portugal
?
Romania
?
Slovakia
?
Slovenia
?
Spain
?
Sweden
?
United
Kingdom
?
Biogeographical regions of the risk assessment area
Recorded
Established
(currently)
Established
(future)
Invasive
(currently)
Alpine
?
Atlantic
?
Black Sea
?
Boreal
?
Continental
?
Mediterranean
?
Pannonian
Yes
Steppic
Yes
Marine regions and subregions of the risk assessment area
Recorded
Established
(currently)
Established
(future)
Invasive
(currently)
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Baltic Sea
Black Sea
North-east Atlantic Ocean
Bay of Biscay and the Iberian Coast
Celtic Sea
Greater North Sea
Mediterranean Sea
Adriatic Sea
Aegean-Levantine Sea
Ionian Sea and the Central Mediterranean
Sea
Western Mediterranean Sea
ANNEXES
ANNEX I Scoring of Likelihoods of Events
ANNEX II Scoring of Magnitude of Impacts
ANNEX III Scoring of Confidence Levels
ANNEX IV Ecosystem services classification (CICES V5.1) and examples
ANNEX V Biogeographic Regions and MSFD Subregions
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ANNEX I Scoring of Likelihoods of Events
(taken from Baker et al. (2005) and Mumford (2007)
Score
Description
Frequency
Very unlikely
This sort of event is theoretically possible, but is never known to have
occurred and is not expected to occur
1 in 10,000 years
Unlikely
This sort of event has not occurred anywhere in living memory
1 in 1,000 years
Possible
This sort of event has occurred somewhere at least once in recent
years, but not locally
1 in 100 years
Likely
This sort of event has happened on several occasions elsewhere, or on
at least one occasion locally in recent years
1 in 10 years
Very likely
This sort of event happens continually and would be expected to
occur
Once a year
References: Baker, R., Hulme, P., Copp, G.H., Thomas, M., Black, R. and Haysom, K. 2005. UK non-native organism risk assessment scheme
user manual: version 3.3. Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat, York.
Mumford, J.D. 2006. Model frameworks for strategic economic management of invasive species. pp. 181–190 In: A.G.J.M. Oude
Lansink (ed.) New Approaches to the Economics of Plant Health. Springer, Heidelberg.
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ANNEX II Scoring of Magnitude of Impacts
(modified from Baker et al. (2005) and Mumford (2007)
Score
Biodiversity and
ecosystem impact
Ecosystem Services
impact
Economic impact (Monetary
loss and response costs per
year)
Social and human health
impact
Questions 2.18–2.22
Questions 2.23–2.25
Questions 2.26–2.30
Questions 2.31–2.32
Minimal
Local, short-term
population loss, no
significant ecosystem
effect
No services affected4
Up to 10,000 Euro
No social disruption. Local,
mild, short-term reversible
effects to individuals.
Minor
Some ecosystem
impact, reversible
changes, localised
Local and temporary,
reversible effects to one or
few services
10,000–100,000 Euro
Significant concern expressed
at local level. Mild short-term
reversible effects to
identifiable groups, localised.
Moderate
Measureable long-
term damage to
populations and
ecosystem, but little
spread, no extinction
Measureable, temporary,
local and reversible effects
on one or several services
100,000–1,000,000 Euro
Temporary changes to normal
activities at local level. Minor
irreversible effects and/or
larger numbers covered by
reversible effects, localised.
Major
Long-term
irreversible
ecosystem change,
spreading beyond
local area
Local and irreversible or
widespread and reversible
effects on one / several
services
1,000,000–10,000,000 Euro
Some permanent change of
activity locally, concern
expressed over wider area.
Significant irreversible effects
locally or reversible effects
over large area.
Massive
Widespread, long-
term population loss
or extinction,
affecting several
Widespread and
irreversible effects on one /
several services
Above 10,000,000 Euro
Long-term social change,
significant loss of employment,
migration from affected area.
Widespread, severe, long-term,
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4!Not!to!be!confused!with!no!impact.!!
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species with serious
ecosystem effects
irreversible health effects.
References: Baker, R., Hulme, P., Copp, G.H., Thomas, M., Black, R. and Haysom, K. 2005. UK non-native organism risk assessment scheme
user manual: version 3.3. Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat, York.
Mumford, J.D. 2006. Model frameworks for strategic economic management of invasive species. pp. 181–190 In: A.G.J.M. Oude
Lansink (ed.) New Approaches to the Economics of Plant Health. Springer, Heidelberg.
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ANNEX III. Scoring of Confidence Levels
(modified from Bacher et al., 2018)
Confidence level
Description
Low
There is no direct observational evidence to support the assessment, e.g. only inferred data have been used as supporting
evidence and/or Impacts are recorded at a spatial scale which is unlikely to be relevant to the assessment area and/or
Evidence is poor and difficult to interpret, e.g. because it is strongly ambiguous and/or The information sources are
considered to be of low quality or contain information that is unreliable.
Medium
There is some direct observational evidence to support the assessment, but some information is inferred and/or Impacts are
recorded at a small spatial scale, but rescaling of the data to relevant scales of the assessment area is considered reliable, or
to embrace little uncertainty and/or The interpretation of the data is to some extent ambiguous or contradictory.
High
There is direct relevant observational evidence to support the assessment (including causality) and Impacts are recorded at a
comparable scale and/or There are reliable/good quality data sources on impacts of the taxa and The interpretation of
data/information is straightforward and/or Data/information are not controversial or contradictory.
Reference: Bacher, S., Blackburn, T.M., Essl, F., Genovesi, P., Heikkilä, J., Jeschke, J.M., Jones, G., Keller, R., Kenis, M., Kueffer, C. and
Martinou, A.F. 2018. Socio-economic impact classification of alien taxa (SEICAT). Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9, 159–168.
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ANNEX IV. Ecosystem services classification (CICES V5.1, simplified) and examples
For the purposes of this risk assessment, please feel free to use what seems as the most appropriate category / level / combination of impact
(Section – Division – Group), reflecting information available.
Section
Division
Group
Examples (i.e. relevant CICES “classes”)
Provisioning
Biomass
Cultivated terrestrial plants
Cultivated terrestrial plants (including fungi, algae) grown for nutritional
purposes;
Fibres and other materials from cultivated plants, fungi, algae and bacteria for
direct use or processing (excluding genetic materials);
Cultivated plants (including fungi, algae) grown as a source of energy
Example: negative impacts of non-native organisms to crops, orchards,
timber etc.
Cultivated aquatic plants
Plants cultivated by in- situ aquaculture grown for nutritional purposes;
Fibres and other materials from in-situ aquaculture for direct use or
processing (excluding genetic materials);
Plants cultivated by in- situ aquaculture grown as an energy source.
Example: negative impacts of non-native organisms to aquatic plants
cultivated for nutrition, gardening etc. purposes.
Reared animals
Animals reared for nutritional purposes;
Fibres and other materials from reared animals for direct use or processing
(excluding genetic materials);
Animals reared to provide energy (including mechanical)
Example: negative impacts of non-native organisms to livestock
Reared aquatic animals
Animals reared by in-situ aquaculture for nutritional purposes;
Fibres and other materials from animals grown by in-situ aquaculture for
direct use or processing (excluding genetic materials);
Animals reared by in-situ aquaculture as an energy source
Example: negative impacts of non-native organisms to fish farming
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Wild plants (terrestrial and
aquatic)
Wild plants (terrestrial and aquatic, including fungi, algae) used for nutrition;
Fibres and other materials from wild plants for direct use or processing
(excluding genetic materials);
Wild plants (terrestrial and aquatic, including fungi, algae) used as a source of
energy
Example: reduction in the availability of wild plants (e.g. wild berries,
ornamentals) due to non-native organisms (competition, spread of disease
etc.)
Wild animals (terrestrial and
aquatic)
Wild animals (terrestrial and aquatic) used for nutritional purposes;
Fibres and other materials from wild animals for direct use or processing
(excluding genetic materials);
Wild animals (terrestrial and aquatic) used as a source of energy
Example: reduction in the availability of wild animals (e.g. fish stocks, game)
due to non-native organisms (competition, predations, spread of disease etc.)
Genetic
material from
all biota
Genetic material from plants,
algae or fungi
Seeds, spores and other plant materials collected for maintaining or
establishing a population;
Higher and lower plants (whole organisms) used to breed new strains or
varieties;
Individual genes extracted from higher and lower plants for the design and
construction of new biological entities
Example: negative impacts of non-native organisms due to interbreeding
Genetic material from
animals
Animal material collected for the purposes of maintaining or establishing a
population;
Wild animals (entire organisms) used to breed new strains or varieties;
Individual genes extracted from organisms for the design and construction of
new biological entities
Example: negative impacts of non-native organisms due to interbreeding
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Water5
Surface water used for
nutrition, materials or energy
Surface water for drinking;
Surface water used as a material (non-drinking purposes);
Freshwater surface water, coastal and marine water used as an energy source
Example: loss of access to surface water due to spread of non-native
organisms
Ground water for used for
nutrition, materials or energy
Ground (and subsurface) water for drinking;
Ground water (and subsurface) used as a material (non-drinking purposes);
Ground water (and subsurface) used as an energy source
Example: reduced availability of ground water due to spread of non-native
organisms and associated increase of ground water consumption by
vegetation.
Regulation
&
Maintenance
Transformation
of biochemical
or physical
inputs to
ecosystems
Mediation of wastes or toxic
substances of anthropogenic
origin by living processes
Bio-remediation by micro-organisms, algae, plants, and animals;
Filtration/sequestration/storage/accumulation by micro-organisms, algae,
plants, and animals
Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to ecosystem functioning
and ability to filtrate etc. waste or toxics
Mediation of nuisances of
anthropogenic origin
Smell reduction; noise attenuation; visual screening (e.g. by means of green
infrastructure)
Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to ecosystem structure,
leading to reduced ability to mediate nuisances.
Regulation of
physical,
chemical,
biological
conditions
Baseline flows and extreme
event regulation
Control of erosion rates;
Buffering and attenuation of mass movement;
Hydrological cycle and water discharge regulation (Including flood control,
and coastal protection);
Wind protection;
Fire protection
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Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to ecosystem functioning
or structure leading to, for example, destabilisation of soil, increased risk or
intensity of wild fires etc.
Lifecycle maintenance,
habitat and gene pool
protection
Pollination (or 'gamete' dispersal in a marine context);
Seed dispersal;
Maintaining nursery populations and habitats (Including gene pool protection)
Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to the abundance and/or
distribution of wild pollinators; changes to the availability/quality of nursery
habitats for fisheries
Pest and disease control
Pest control;
Disease control
Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to the abundance and/or
distribution of pests
Soil quality regulation
Weathering processes and their effect on soil quality;
Decomposition and fixing processes and their effect on soil quality
Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to vegetation structure
and/or soil fauna leading to reduced soil quality
Water conditions
Regulation of the chemical condition of freshwaters by living processes;
Regulation of the chemical condition of salt waters by living processes
Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to buffer strips along
water courses that remove nutrients in runoff and/or fish communities that
regulate the resilience and resistance of water bodies to eutrophication
Atmospheric composition
and conditions
Regulation of chemical composition of atmosphere and oceans;
Regulation of temperature and humidity, including ventilation and
transpiration
Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to ecosystems’ ability to
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sequester carbon and/or evaporative cooling (e.g. by urban trees)
Cultural
Direct, in-situ
and outdoor
interactions
with living
systems that
depend on
presence in the
environmental
setting
Physical and experiential
interactions with natural
environment
Characteristics of living systems that that enable activities promoting health,
recuperation or enjoyment through active or immersive interactions;
Characteristics of living systems that enable activities promoting health,
recuperation or enjoyment through passive or observational interactions
Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to the qualities of
ecosystems (structure, species composition etc.) that make it attractive for
recreation, wild life watching etc.
Intellectual and
representative interactions
with natural environment
Characteristics of living systems that enable scientific investigation or the
creation of traditional ecological knowledge;
Characteristics of living systems that enable education and training;
Characteristics of living systems that are resonant in terms of culture or
heritage;
Characteristics of living systems that enable aesthetic experiences
Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to the qualities of
ecosystems (structure, species composition etc.) that have cultural importance
Indirect,
remote, often
indoor
interactions
with living
systems that do
not require
presence in the
environmental
setting
Spiritual, symbolic and other
interactions with natural
environment
Elements of living systems that have symbolic meaning;
Elements of living systems that have sacred or religious meaning;
Elements of living systems used for entertainment or representation
Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to the qualities of
ecosystems (structure, species composition etc.) that have sacred or religious
meaning
Other biotic characteristics
Characteristics or features of living systems that have an existence value;
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that have a non-use value
Characteristics or features of living systems that have an option or bequest
value
Example: changes caused by non-native organisms to ecosystems designated
as wilderness areas, habitats of endangered species etc.
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ANNEX V. EU Biogeographic Regions and MSFD Subregions
See www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/biogeographical-regions-in-europe-2,
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/biogeog_regions/
and www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/msfd-regions-and-subregions-1/technical-document/pdf
(Use of map copy permitted as per EEA Copyright Notice: www.eea.europa.eu/legal/copyright).
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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Variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was examined via restriction endonuclease digestions in 254 white perch, Morone americana, from eight tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Twelve endonucleases revealed a total of 53 restriction sites along the mtDNA molecule. Seven of the enzymes examined produced a single restriction profile for all individuals surveyed. Five enzymes Eco RV, Pvu II, Sma I, Sst I and Xba I revealed restriction site variation among 10 matriarchal clones. A single genotype, C-1, was found in 206 individuals from seven of the eight tributaries. Three genotypes, C-2, C-3 and C-4 were found in the Patuxent River and differed from the common type by at least one mutation event. Two other genotypes were confined to the York (C-5) or York and James rivers (C-6). The Potomac River population contained individuals of four different lineages, D-1, D-2, E-1, and E-2. Interpopulation variation accounted for more than 50% of the total variation. Clustering of genetic distances among rivers and heterogeneity chi square tests indicated the existence of three white perch stocks in Chesapeake Bay. The results suggest that significant mixing occurs among populations residing in tributaries of the eastern and upper shores of the Bay. Divergence was greater among lower Bay populations and may result from restricted migration due to the salinity preferences of M. americana. Salinity barriers to genetic exchange may break down during episodic weather events. Restriction profiles also suggest that M. americana is heteroplasmic, i.e., single individuals contain several distinct fragment length polymorphisms that differ by 110 base pairs. No heteroplasmy for restriction site variation was observed.