In light of the general shift from rats to mice as the leading rodent model in neuroscience research we used c-Fos expression as a tool to survey brain regions in the mouse in which neural activity differs between the states of wakefulness and pentobarbital-induced general anesthesia. The aim was to complement prior surveys carried out in rats. In addition to a broad qualitative review, 28 specific regions of interest (ROIs) were evaluated quantitatively. Nearly all ROIs in the cerebral cortex showed suppressed activity. Subcortically, however, some ROIs showed suppression, some showed little change, and some showed increased activity. The overall picture was similar to the rat. Special attention was devoted to ROIs significantly activated during anesthesia as such loci might actively drive the transition to anesthetic unconsciousness rather than responding passively to inhbitory agents distributed globally (the “wet blanket” hypothesis). Twelve such “anesthesia-on” ROIs were identified: the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, tuberomamillary nucleus, lateral habenular nucleus, dentate gyrus, nucleus raphe pallidus, central amygdaloid nucleus, perifornical lateral hypothalamus, ventro-lateral preoptic area, lateral septum, paraventricular thalamic nucleus and zona incerta. The same primary anti-FOS antibody was used in all mice, but two alternative reporter systems were employed: ABC-diaminobenzidine and the currently more popular AlexaFluor488. Fluorescence tagging revealed far fewer FOS-immunoreactive neurons, sounding an alert that the reporter system chosen can have major effects on results obtained.