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Individual and cultural factors in teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion: A meta-analysis

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Abstract

The success of inclusive education is dependent upon classroom teachers implementing adaptations for children with disabilities. Given that willingness to make such adaptations is influenced by teacher attitudes, the current study examined teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education through a meta-analysis of 64 samples that were found via a systematic literature search. The results indicated that teachers hold a positive attitude towards inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream schools and that these attitudes are moderated by an interplay of cultural and demographical factors. The findings offer a renewed basis for intervention research into improving educational opportunities for children around the world.

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... Funding structures which are seen as key to successful inclusion have only rarely been changed and adapted to inclusive requirements in many European countries (Head and Pirrie, 2007;Meijer and Watkins, 2019). Often, the size of the school determines the resources it is provided with, and small schools have fewer funds and thus fewer opportunities to support all students (Bray, 1987;Slate and Jones, 2005;Kantrabutra and Tang, 2006). For example, in Bavaria, Germany, old funding rules still exist according to which larger schools are assigned more head teacher positions with higher salaries and fewer hours to teach (Bayerische Staatskanzlei, 2011;Bayerische Staatskanzlei, 2019). ...
... The attitude of teachers, head teachers, principals and other school administrative staff toward inclusion is crucial to the success of inclusive developments (Hammond and Ingalls, 2003;Boyle and Hernandez, 2016;Jungjohann, F€ uhner, and Pusch, 2020;Scheer, 2021;Sider, Maich, Morvan, et al., 2021). But even though most teachers feel positive about inclusion (Miesera, DeVries, Jungjohann, et al., 2018;van Steen and Wilson, 2020), many of them are inclined to recommend for their students with special needs to be educated in a school(ing type) with more special educational support (Saloviita and Leskinen, 2016). Parental choice of school placement is often guided by teachers' assessments to ensure the best possible support for their child (Barusman, 2019;Gasteiger-Klicpera, Klicpera, Gebhardt, et al., 2013;Mann, 2017;Mann, Cuskelly, and Moni, 2018). ...
... with special needs that are placed in inclusive settings. The reason for this effect is assumed to be the fact that large schools receive more resources than small schools (Bray, 1987;Slate and Jones, 2005) which is why they can offer more services and are therefore more attractive for parents (Kantrabutra and Tang, 2006;Mann, Cuskelly, and Moni, 2018;Barusman, 2019). Likewise, these schools have more places to offer. ...
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Although inclusion is the declared goal, the transition from a system based on special schools to an inclusive school system has only been progressing very slowly in individual countries. In an evolving school system, the existing special schools keep struggling to justify their existence. This study investigates the regional distribution effects based on official school data and shows the influence of a pull effect on special schools as a distance effect of special schools affecting the placement of students. For this purpose, official school statistics including all students at special and regular schools in the years 2010, 2015 and 2020 (N = 11 280 040) are evaluated in a spatiotemporal comparison using Educational Data Mining. In a hierarchical regression model on school placement in inclusive schools, the distance between primary and special schools has the highest influence (β = 0.48) on the inclusion rate (i.e., the proportion of students with special needs who are educated in regular schools in relation to all students with disabilities), along with the size (β = −0.14) and the density of special schools in a district (β = −0.12). The effects differ according to the population density of the region and are stronger in large cities. When the proportion of students with and without SEN in regular schools is considered (support rate), the density of special schools has the greatest impact on school placement (ß = 43.44). Self‐preservation of schools, traditional funding systems and regional differences between urban and rural areas are discussed as possible reasons.
... Sikap guru berhubungan dengan evaluasi pendidikan inklusi secara keseluruhan, apakah pendidikan inklusi akan dipandang secara positif atau negatif. Sehingga sikap guru terhadap pendidikan inklusi dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan intervensi pada pendidikan inklusi yang bertujuan mendukung guru untuk mendukung peserta didik yang memiliki kebutuhan khusus (Steen & Wilson, 2020). Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis bagaimana sikap guru terhadap pendidikan inklusi dan bagaimana dampaknya pada keberhasilan praktek pendidik inklusi di berbagai negara. ...
... Perbedaan temuan ini dapat disebabkan karena perbedaan waktu penelitian. Semakin dini, legislasi inklusi lebih banyak diterapkan sehingga banyak guru yang memilki kesempatan untuk menangani anak berkebutuhan khusus (Steen & Wilson, 2020). Hal tersebut menghasilkan sikap guru yang lebih positif terhadap pendidikan inklusi karena telah memilki pengalaman dengan anak berkebutuhan khusus. ...
... Beberapa guru menunjukkan sikap positif terhadap pendidikan inklusi dengan memandang inklusi sebagai hal yang menguntungkan dan menyenangkan. Namun, beberapa guru menunjukkan sikap negatif dan netral terhadap pendidikan inklusi (Steen & Wilson, 2020). Struktur dari sikap guru terhadap pendidikan inklusi dinilai memiliki sifat yang universal walaupun cara pelaksanaannya berbeda beda (Yada, Tolvanen, & Savolainen, 2018). ...
... Broadly speaking, the role of teachers is to achieve a successful educational inclusion, but they continue to encounter difficulties [11,12], particularly when dealing with students with autism [2,13], intellectual disabilities and other psychological disorders. When it comes to students with motor impairment, educators state that the task is much less complicated [14]. ...
... To sum up, specific disability training and previous experiences have a minimal impact on teachers' perception of the inclusion of students in schools, which are generally positive. Conveniently, these results are aligned with the results of the study by Van Steen et al. [12], which found that these attitudes towards inclusion are influenced by an interaction of cultural and demographic factors. Gallego-Ortega and Rodríguez-Fuentes [4] believe that, although attitudes towards inclusion are positive, they could increase if what is entailed in inclusive education is better understood. ...
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Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion are influenced by factors such as training and teaching experiences. However, there is no conclusive trend correlating specific factors with negative or positive attitudes. The aim of this study is to understand the reality of inclusion in schools in Extremadura, Spain, from the teachers’ point of view. To do so, a reliable and valid questionnaire was administered to a total of 106 teachers from more than 20 schools in Extremadura, followed by the subsequent categorization of more than 300 comments obtained from semi-structured interviews with 16 teachers. The results show that teachers value an inclusive philosophy in schools, especially in terms of values and policies. Teachers working in special schools had a moderately more positive perception of the degree of inclusion in their school, although there were hardly any significant differences compared to teachers in other types of schools, nor were there any significant differences according to teachers’ prior training. Finally, the importance of evaluation in the creation of plans to guarantee an improvement in the attention to diversity is assessed.
... When referring to teachers' interactions with mainstream pupils or with those with SN, it is essential to understand that teachers are often influenced by the attitudes they developed throughout their life and their ongoing teaching experiences (Treder et al., 2000;Masse et al., 2022). Moreover, teachers with positive attitudes toward inclusion efficiently contribute to its success, as their practices model the significant impact inclusion of pupils with SN has on the school learning community (Steen and Wilson, 2020). Exhibiting and modeling positive attitudes also form positive and trusting relationships between teachers and pupils. ...
... It seems that despite the variety of teachers in this sample, no significant correlations were found between demographic factors and attitudes toward pupils with ADHD, as neither age nor years of teaching experience was a factor affecting their attitudes toward pupils with ADHD. These findings were somewhat unexpected, given that previous studies have shown that life experience influences teachers' attitudes and may positively affect willingness to include pupils with ADHD in all types of education programs (Gaastra et al., 2020;Steen and Wilson, 2020). ...
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Flavian H and Uziely E (2022) Determinants of teachers' attitudes toward inclusion of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The role of teacher education. Front. Educ. 7:941699. Given that teachers' attitudes are an essential constituent of most academic and social processes taking place in their classrooms, the authors of the current study examined teachers' attitudes and their origins specifically toward the inclusion of pupils with ADHD, taking into account demographic variables, teachers' professionalism, and either a personal diagnosis of ADHD or prior acquaintance with it through relatives. The data, gathered from 475 participants' responses to questionnaires, revealed that professional teacher training was only a secondary factor influencing attitudes regarding the inclusion of children with ADHD. A more prominent factor was teachers' own diagnosis of ADHD or prior experience with children/relatives with ADHD. Study results are followed by practical suggestions for improving teacher education based on these findings.
... Stakašiené [36] carried out a qualitative study on music teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and the results show that there is an association between the age of respondents and their attitudesolder participating teachers not only were more sceptic than their younger colleagues as for the application of the idea of inclusive education, but they were also trying to avoid collaboration with their colleagues and sharing examples of good practice. According to Van Steen and Wilson [37], the success of inclusive education depends on class teachers' efforts to adapt the existing conditions to the special educational needs of students in the classroom. Their findings also show that teachers in general have positive attitudes towards the inclusion of students with health disadvantages in mainstream schools and these are not influenced by cultural and demographic factors. ...
... Experience shows that teachers' attitudes towards changes or innovations are among the decisive factors from the aspect of their success or failure. The same applies to inclusive education and available research results [37,41,42] confirm that the success of the implementation of inclusive education is determined by teachers' readiness to educate diverse groups of students and their willingness to apply an inclusive approach in their educational work. Therefore, it is important to gather research data providing experts with a picture of the current situation and other relevant information that could help them make responsible decisions and take efficient measures. ...
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In the study, an overview of the current situation in the field of inclusive education in Slovakia is presented. Since teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education are among the key determinants of the success or failure of SEN students’ inclusion in mainstream schools, the main objective of the study was to investigate them in the context of implementing the new Strategy for Inclusive Education in Slovakia. In this quantitative study, Mahat [1] "The Multidimensional Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (MATIES)" was used and three components of teachers’ attitudes – cognitive, affective, and behavioral – were examined by means of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate methods of statistical analysis. As the aging of the teaching population is an issue in Slovakia, age-related peculiarities were focused on in the study. The findings revealed statistically significant differences in the affective and behavioral components between the two examined age-groups of teachers. Since no extensive study has been focused on teachers’ attitudes towards replacing school integration by school inclusion in Slovakia, the proposed study aims to fill the gap and provide unique data useful in the process of changing traditional schools into inclusive ones. The obtained results also point to the importance of considering teachers’ attitudes towards any changes to be introduced. Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-SIED-02 Full Text: PDF
... Although certain strategies to reduce participants' biases were used during the program (e.g., identifying the self with the outgroup, exposure to stereotypical examples, inducing emotions, selfdiscovery), only one of the attitudes dimensions had a statistically significant improvement. A possible explanation for teachers' attitudes towards diversity could be the specific cultural context of the country that the intervention takes place each time (Van Steen & Wilson, 2020). To this extent, Greek society has recently experienced incoming flows of large numbers of refugees (UNHCR, 2021). ...
Article
Multicultural societies require educators' intercultural competence. This trial examined if attitudes and perceived competences of pre-service Physical Education (PE) teachers could be improved by an online, teacher education course structured upon the findings of the intercultural education through physical activity, coaching, and training (EDU:PACT) project. Following individual preferences, participants (N ¼ 129) were allocated to this course or control condition of the usual University curriculum. The intervention vs. control group scored better in outcomes of skills, knowledge, and one attitude dimension post-intervention. This teacher education course may effectively train pre-service PE teachers on intercultural education.
... and cognition(Ginevra et al., 2022;van Steen & Wilson, 2020). In hi ega d, Me e e periences in the School for the Blind showed similar findings because her beliefs, assumptions, and knowledge about students with visual impairments led to emotional and professional dissonance and she adapted her teacher identity and cognition according to her assumptions. ...
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International and national initiatives encourage celebrating diversity in the field of education, yet available literature shows the experiences of teachers of students with disabilities are often overlooked, if not marginalized. Thus, this study aimed to explore language teacher identity and cognition of teachers of students with visual impairment in the context of a School for the Blind. The setting of this case study is a public School for the Blind in Ankara. Interviews, observations, field notes, and legal documents were data collection tools for this case study. Obtained data were analyzed by MAXQDA software. Also, complexity theory was used as the theoretical framework to address the participants’ language teacher identity and cognition. The findings showed that language teacher identity is dependent on personal, social, cultural, and educational background, and it is subject to changes throughout the participants’ careers in the field of language teaching. On the other hand, the development of language teacher cognition was the result of the interactions between the participants’ undergraduate education, instructional practices, and teacher identities. In the context of the School for the Blind, the interactions between participants’ language teacher identity and cognition created different system configurations and behaviors to cater to the needs of the students with visual impairments. Lastly, this study implicates practical and theoretical suggestions for language teacher identity and cognition in the context of special education schools. Additionally, the results can inform policymakers in addressing the needs of teachers for students with visual impairments.
... The first finding of this meta-analysis is that teachers' attitude is globally favourable to inclusion, with a g effect size of 0.574; i.e. an attitude above the median point of the scale, or corresponding to the first positive point of the scale ("somewhat agree"). This result is in line with several previous studies and meta-analyses (Avramidis & Norwich, 2002;Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1996;van Steen & Wilson, 2020), but contradicts the results found by De Boer et al. (2011) who concluded that teachers' attitude was either negative or neutral. It is important to note that this study includes a much larger number of documents (131) than the previous meta-analyses, 50 articles for van Steen & Wilson, 2020) and 26 for De Boer et al. (2011). ...
Article
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This article presents a meta-analysis of the studies related to teachers ’ attitudes towards inclusive education for students with disabilities. It covers a total sample of 40512 in-service or pre-service teachers from 55 different countries. Globally, the teachers ’ attitude is positive. A meta-regression analysis shows that the attitude has notably progressed from 2000 to 2020. In addition, teachers ’ attitude is more favourable when the country ’ s Human Development Index (HDI) is higher and special education teachers are more favourable to inclusive education than ordinary ones.
... Other research coincides with these results in that the organization of PE classes offers an opportunity for participation and promotion of coexistence for all students [36] and that smaller classes would positively affect teachers' attitudes and self-efficacy [37]. In all the items, there are significant differences by sex (p-value < 0.01), which means that men and women do not think equally about the role of integration in the classroom [38], except for when it is said that the integration of students with disabilities will promote their social independence. In this case, both sexes agree. ...
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Inclusive education aims to eliminate barriers in the participation and performance of students, considering their diversity. In this sense, there is a regulation that governs the educational response, being different for each region. Therefore, this study aims to know the attitude of Physical Education teachers of different educational stages in Spain toward students with disabilities. A questionnaire was administered to 272 Physical Education teachers from public schools in a region of Spain. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine the relationships between items and dimensions according to sex or center location, and Spearman’s Rho was used to analyze the relationship between dimensions and years of experience. The main results showed that teachers do not feel prepared in terms of training, resources, and infrastructure, although they consider that the integration of students with disabilities in regular classes is beneficial for them.
... risorse della scuola, clima, supporto al docente) e degli studenti con disabilità (es. tipologia e gravità della disabilità) potessero influire sugli atteggiamenti (Avramidis and Norwich, 2002;de Boer, Pijl and Minnaert, 2010;Lautenbach and Heyder, 2019;van Steen and Wilson, 2020;Boyle, Anderson and Allen, 2020). ...
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Ensuring an inclusive and equitable education for all students is a challenge that we must continue to address globally. Today, there is a wide diversity of students in schools around the world. In particular, one of the groups that requires special attention is that composed of children who have a rare disease (RD), a highly heterogeneous group that needs an educational response adapted to their academic, health and social needs, eliminating any contextual barriers in order to facilitate a more inclusive environment. This chapter—based on a study carried out in Spain—is concerned with the need to give a voice to children and adolescents with RD and their families to ensure good inclusive practices for their schooling based on their own experiences and opinions. What emerges from the results, unexpectedly, at different times and from different voices, is that the term “association” is central to this chapter, that is, its importance and role both for children and young people with RDs, and particularly for families. Following an analysis of the results, the study concludes that, due to the information they provide, RD associations are key to raising awareness about RDs in schools, particularly when it comes to promoting positive attitudes toward them among teachers and students. In short, in order to make progress in the educational inclusion of students with RDs, it is essential that the associations involved work together with the educational centers from a community perspective.
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Chapter
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L’abilismo, assente dal dibattito pubblico italiano, è invece molto presente nella vita quotidiana delle persone. La nostra società, infatti, fa perno attorno ai due concetti di abilità e di normalità: chi non è conforme agli standard imposti viene sistematicamente svantaggiato. Quando si parla di abilismo, le differenze tra corpi/menti/sensi abili e non abili diventano il pretesto per mettere in atto o per giustificare forme sistematiche di disparità di trattamento e di opportunità, che sono alla base delle disuguaglianze sociali. L’abilismo fa da sfondo a fenomeni di marginalizzazione, esclusione e discriminazione di chi si allontana dai canoni di una presunta normalità. Il libro presenta i risultati della prima ricerca empirica condotta in Italia sulla diffusione degli atteggiamenti abilisti presso la popolazione italiana. Fedele al motto “Nulla su di noi senza di noi”, la ricerca è stata condotta insieme a un gruppo di persone con disabilità, esperte per esperienza o attiviste sui temi delle discriminazioni di matrice abilista. Nel volume si inquadra anzitutto il tema dal punto di vista teorico. Di seguito, si descrivono le fasi della ricerca condotta con metodo partecipativo che ha consentito di formulare una definizione condivisa di abilismo e, a partire da questa, di sviluppare uno strumento per rilevare la diffusione di tale atteggiamento presso la popolazione. Completa il testo la raccolta delle riflessioni delle persone che hanno partecipato alla ricerca. Con i loro racconti accompagnano il lettore nei diversi ambiti della loro vita quotidiana: a scuola, al lavoro, in città, in vacanza e nello sport.
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We, the authors, support inclusion in public education for most students of diversity, including many (but not all) students with disabilities, because disability is a unique form of diversity that requires special consideration in education. The way that various forms of disability are understood has fundamental implications for framing policies and their implementation. We briefly review the literature pertinent to parents' advocacy, views of, and attitudes toward inclusion. We also review the literature about teachers' attitudes toward inclusion, focusing on systematic reviews revealing nuanced views of inclusion and not monolithic attitudes. Nuanced views in both parental and teachers' perspectives may indicate that effective instruction and appropriate education (as mandated by law in the USA) should take precedence over the place of instruction (bodily inclusion). We conclude that inclusion based on learning progress and outcomes rather than bodily inclusion in general education should be the primary concern of policy makers because the majority of parents and educators are more concerned about children learning academic and life skills than about where children are taught.
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The targets of reaching the benefits expected from inclusive education and making necessary changes and arrangements can only be achieved by clearly determining the current situation regarding inclusive education. This study aimed to examine the competencies of classroom teachers in Turkey regarding inclusive education in the context of their perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes. A total of 128 classroom teachers of third-grade (20) and fourth-grade (108) participated in the study. We employed the ‘Classroom Teachers’ Awareness of Inclusive Education Scale’ as a data collection tool in this study carried out in accordance with the phenomenological method. The data were subjected to descriptive analysis. Apart from the generally positive awareness of classroom teachers towards inclusive education, it appears to be necessary that students’ social-emotional skills be supported so that inclusive education can be fully achieved.
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The global pandemic caused by COVID-19 has interrupted many routines and practices, including the education of young people. Many students are currently receiving some or all of their education online. Ensuring that online learning can be accessed by students with Special Educational Needs (SEN) can be a challenge. This guidance was written for teachers and educational professionals of mainly primary and secondary school students by offering insights from relevant research to ensure that students with SEN can reach their full learning potentials during online education provision. We recognize that students with SEN are a diverse group in terms of identified groups, abilities and skills but generally include students who need additional support in order to access the mainstream curriculum and meet their full potential. As such the guidance provided here is not prescriptive for all students with SEN but aims to help teachers and parents to consider barriers and facilitating factors that might impact on students with SEN to fully access online teaching materials and lessons.
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Background Increasing numbers of autistic children are being educated in mainstream schools. The success of inclusive education is dependent upon multiple factors, including key stakeholders (i.e., teachers and parents). Research has tended to focus on teachers’ experiences of inclusion with limited focus on parents. Aims The study aimed to qualitatively investigate parental attitudes and experiences of inclusive education. As such, the research question was: What are attitudes towards, and experiences of, inclusive education for parents of autistic children? Methods and procedure Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 parents of autistic children. Data was analysed using Thematic Analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Outcomes and results four themes were identified; 1) Feeling Unheard; 2) Implementation of Inclusive Strategies; 3) Social Exclusion; 4) Mental Health and Wellbeing Impact. Findings suggested that parents felt their child struggled socially in mainstream school, with such experiences negatively impacting upon their child’s wellbeing. The detrimental impacts were a result of parents believing school staff dismissed their concerns and thus appropriate strategies for their child were not always implemented. Conclusions and implications This highlights the need for school staff and parents to work together to enhance inclusivity both academically and socially for autistic children.
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h i g h l i g h t s A meta-analysis was used to examine relationship between teachers' attitudes and self-efficacy in inclusion. Effects of 43 unique samples of in-service teachers are aggregated. Meta-analyses reveal a positive sample size weighted correlation between teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes. Findings suggest the relationship might be somewhat universal regardless of time, culture, or gender. Implications for teacher training and future research directions are discussed. a b s t r a c t This meta-study aims to examine the size of the relationship between teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes toward inclusive education of K-12 students with special educational needs and to identify potential moderators (publication, sample, and research procedure characteristics). We synthesized the research conducted from 1994 to 2018, and 41 studies were included. Bare-bones meta-analysis with random effect model revealed a sample size weighted correlation coefficient between teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes as r ¼ 0.35 (CI ¼ 0.31-0.39). The between-study variations were not associated with hypothesized publication and sample characteristics. However, the self-efficacy measurement method accounted for a statistically significant strength of association.
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Inclusive education is at the heart of educational policy worldwide. Teachers' attitudes toward inclusive education, which are often associated with the success of the policy, have been studied extensively. Various factors related to teachers, students with special educational needs (SEN) and different specific contexts have been identified. In the current study, we explored the influence of social support on teachers' attitudes toward inclusive education. In a pilot study implying teachers, we replicated, in the French context, previous results showing a correlational link between social support and attitudes toward inclusion. Specifically, we showed that the more social support they perceived with regard to their attempts to include students with SEN, the more positive the teachers' attitudes toward inclusive education. In an experiment involving 314 teachers we then explored the causal link between these variables. Results showed that highlighting the support teachers receive improves their attitudes in comparison with highlighting a lack of support or a control condition in which support is not mentioned. These studies show the importance of supporting inclusive education in the schools. This support can be provided in different ways (emotional, informational, instrumental, etc.) and by different actors (colleagues, supervisors).
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Implementing Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a critical issue for public schools in our country. UDL is an inclusive framework based on the science of learning. It supports and removes barriers to learning for all students while maintaining high expectations. Federal education policies have called for inclusive instruction based on UDL principles. Nevertheless, our educators and administrators are not sure they believe in it and do not know what exactly it is or how to implement it with fidelity (Jordan, 2018; Monsen et al., 2014; Russel & Bray, 2013). Previous researchers have found that teachers are more likely to implement inclusive teaching practices such as UDL when they have positive attitudes toward them shaped by their culture, experiences, and training. Administrators have a unique position to influence teacher attitudes by creating an inclusive school culture and providing instructional leadership. UDL benefits all students-not just those with unique needs-by increasing student engagement and removing learning barriers.
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Educators’ and Parents’ Perspectives on Inclusion of Students with Disabilities by James Kauffman, Bernd Ahrbeck, Dimitris Anastasiou, Jeanmarie Badar, Jean B. Crockett, Marion Felder, Daniel P. Hallahan, Garry Hornby, Joao Lopes, Paige C. Pullen and Carl R. Smith explores the views and attitudes of parents and educators toward inclusive education particularly for students with disabilities. The authors suggest that some parents prefer special education for some students with a disability and consider inclusive placement for others. This Chapters reviews numerous studies, and suggests that teachers have a more nuanced view of inclusion than that envisioned under a full inclusion policy. Nonetheless, the authors conclude that generally both parents and teachers support inclusive education. The issues related to achieving inclusive and quality education are also discussed in this Chapter. In this Chapter, the authors advocate for inclusion to be based on learning progress and outcomes and suggest implications for policy and practice.
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The positive attitudes of teachers toward inclusive education appear to be necessary to successfully implement this policy. The present research, conducted within the French context, seeks to replicate the previous findings regarding students' type of disability or teachers' status and extend them by specifically examining the interaction between these two variables. We notably hypothesized that (1) teachers' attitudes toward inclusive education will be the least positive for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in comparison with students with cognitive disorder (CD) and students with motor impairment (MI); (2) special education teachers will have more positive attitudes than general teachers; and more importantly (3) special education teachers, in comparison with general teachers, would be less likely to express distinct attitudes depending on the students' type of disability. An online questionnaire was completed by 311 teachers. The results replicated the previous findings by showing that teachers' attitudes were more favorable toward students with MI than students with CD or students with ASD. In addition, taking into account teachers' status, the results showed that if special education teachers had more positive attitudes than general teachers, they, however, expressed less favorable attitudes toward the inclusion of students with ASD in comparison with those with other types of disabilities. These results are notably discussed regarding the lay beliefs associated with students with ASD and the influence of training.
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Teachers’ attitudes towards students with disabilities have a crucial role in the effective implementation of the school inclusion process. This study examined the relationship of relevant teachers’ personal variables (gender, age, length of professional experience, and the grade of the school in which they teach), characteristics of the students with disabilities (type of disability, gender), and contextual factors (type of information provided in the students’ profiles of children with disabilities) with teachers’ attitudes towards students with disabilities. A sample of 336 mainstream Italian primary and secondary teachers was involved. Results showed that teachers’ gender, age, and length of professional experience were not related to their attitudes. Secondary school teachers hold more negative attitudes related to the social acceptability of students with disabilities. More negative attitudes related to school performance towards boys and students with intellectual disability, and more negative attitudes related to social acceptability towards students with behaviour problems were found. Lastly, the type of information provided in the students’ profiles of children with disabilities positively impacted teachers’ attitudes towards the students when the descriptions focused on their strengths. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of promoting teachers’ positive attitudes towards students with disabilities.
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Globally schools are becoming more inclusive in practice to provide meaningful learning experiences to students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. Research has documented that teachers with positive attitudes toward inclusion are more likely to modify their instruction and curriculum to meet individual needs of students and have a more positive approach to inclusion. It is the responsibility of teacher training programmes to prepare teachers who can meet expectations of implementing inclusive education programme effectively. The present study was aimed to explore the views of teacher trainees undergoing two-year Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) programme about inclusion and their readiness to teach in inclusive classrooms. In this study, the Scale of Teachers' Attitudes Toward Inclusive Classrooms (STATIC) was used to collect data and 300 teacher trainees studying in their second year of the teacher training programme in two colleges of education in Jammu city were included in the study. The results indicated that generally, teacher trainees had a positive attitude toward inclusion in schools. The findings highlight that there was a significant difference in attitude towards inclusion between urban and rural teacher trainees. However, there was no significant difference in the attitude towards inclusion among the subgroups of teacher trainees on the basis of qualification, previous awareness about inclusion or familiarity with the disability in the family. Some suggestions and recommendations for improvement of teacher education programmes vis-à-vis inclusion have also been given.
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Kindergarten through 12th-grade classrooms is almost exclusively inclusive instructional settings. Supports for the regular education teachers vary as time and budgets permit, placing increased responsibility for providing instruction to children with disabilities on these teachers. Professional development targeted at teachers’ self-efficacy with respect to inclusion best practices should be provided, with such efforts informed by the specific needs of the participants. This paper presents an investigation of the implementation of a measuring instrument for that purpose with findings and implications for guiding professional development. © 2017 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
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This report summarises the baseline information gathered on girls and boys with disabilities in four districts in Mashonaland West Province (MWP), a large province in the north of Zimbabwe, as well as the knowledge, attitudes and practices of their parents or caregivers, teachers and head teachers. This information is based on data collected at the school level and on a survey administered to parents, teachers and head teachers in 30 model schools, 240 cluster schools and nine control schools in the four districts. The research component aims to assess the impact of the programme on head teachers, teachers, children, and their families prior to any activity linked with Leonard Cheshire Disability Zimbabwe Trust’s (LCDZT) inclusive education (IE) project. It also allows the possibility for the programme team to adapt the interventions according to the specific results and for measuring the changes over the duration of the project.
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This article presents a review of the literature on initial teacher education for inclusion published from 2000 to 2014. The analysis uncovers a number of aspects of concern to academics, researchers, teacher educators, and policy-makers. Making informed decisions about the design of initial teacher education courses and units of study for inclusion depends upon addressing some fundamental issues (i.e. the legacy of special education, and the challenges faced in different regions) and making a balanced and informed assessment of the value of content-infused, single-unit, and school placement/experience approaches. The article discusses the implications of this literature review’s findings for future research.
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Teachers’ beliefs are crucial to the success of inclusion programmes and reform efforts for children with special educational needs (SEN). Based on this evidence, one hundred and thirty-nine primary pre-service teachers from one training institution in the Netherlands completed an adapted version of a measure of beliefs towards inclusive education. In contrast to previous studies on pre-service teachers, results of this study showed participants held neutral or negative beliefs towards this matter. In addition, limited time for pupils received the highest rating as a barrier to inclusion, whereas direct teaching experience was the most preferred method of inclusion. The implications of this study for practice and indications for future research are discussed.
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The inclusion of children with disability in regular classroom settings has been identified worldwide as crucial to the provision of effective education for all children and to the creation of more inclusive societies. To this end there has been significant focus on pre-service and in-service teacher education to ensure that teachers are adequately prepared to teach in inclusive classrooms. When delivering a unit on inclusive education in the Seychelles, which was developed in Australia, we considered it essential to determine the suitability of the unit in supporting Seychellois teachers to teach inclusively. Teachers’ attitudes and beliefs about people with disability are two aspects that have consistently been shown to impact on a teacher’s willingness to include children with disability. Therefore, the Seychellois teachers were asked to complete questionnaires in the first and final weeks of the semester in which the teachers undertook the unit. The two sets of responses were analysed to determine significance and effect sizes of any change in attitudes and beliefs. Data revealed that the Seychellois teachers reported more positive attitudes and beliefs about the inclusion of children with disability in regular classrooms after completing the unit, suggesting that the unit of study was suitable for the Seychellois context.
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Brunei is including more learners with special needs in general schools. To gain insight into problems that might arise research needs to be undertaken on a number of related issues. This study explored the attitudes to and concerns about inclusive education of 166 randomly selected pre-service and in-service teachers at the University of Brunei Darussalam on the BA primary education, BEd and PGCE programs. A three-part pretested instrument was used to collect demographic, attitudinal and concerns data. The alpha reliabilities of the Likert-type scales for attitudes and concerns were 0.85 and 0.88 respectively. At the whole group level no gender differences were found. Significant difference on attitudes to inclusive education were however found on all three bivariate comparisons of the program students. The BEd special education students were more favourable to inclusive education than the other two groups. Surprisingly the groups did not differ significantly on their concerns about inclusive students. Findings have implication for teacher education.
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Inclusive education/mainstreaming is a key policy objective for the education of children and young people with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities. This paper reviews the literature on the effectiveness of inclusive education/mainstreaming. The focus is on evidence for effects in terms of child outcomes with examination also of evidence on processes that support effectiveness. The review covers a range of SEN and children from pre-school to the end of compulsory education. Following an historical review of evidence on inclusive education/mainstreaming, the core of the paper is a detailed examination of all the papers published in eight journals from the field of special education published 2001-2005 (N=1373): Journal of Special Education, Exceptional Children, Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, Journal of Learning Disabilities, Remedial and Special Education, British Journal of Special Education, European Journal of Special Needs Education, and the International Journal of Inclusive Education. The derived categories were: comparative studies of outcomes: other outcome studies; non-comparative qualitative studies including non-experimental case studies; teacher practice and development; teacher attitudes; and the use of teaching assistants. Only 14 papers (1.0%) were identified as comparative outcome studies of children with some form of SEN. Measures used varied but included social as well as educational outcomes. Other papers included qualitative studies of inclusive practice, some of which used a non-comparative case study design while others were based on respondent's judgements, or explored process factors including teacher attitudes and the use of teaching assistants. Inclusive education/mainstreaming has been promoted on two bases: the rights of children to be included in mainstream education and the proposition that inclusive education is more effective. This review focuses on the latter issue. The evidence from this review does not provide a clear endorsement for the positive effects of inclusion. There is a lack of evidence from appropriate studies and, where evidence does exist, the balance was only marginally positive. It is argued that the policy has been driven by a concern for children's rights. The important task now is to research more thoroughly the mediators and moderators that support the optimal education for children with SEN and disabilities and, as a consequence, develop an evidence-based approach to these children's education.
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This research explores, for the first time, the pedagogical orientations of Indonesian teachers in the context of inclusive education. A mixed-method approach was used for an analysis of questionnaire data from 140 teachers and qualitative interviews from 20 teachers in four inclusive schools. The findings suggest that, in general, the implicit orientation of teachers is social constructivist. This orientation is also reflected in their reported classroom practices. Although less common, more directive pedagogical approaches appear to have an impact upon the flexibility of roles within two teacher inclusive classrooms. Whilst the number of disabled pupils within each class was a significant issue for interviewees, no pupils were deemed unteachable in their classrooms. Furthermore, what is described by the teachers as a “special pedagogy” typically entailed additional teaching time and modified assessments, and consequently could be framed as “good teaching for all”. The questionnaires also contained responses from student and special school teachers and support the view that teachers’ beliefs about inclusive pedagogy are mediated by experience and occupation.
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Teachers' attitudes toward inclusion are often based on the practical implementation of inclusive education rather than a specific ideology and understanding of inclusiveness. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusion of students with all disabilities in regular schools. Seventy four primary school teachers participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Australia. Teachers' attitudes and efficacy toward integration of students with disabilities were measured using the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities scale and Bandura's Teacher Efficacy scale respectively. Four teacher attributes-age, gender, teaching self-efficacy and training collectively explained 42% of the variability in teachers' attitude toward including students with disabilities. The current study further contributes to the accumulation of knowledge that can unpack the complex pattern of factors that should be considered to promote positive attitudes towards inclusive schools.
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This study investigated the attitudes of 72 Serbian teachers towards the inclusion of children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) in mainstream schools; they were asked to complete My Thinking About Inclusion Questionnaire (Stoiber, Goettinger, & Goetz, 1998). It was found that Serbian teachers held overall slightly negative attitudes towards the inclusion of children with SEN, with teachers with experience in teaching children with SEN holding more positive attitudes towards inclusion in comparison to teachers without such experience. No differences were observed in teachers' attitudes towards inclusion according to their years of teaching experience. Findings are discussed in relation to the effectiveness of changes that were implemented recently in Serbia regarding the educational rights and needs of children with SEN.
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This study was designed to identify the major obstacles in implementing inclusive principles in mainstream schools and to analyze different aspects of the teachers' attitude towards inclusive education. A total of 112 teachers completed a questionnaire which contained 8 categories of items regarding knowledge of specific terminology, practice of inclusive education and prejudices towards children with special needs. The study revealed significant differences between teachers of different ages regarding the knowledge of main concepts of inclusion. There are also major confusions regarding the difference between inclusive education and integrated education. (c) 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of PSIWORLD2011
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Inclusive education has become a cornerstone of many government policies in an increasing number of countries, yet teachers have been found to hold mixed attitudes towards its implementation and usefulness. This article, using English terminology and thinking, aims to extend previous research on the effect of teacher attitudes towards inclusion in classroom learning environments, and to explore perceived adequacy of support, levels of stress, and willingness to include pupils with certain difficulties. Teachers (N = 95) completed questionnaires on attitudes to inclusion, classroom learning environment, support and stress. Pupils (N = 2,514) completed a questionnaire on classroom learning environment only. Teacher attitudes towards including special educational needs pupils in mainstream settings were found to have a significant impact on how they managed their classroom learning environments and how adequately they perceived available support. Teachers with more positive attitudes towards inclusion were reported by their pupils to have classroom environments with greater levels of satisfaction and cohesiveness and lower levels of friction, competitiveness and difficulty than for those with teachers who held less positive attitudes. Teacher attitudes towards inclusion increased with greater perceived adequacy of both internal and external support. Teachers were less willing to include pupils with behavioural difficulties than pupils who were able/gifted or had physical difficulties, irrespective of attitude to inclusion.
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Inclusive Education (IE) in Egypt has recently received a momentum by the reauthorization of the Child Act in 2008 and the issuing of IE Mandates in 2009, and 2011. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher self-efficacy and teacher attitudes toward the inclusive classroom. Research studies have demonstrated that teachers’ sense of self-efficacy directly impacts student performance. We investigated the association between teachers’ perception of self-efficacy and their attitudes towards the inclusion of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) at preschool and primary settings. In addition, we explored whether experience had an effect on teachers’ attitudes and sense of self-efficacy. The Opinions Relevant to Integration of Students with Disabilities (ORI) and Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (TES) were administered to 95 primary school teachers and 71 preschool teachers. Results showed that scores on the ORI could predict scores on the TES for both preschool and primary school teachers. Teachers with more experience had more positive attitudes than teachers with less experience whereas experience had no effect on teachers’ sense of self efficacy in teaching pupils with SEN. No differences were found between preschool and primary school teachers’ attitudes, whereas primary school teachers showed a higher sense of self-efficacy than did preschool teachers regarding the management and teaching of pupils with SEN. The results of the study are discussed in relation to international literature on IE, reflecting on the implications of the study in relation to the policies of IE in Egypt. Keywords Inclusive education; Attitudes; Self-efficacy; Experience
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Empirical research revealed that teachers' attitudes play a crucial role in successful implementation of inclusive education. This study aimed to examine primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education in Jakarta, Indonesia. Respondents completed the attitude scale which comprised the theory-driven cognitive, affective and behavioral components of attitude. The findings show that teachers are in favor of inclusion and their attitudes seem to be related to their teaching experiences and training in special education.
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The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) claims that behaviour can be predicted by behavioural intention and perceived behavioural control, while behavioural intention is a function of attitude towards the behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. This study aims at providing explanation and prediction of teachers' inclusive education intentions and behaviour under TPB. The main components of TPB were implemented in a survey of 841 teachers from Hong Kong schools in the context of inclusive education. The structural equation modelling results show that TPB fitted the data well (χ 2/df = 2.84; RMSEA = 0.054; GFI = 0.92; CFI = 0.92; and TLI = 0.91). Identified attributes, including teachers' attitude towards inclusive education, feeling social pressure from important others to carry out inclusive education, and confidence on professional training for involved staff, were found to exert significant predictive power on teachers' intention to implement inclusive education. This intention, together with the confidence on professional training for involved staff, predicts their actual inclusive practice. Teachers' perception of social pressure and adequacy of professional training greatly contribute to predict their intention and behaviour towards inclusive education, respectively. TPB appears to be a sound theoretical framework for understanding teachers' inclusive practice. The results have strong implications for teacher empowerment and professional training in inclusive education.
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Attitudes of mainstream teachers towards the inclusion of children with special needs in the ordinary school were surveyed soon after the release of the Green Paper. The survey was carried out in one Local Education Authority in the south-west of England and the sample comprised of 81 primary and secondary teachers. The analysis revealed that teachers who have been implementing inclusive programmes, and therefore have active experience of inclusion, possess more positive attitudes. Moreover, the data showed the importance of professional development in the formation of positive attitudes towards inclusion. In particular, teachers with university-based professional development appeared both to hold more positive attitudes and to be more con® dent in meeting the IEP requirements of students with SEN. The role that training at both pre-service and post-service levels has in the development of teachers' support for inclusion is discussed.
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This study investigates the nature of concerns and attitudes held by preservice teachers regarding inclusive education and their degree of comfort on interaction with people with disabilities. Pre-service training may be the optimal time to address educators' concerns and alter any negative attitudes about inclusive education. This paper reports the perceptions of pre-service teachers prior to their involvement in units of work focusing specifically on inclusive education in universities located in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, and Singapore. Results indicate significant differences exist between the students in the eastern countries of Singapore and Hong Kong, and those in the western countries of Canada and Australia. Participants in the Western countries tended to have more positive sentiments and attitudes towards students with disabilities, and more concerns than their Eastern counterparts. The study also suggests that in most instances pre-service teachers have more positive attitudes towards people with disabilities and inclusion, and more confidence in implementing inclusive practice when they have had additional training and/or experience with people with disabilities.
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Teachers are seen as key persons to implement inclusive education. Positive attitudes are therefore argued as playing a considerable role in implementing this educational change successfully. The aim of this study is to examine what attitudes teachers hold towards inclusive education, which variables are related to their attitudes and if these affect the social participation of pupils with special needs in regular schools. A review of 26 studies revealed that the majority of teachers hold neutral or negative attitudes towards the inclusion of pupils with special needs in regular primary education. No studies reported clear positive results. Several variables are found which relate to teachers’ attitudes, such as training, experience with inclusive education and pupils’ type of disability. No conclusion could be drawn regarding the effects of teachers’ attitudes on the social participation of pupils with special needs.
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Attitudes and concerns of pre-service teachers regarding implementation of inclusive education were examined. The participants consisted of 480 pre-service teachers enrolled in a one year Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) program at Pune University, in the state of Maharashtra. The results of the study showed that participants had somewhat negative attitudes and a moderate degree of concern regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities in their classes. Participants with higher level of education (i.e. postgraduate degrees) were found to have significantly more positive attitudes compared to their counterparts. Perceived level of confidence in teaching students with disabilities was also associated with lower degree of concerns amongst participants. The results are discussed with possible implications for university educators and policy makers.
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Successful inclusion is dependent upon teachers implementing classroom adaptations. Teacher beliefs can be expected to play a key role in their decision to make such adaptations. Using a crosssectional survey, the purpose of the study was to examine mainstream school teachers’ explicit and implicit attitudes, selfefficacy and intentions towards children with intellectual disability and to assess their relationship to inclusive teaching. Primary school teachers working in Scotland were invited to take part. Eighty-seven participants completed a questionnaire measuring explicit attitudes, self-efficacy, intentions and inclusive teaching. Participants also completed a Single-Target Implicit Association Test assessing implicit attitudes. The results indicated that selfefficacy predicted reported inclusive behaviour and mediated the relationship between explicit attitudes and reported behaviour. Implicit attitudes did not relate to explicit beliefs (attitudes, selfefficacy, intentions) or behaviour.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to understand the attitudes of primary and secondary school teachers towards the inclusion of children with disabilities in inclusive schools in Trinidad using an explanatory sequential mixed methods design. Attitudes, perceived self-efficacy, and concerns are measured in the quantitative strand, while the reasons for the overall attitudes are sought in the sequential qualitative strand. Teachers’ attitudes are ambivalent and the integrated findings suggest the need for increased human and educational resources, improved infrastructure, and advanced professional development in inclusive education to improve their attitudes.
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Using a sample of 359 in-service teachers, this study examines Japanese teachers' attitudes toward inclusive education and their self-efficacy for inclusive practices. The results indicate that although teachers’ sentiments toward disabilities were generally positive, the teachers had some concerns about implementing inclusive education in their classroom. The overall level of self-efficacy was relatively low in the Japanese sample compared to that of other countries, particularly in relation to managing problematic student behavior. Self-efficacy regarding managing behavior and collaboration was related to overall attitudes toward inclusive education. The findings can enable useful insights in developing pre-service and in-service teacher education.
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Background: Inclusive education of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is intended to maximize their educational experience within the mainstream school setting. While policy mandates inclusion, it is classroom teachers' behaviours that determine its success. Aims: This study provided a novel application of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in this setting. It examined the effect of TPB variables and personality on reported inclusive teaching behaviours for learners with ID. Sample: The sample comprised 145 primary school teachers (85% female) from mainstream schools across Scotland. Method: Participants completed a TPB questionnaire assessing attitudes (instrumental and affective), subjective norms (injunctive and descriptive norms), perceptions of control (self-efficacy and controllability), and behavioural intentions towards using inclusive strategies. The Big Five Personality Index, measuring extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, neuroticism, and agreeableness, was also completed. Teaching practices were reported 2 weeks later. Results: Instrumental attitudes, descriptive norm, self-efficacy, and neuroticism predicted teachers' intentions to use inclusive strategies. Further, conscientiousness had indirect effects on intentions through TPB variables. These intentions, however, did not predict reported behaviour expected by TPB. Instead, self-efficacy was the only significant predictor of reported behaviour. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the application of TPB to an educational setting and contributes to the understanding of teachers' reported use of inclusive strategies for children with ID.
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The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which pre-service educators’ interpersonal characteristics affected their attitudes toward teaching students with disabilities (inclusion), as measured by the FIRO-B and ATIES pre- and post-course. The FIRO-B was administered to assess expressed and wanted aspects of three interpersonal needs: personal inclusion, affection and control. The ATIES was administered to measure attitudes toward classroom inclusion of students with physical, academic, behavioral and social disabilities. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed a main effect for wanted inclusion and an interaction effect for expressed inclusion and expressed affection on attitudes toward classroom inclusion. Ultimately, these findings reveal how unique relational characteristics may influence preparation initiatives and may encourage consideration of how individual factors may mediate teacher training and preparation.
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Give your students access to the general curriculum and find better ways to assess their progress! How is your special-education curriculum impacted by the requirements of IDEA and NCLB? How can you improve student learning and retention to positively influence assessment results? What methods are available for determining your students' present level of performance? In this second edition of the best-selling Accessing the General Curriculum, Nolet and McLaughlin provide updated frameworks and strategies-with invaluable examples and flowcharts for fitting special education into the frameworks created by national standards and assessments. This invaluable resource provides K-12 educators with the support necessary to produce expected results from every learner. The authors begin with far-reaching legal implications and connect them with individual students to show teachers how to: Use curriculum as a map for guiding students toward achievement; Understand learning research as a bridge to the learning-teaching connection; Relate each student's disability to his or her academic performance; Design alternate assessment tools and curriculum; Link goals, objectives, and benchmarks to state assessment criteria Affording special education students accommodations and modifications to their individual curriculum will improve their performance, enhance your ability to help them advance, and, ultimately, improve the evaluation of their progress throughout their academic career.
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Thirty pre-service teachers took part in a nine-week university course focussed on the benefits of inclusive education and the techniques needed to successfully implement it. The Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Inclusion Scale (TATIS), Concerns about Inclusive Education Scale (CIES), and Teacher’s Efficacy in Implementing Inclusive Practices (TEIP) were administered prior to and following the university course. Paired sample t-tests revealed that participants’ attitudes and efficacy increased significantly following the course while their concerns decreased significantly. Mixed design ANOVAs revealed that pre-service teachers without past experience of teaching students with disabilities had the largest improvement in attitudes. Pre-service teachers who were not acquainted with a person with a disability had significantly larger decreases in concern level and increases in efficacy level than those who were acquainted with a person with a disability. These results are discussed and implications for future research outlined.
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The success of inclusive education is largely dependent on teachers’ perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs about where students with disabilities should be educated. This study examined pre-service teacher (PST) perspectives on inclusion for one subpopulation, students who are deaf, before and after taking a course that establishes the foundation for those perspectives in one teacher preparation programme. PSTs at one university, established for people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, were asked to review case studies, identify an appropriate placement, and then identify the factors that influenced their decisions. Results indicate that these PSTs did not experience significant changes in attitude toward inclusion after taking an introductory course in special education. Implications for practise and future directions in research are considered.
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Twenty-eight investigations were identified in which general education teachers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of including students with disabilities in their classes. Research synthesis procedures were employed to summarize responses and examine the consistency of responses across time, geographical location, and item type. Overall, we found that about two thirds of general classroom teachers supported the concept of mainstreaming/inclusion. A smaller majority were willing to include students with disabilities in their own classes, but responses appeared to vary according to disabling condition and implicit obligations on the teacher. Although about half or more of the teachers felt that mainstreaming/inclusion could provide some benefits, only one third or less of teachers believed they had sufficient time, skills, training, or resources necessary for mainstreaming/inclusion. Reported attitudes did not appear to covary with either geographical region or time of publication. Implications for policy and practice are provided.
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the attitudes of preschool, primary, secondary and high school teachers towards inclusive education of children with special educational needs. In addition, the study established the correlation between these attitudes and gender, education level, teaching experience, formal training in the special education field, and the duration and quality of work experience with children with special education needs. The sample comprised 322 teachers from the Serbian province of Vojvodina. The My Thinking about Inclusion Scale (Stoiber, K. C., M. Gettinger, and D. Goetz. 1998. “Exploring Factors Influencing Parents' and Early Childhood Practitioners Beliefs about Inclusion.” Early Childhood Research Quarterly 13 (1): 107–131) was used. The results show that, in general, the participants held neutral attitudes towards inclusive education and more positive expectations regarding the outcomes of inclusion. This study also emphasised teaching performance in an inclusive class as a subject of great concern. The high school and preschool teachers as well as the teachers with previous positive experience with working in an inclusive environment reported more positive attitudes towards inclusive education than those from primary and secondary schools and those with negative experiences with the implementation of inclusive practices.
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Teachers in regular schools have a responsibility to accommodate the needs and interests of all learners. The attitudes and willingness of teachers to include learners with intellectual disabilities in their classes in regular schools in a district with a semi-nomadic pastoral population in north-eastern Uganda was investigated. A survey of 125 school teachers was conducted, using an attitude scale and a willingness sub-scale. The results showed slightly more positive than negative attitudes, and more willingness than unwillingness to teach learners with intellectual disabilities. Attendance of workshops and seminars had a positive impact on teacher attitudes and willingness towards inclusive education. The findings are discussed with reference to historical–cultural characteristics of the district, as well as pupil and teacher characteristics.
Article
In this comparative study, the impact of two stand-alone university courses on pre-service teachers' attitudes, concerns and teaching efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms is examined. Twenty-eight pre-service teachers (PSTs) from Australia and 60 PSTs from Canada completed a survey at pre- and post-stages of the course. It was found that after completion of the course, Australian participants' attitudes improved, their concerns declined, and they became more confident in their ability to teach in inclusive classrooms. Similarly, Canadian participants' concerns declined and their teaching efficacy improved, but they became more apprehensive about teaching in inclusive classrooms. Relationships among the three variables (attitudes, concerns and teaching efficacy) were examined at pre- and post-test stages for both cohorts to understand how they interacted within each of the two countries. Implications of the findings for teacher education are discussed.
Article
It is essential to understand the current practices used to foster inclusive education for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) as well as factors related to the implementation of classroom interventions. In the current study authors assess the experience, knowledge, attitudes and current practices of education professionals regarding ASD. Results suggest that special education teachers and school psychologists hold higher levels of experience, training, and knowledge as compared to general education teachers and administrators. Attitudes towards inclusive education for students with ASD were positive, in general, although attitudes were not a significant predictor of awareness or use of empirically supported interventions. Implications and future directions are discussed.
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Hofstede's Values Survey Module has been the basis for much cross‐cultural and cross‐national research in the workplace, but little information about its psychometric properties has been available. This study provides internal consistency (coefficient alpha) statistics from samples representing 23 nations/provinces. Across both English and translated versions, internal consistencies tended to be poor, and in the majority of cases failed to achieve even a liberal criterion of 0.60. Even when data were aggregated by sample coefficient alphas were poor for all but long‐term orientation. At the participant level, long‐term orientation and individualism had marginal internal consistencies, whereas power distance, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance subscales had inadequate internal consistencies. A replication of Hofstede's ecological factor analysis failed to support the five subscales. It is suggested that the construct validity of these scales is suspect, and that they should be used with caution.
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This paper begins with a brief review of the development of the concept of inclusive education and then discusses the case for inclusion both from a human rights and empirical perspective. This is followed by an analysis of some of the key areas for research on inclusion and a discussion of the relevant findings. The paper ends with a summary of main conclusions from studies on inclusion and sets out an agenda for research into the new millennium.
Article
Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 192970. Thurstone , L. L. 1929. Attitudes can be measured. Psychological Review, 36: 222–241. [CrossRef]View all references. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner attitudes to explore why they were deserting studies in such subjects. This paper explores the place of attitude measurement in science education and traces the main approaches that have been developed. The place and nature of attitude scaling techniques is analysed and it is demonstrated that such techniques have many fundamental flaws. These weaknesses make such approaches unlikely to offer the kind of precision needed to take our understanding of attitude development forward in the context of science education. Alternative approaches are outlined and it is strongly suggested that science education research rejects such scaling techniques and moves forward to develop new approaches that can give the kind of detailed analysis which will prove to be positive and useful. This paper seeks to bring evidence from many sources together, to challenge many of the unquestioned assumptions behind the metholodogies used in many attitude‐related studies today and to make a positive contribution in encouraging more appropriate methodologies to be adopted more widely.
Article
This paper examines one important dimension of inclusive education: the development of in-service teacher education courses. Using an example from Cyprus, it discusses the issue of contextualizing teacher training courses to suit teachers' prior knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about inclusion. The paper considers some of the findings of a survey about issues relating to inclusion. The findings suggest that teachers' conceptualizations of inclusion are problematic. According to the findings, teachers tend to think on the basis of a medical and charity model and they favour special schooling for specific groups of children. The discussion considers how a training course for inclusion can be academically robust and professionally useful, while at the same time taking into consideration teachers' prior knowledge and expectations.
Article
2004 has come to be seen by many in Singapore as a watershed year with the shift in the position of the government towards encouraging greater integration of students with disabilities in mainstream settings. This study investigated the attitudes of 1538 mainstream pre-service teachers towards disability and inclusive education during this period of policy change. Analysis of the data indicated that the pre-service teachers had little or no knowledge and experience with disability, and generally possessed negative attitudes towards people with disabilities. They evinced ambivalent feelings towards inclusive education, and expressed a preference for special school placements for students with disabilities. While they were open to the inclusion of students with social or communication difficulties, they were not favourable to including students with physical disabilities, sensory impairment, learning disabilities and behavioural problems in mainstream settings. Implications of these findings were discussed and recommendations were made for the inclusion of training in special education at both pre-service and in-service levels.
Article
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted teacher behaviors. Teachers who had attended more in-service training (INSET) sessions held more positive feelings, but teachers with more experience were less willing to work with children with SEBD. Findings suggest that school principals have a central role in promoting an inclusive ethos within their schools. INSET could focus more on challenging beliefs.
Article
This paper presents the results of a study on organizational cultures in twenty units from ten different organizations in Denmark and the Netherlands. Data came from in-depth interviews of selected informants and a questionnaire survey of a stratified random sample of organizational members. Data on task, structure, and control characteristics of each unit were collected separately. Quantitative measures of the cultures of the twenty units, aggregated at the unit level, showed that a large part of the differences among these twenty units could be explained by six factors, related to established concepts from organizational sociology, that measured the organizational cultures on six independent dimensions. The organizational culture differences found resided mainly at the level of practices as perceived by members. Scores of the units on the six dimensions were partly explainable from organizational idiosyncrasies but were also significantly correlated with a variety of task, structural, and control-system characteristics of the units.
Article
The aim of this study is to examine the attitudes of teachers in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) towards educational inclusion of students with intellectual disability into regular classes. The sample for this study consisted of 194 elementary school teachers from eight schools in BiH. The attitudes of the teachers were measured by The Attitudes towards Inclusion questionnaire. The results of this study indicate that a little more than 50% of the teachers support the concept of inclusion. Another finding of this study reveals that the teachers believe that they are not supported enough in order to efficiently deal with the issue of inclusion. BiH still has a lot of challenges to deal with in successfully implementing the process of inclusion.
Article
Attitudes of teachers toward the educational mainstreaming of special needs students in six nations ‐ the United States, Germany, Israel, Ghana, Taiwan, and the Philippines ‐ were compared. Also investigated were teacher background variables associated with attitudes toward integration. Findings revealed that the most supportive views were expressed by teachers in the United States followed by educators in Germany. Attitudes of teachers in the other nations represented mainly a neutral disposition toward mainstreaming. The lowest attitude scores were obtained for Israeli non‐kibbutz educators. Several variables were associated with attitudes: training in special education, grade level, age, teaching experience, and experience with individuals who are disabled. The role that teacher preparation programs and effective mainstreaming practices have in the development of teacher support for integration are discussed.
Article
Presents an introductory text for use in social psychology, attitudes, or measurement courses, and details the magnitude, proximity, interlocking, and unfolding techniques of representational measurement. A discussion of rating scales, indirect attitude evaluation, and assessment of individual differences by statement endorsements, is included. (154 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
The Second Edition of this classic work, first published in 1981 and an international bestseller, explores the differences in thinking and social action that exist among members of more than 50 modern nations. Geert Hofstede argues that people carry "mental programs" which are developed in the family in early childhood and reinforced in schools and organizations, and that these programs contain components of national culture. They are expressed most clearly in the different values that predominate among people from different countries. Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Cultures Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included. The book is structured around five major dimensions: power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism versus collectivism; masculinity versus femininity; and long term versus short-term orientation. --Publisher.
Article
Prospective educators who completed a course about social work with disabilities were participants in a study that investigated whether attitudes toward individuals with mental retardation (MR) would be enhanced by the information provided in the course. The quasi-experimental design of the study involved a control group together with a pretest and a posttest, and several demographic and experiential variables. The study used a version of the Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory-Revised that Kandari and Salih (in press) adapted for the Kuwaiti culture. Results revealed that the course did not influence students' attitudes toward individuals with MR. The authors discussed the findings in relation to determining the changes needed in the course's curriculum and evaluating the information provided for prospective educators in order for them to support the integration of individuals with MR into mainstream society.
Article
This paper reports on the outcomes of the first in a series of three systematic literature reviews in inclusive education. The aims include establishing what research has been undertaken in the area of effective pedagogical approaches to enable children with special educational needs to be included in mainstream classrooms, synthesising themes in a purposive sample of the literature and examining how this research might inform practice. One outcome of this first literature review was an overview of the various ways that teachers are effectively including children with special educational needs. In this paper, using the literature, we share some of the characteristics of the teaching approaches that have been shown to lead to positive outcomes in the areas of academic attainment, social involvement and improved behaviour. We discuss how these approaches, particularly those involving peer group interactions, might be used by teachers to support all learners.