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Ang tanging proyektong ito (katumbas ng tesis, kahingiang para sa mga kumukuha noon ng Master of Arts in Teaching/MAT sa Philippine Normal University) ay deskriptibong pananaliksik hinggil sa proseso ng pagbuo at balidasyon ng Glosaryo ng Mga Termino sa Panitikan.
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This is an expansion of the first dictionary of symbols to be based on literature, rather than on 'universal' psychological archetypes or myths. It explains and illustrates the literary symbols that we frequently encounter (such as swan, rose, moon, gold) and gives thousands of cross-references and quotations. The dictionary concentrates on English literature, but its entries range widely from the Bible and classical authors to the twentieth century, taking in American and European literatures. For this third edition, Michael Ferber has included some twenty completely new entries (such as birch, childbirth, grove, mill and railroad) and has added to many of the existing entries. Its rich references make this book an essential tool not only for literary and classical scholars but also for all students of literature.
The paper analyzes the definition of translation and discusses the criteria of translation in detail. Meanwhile, the paper explores the style in literary translation with some typical examples to prove that in general the style can be possibly transferred into another language.
Dictionaries tell stories of many kinds. The history of dictionaries, of how they were produced, published and used, has much to tell us about the language and the culture of the past. This monumental work of scholarship draws on published and archival material to survey a wide range of dictionaries of western European languages (including English, German, Latin and Greek) published between the early sixteenth and mid -seventeenth centuries. John Considine establishes a powerful model for the social and intellectual history of lexicography by examining dictionaries both as imaginative texts and as scholarly instruments. He tells the stories of national and individual heritage and identity that were created through the making of dictionaries in the early modern period. Far from dry, factual collections of words, dictionaries are creative works, shaping as well as recording early modern culture and intellectual history.
It is instructive to interpret patterns of language use in light of the interaction between language use and an individual's awarenessof, and resistancetowards, linguistic hege-mony. While heritage language maintenance is often described as language use moti-vated by antihegemonic ideologies, this paper suggests that the paradox of the resistance to linguistic hegemony is that in order to be successful, this resistanceneces-sitates acquiescence to this hegemony on a certain level, namely proficiency in the dominant language. This paper contends that a key element influencing the dynamic between these existing factors and language maintenance is the speaker's awareness of, and response to, the paradox of the resistance to linguistic hegemony. Awareness of and conviction towards this paradox seems to supply a dynamic in an individual's conviction towards heritage language maintenance. This paper reports the results of a study that examined this interaction in the case studies of families maintaining Spanish across generations in a rural town in upstate New York, USA. The displays of power illustrated on a personal exchange level, on the media level, and within institu-tions seem to illuminate the awareness of and response to the paradox of linguistic hegemony – successful resistance that leads to heritage language maintenance.