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Effect of processing on sensory and nutritional quality on fenugreek suplemented biscuits



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International Journal of Chemical Studies 2020; 8(3): 1900-1902
P-ISSN: 23498528
E-ISSN: 23214902
IJCS 2020; 8(3): 1900-1902
© 2020 IJCS
Received: 18-03-2020
Accepted: 20-04-2020
Department of Foods and
Nutrition, CCS Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar,
Haryana, India
Varsha Rani
Department of Foods and
Nutrition, CCS Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar,
Haryana, India
Renuka Jandu
Department of Foods and
Nutrition, CCS Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar,
Haryana, India
Josephine John
Department of Foods and
Nutrition, CCS Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar,
Haryana, India
Department of Foods and
Nutrition, CCS Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar,
Haryana, India
Corresponding Author:
Department of Foods and
Nutrition, CCS Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar,
Haryana, India
Effect of processing on sensory and nutritional
quality of fenugreek supplemented biscuits
Reena, Varsha Rani, Renuka Jandu, Josephine John and Sonia
The present study was conducted to develop sweet biscuits using processed fenugreek seed powder and
to analyze sensory and nutritional profile of developed biscuits. The soaked seeds (8h) were germinated
in sterile petri dishes lined with wet filter paper for 48 hrs at 37ºC with frequent watering. Debittering of
seeds was done by soaking them in milk:water (3:1) for 8 hrs., and both the combinations were used in
last treatment i.e. debittering followed by germination. Sweet biscuits were developed using 5 and 10 per
cent powder of seed belong to all three treatments. Developed biscuits were found acceptable and were
adjudged between ‘liked moderately’ to ‘liked very much’ by panelist. The crude fiber, crude protein and
ash content of biscuits prepared using 5 and 10 per cent of each debittered, germinated and debittered
followed by germinated seed powder increased significantly (P<0.05) as compared control biscuits. It
was concluded that biscuits of higher nutritional value with additional medicinal benefits can be
developed using processed fenugreek seed powder without compromising its sensory attributes.
Keywords: Biscuits, fenugreek, germination, debittering, sensory, nutritional, processing
Over centuries, fenugreek seeds have been used to cure a wide range of human ailments.
Animal studies have clearly demonstrated the cholesterol lowering and hypoglycemic effects
of fenugreek seeds. The mature seeds of it are pale yellow in colour, have maple flavor and
bitter in taste and have been used as culinary and medicinal purpose worldwide since ancient
times. Though it belongs to the legumes however has been used extensively as a condiment.
Fenugreek seeds serve as a preservative and are added to pickles, chutneys and other similar
products. It is also used as seasoning in Indian culinary.
The seeds are packed with an excellent amounts of protein (25.41%), fiber (30%), fat (5.72%),
ash (2.93%), available lysine (5.7 g/16 g N), the limiting amino acid in commonly consumed
cereals, calcium (135 mg), iron (8.47 mg), zinc (3.80 mg), essential fatty acids such as linoleic
acid (2051mg) and linolenic acid (1082 mg) (Longvah et al. 2017) [11].
Fenugreek has received recognition for its nutritional and medicinal properties however its
bitter taste (due to presence of saponins and fixed and volatile bitter oils) and presence of anti-
nutrients restrict its acceptability in different foods. It has been possible to debitter fenugreek
seeds by employing some processing techniques such as soaking (with water, acesulfame
solution, sucrose solution, curd), autoclaving, germination and roasting in separation or in
combination (Pandey & Awasthi 2015; Mabrouki et al. 2015; Rajni et al. 2016; Manju et al.
2016; Chaubey et al. 2017; Atlaw et al., 2018) [3, 5, 12, 14, 15, 17]. Conventional processing
including soaking, dehulling, boiling, and pressure cooking as well as germination and
fermentation reduce the levels of phytate, protease inhibitors, phenolics, condensed tannins,
lectins, and saponins (Patterson et al. 2017) [16].
Using fenugreek seed as such in diet even after processing may not be acceptable due to its
distinct bitter taste, therefore, it may be incorporated in the development of staple food
products so that it may mask the bitter taste of fenugreek. In modern food practices, the seeds
or the extracts have been used in the development of baked products such as biscuits, bread,
muffins and in the development of traditional products such as chapatti, dhokla, idli, laddoo
and suhali. (Srivastava et al. 2012; Pandey & Awasthi 2015; Chaubey et al. 2017; Lakshmi
2017; Bandyopadhyay et al. 2019) [4, 5, 10, 15, 19]. Keeping in view, the nutritional and medicinal
properties of fenugreek seeds, this investigation was undertaken to reduce the bitterness of
seed and its utilization in biscuit preparation.
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International Journal of Chemical Studies
Materials and methods
The seed samples of fenugreek (Hisar Suvarna) and wheat
(WH- 1127) were procured from Department of Genetics and
Plant Breeding, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana
Agricultural University, Hisar. In treatment-I, cleaned
fenugreek seeds were soaked in lukewarm distilled water for
8 hrs and germinated in sterile petri dishes lined with wet
filter paper for 48 hrs at 37ºC with frequent watering. In
treatment-2, seeds were soaked in milk:water (3:1) for 8 hours
to debitter. In treatment-3, seeds were soaked in milk:water
(3:1) for 8 hours to debitter and then germinated in sterile
petri dishes lined with wet filter paper for 48 hrs at 37ºC with
frequent watering. The sprouted, debittered and debittered
followed by sprouting seeds were rinsed in distilled water and
dried at 50-55ºC till no further reduction in moisture content.
All three types of dried and processed seeds were ground to
get fine powder which was passed through 60 mesh sieve and
stored in low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags till its further
use in product development.
Fenugreek supplemented value added biscuits were prepared
by substituting 5 and 10 per cent of germinated, debittered
and debittered followed by germinated fenugreek seed
powder with control formulation. Control biscuits were
developed using whole wheat flour (100%). Biscuits
developed using debittered, germinated and debittered
followed by germinated fenugreek seed powder and wheat
flour (control) were subjected to sensory evaluation with
respect to color, appearance, aroma, texture, taste and overall
acceptability by a panel of 25 semi trained judges, using 9
point hedonic scale.
Moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber and ash content
of developed biscuits was determined by using method of
AOAC (2010) [2]. Statistical analysis: The data obtained were
subjected to statistical analysis for analysis of variance in a
complete randomized design by OPSTAT software developed
by Sheoran and Pannu (1999) [18].
Plate I: Biscuits prepared using wheat flour (control), germinated fenugreek seed powder @5% (GFSP-I) @10% (GFSP-II), debittered
fenugreek seed powder @ 5%(DFSP-I) @10% (DFSP-II) and debittered and germinated fenugreek seed powder @ 5% (DGFSP-I) @10%
Results and discussion
Mean scores of taste and aroma of control biscuits were 8.86
and 8.49, respectively and were adjudged as liked very
much’ by the judges. Mean scores of taste and aroma of
GFSP-I & II, DFSP-I & II and DGFSP-I &II biscuits varied
from 7.00 to 7.49 and adjudged as ‘liked moderately’ by the
judges. Mean scores of overall acceptability of GFSP-I & II,
DFSP-I & II and DGFSP-I &II biscuits varied from 7.07 to
7.40, which were highest for the DFSP-I biscuits and lowest
for GFSP-II biscuits. Mean scores of aroma, taste and overall
acceptability of processed fenugreek supplemented biscuits
decreased significantly however, all the supplemented biscuits
were acceptable by the judges and adjudged as ‘liked
moderately’. Results of present study are in close agreement
with those of earlier workers who also incorporated processed
fenugreek seed powder upto 10 per cent in the development of
biscuits (Hooda & Jood, 2005; Ibrahium & Hegazy 2009;
Hussein et al. 2011; Mahmoud et al. 2012; Agrawal & Syed
2017; Lalit & Kochhar, 2018) [6, 7, 8, 13, 1, 9]. Lakshmi (2017) [10]
revealed that kozhukatlai prepared with 25 per cent of fried
fenugreek seed powder were found acceptable. Ibrahium &
Hegazy (2009) [8] revealed that replacement of wheat flour by
15 or 20 per cent fenugreek seed flour significantly impaired
the taste of biscuits due to the bitter taste of fenugreek.
Table 1: Mean scores of sensory characteristics of biscuits
Overall acceptability
Values are mean ± SE of ten observations
GFSP: Germinated fenugreek seed powder; DFSP: Debitter fenugreek seed powder
DGFSP: Debittered and germinated fenugreek seed powder; I = (@ 5%); II = (@ 10%)
Results showed that the GFSP-I biscuits contained maximum
contents of moisture, crude fiber and ash, whereas the
contents of crude protein and crude fat were found maximum
in DFSP-I biscuits. Biscuits developed using germinated,
debittered and debittered and germinated fenugreek seed
powder had significantly higher (P≤0.05) contents of
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International Journal of Chemical Studies
moisture, crude protein, crude fiber and ash than that of
control biscuits. The higher crude fiber and ash contents in
GFSP-I products may be due to higher contents of crude fiber
and ash in germinated fenugreek seeds. The slightly higher
contents of crude protein and crude fat in DFSP-I might be
because during processing seeds were soaked in milk which
was absorbed completely. Chaubey et al. (2017) [5] also
observed higher protein in debittered and germinated
fenugreek seed flour supplemented bread than bread prepared
only using germinated fenugreek seed flour at 10 per cent
level of incorporation.
A similar increase in the crude protein, moisture, crude fiber
and ash in the biscuits, bread, cookies and muffins developed
using 5-10 per cent of processed fenugreek seed powder was
also reported by Ibrahium & Hegazy (2009) [8], Hussein et al.
(2011) [7], Mahmoud et al. (2012) [13], Srivastava et al. (2012)
[19], Chaubey et al. (2017) [5], Agrawal & Syed (2017) [1] and
Bandyopadhyay et al. (2019) [4].
Table 2: Proximate composition of processed fenugreek seed
powder supplemented biscuits (%, on dry weight basis)
Types of
Crude fat
Values are mean ± SE of three independent determinations; *Fresh
weight basis
GFSP: Germinated fenugreek seed powder; DFSP: Debitter
fenugreek seed powder;
DGFSP: Debittered and germinated fenugreek seed powder; I = (@
5% II = (@ 10%)
It may be concluded that incorporation of fenugreek seed
powder yielded from debitterd, germinated and combination
of both the treatment did not affect the sensory attributes of
biscuits much rather has enhanced the nutritional profile.
Soaking of fenugreek seeds in milk for 8 hours had reduced
the bitterness significantly. The processed fenugreek seeds @
10 per cent level may be used successfully in the development
of food products however it may not be acceptable beyond
this level as it impart quite bitter taste in products. The
consumption of such functional foods having medicinal value
along with nutritional benefits may improve the overall health
status of healthy as well as people suffering from
degenerative diseases.
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
The present study was carried out to investigate the improvement role of fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum Graecum) leaves, seeds (dry and germinated) and wheat flour supplemented with germinated fenugreek powder at 5 to 10% levels on iron deficiency anemia in rats. Results of nutritional characteristics revealed that fenugreek flour is a good source of protein, fat, fiber and minerals (Fe, Ca and Zn). Biscuits supplemented with 10% germinated fenugreek (GF) had the highest content of polyphenols. Supplementation of wheat flour with fenugreek flour at 5 and 10% levels increased the vitamin B and $-carotene contents of biscuits. Wheat flour 2 supplemented by 5 and 10% GF produced acceptable and high nutritive values of biscuits. The biological examination revealed that the supplemented diets with GF, fenugreek leaves (FL), germinated fenugreek biscuits(GFB) and fenugreek seeds(FS) induced the greatest improvement effect on body weight gain and feed efficiency ratio in anemic rats as compared to the other experimental groups. The hematological and biochemical analyses showed that the changes in blood picture, serum total iron binding capacity, serum proteins and minerals (iron and zinc) levels were in favor of supplementation with fenugreek products when compared to the positive control group. It can be concluded that fenugreek products have good nutritive value and positive response on blood picture and serum biochemical parameters in anemic rats. Therefore, this study recommends that intake of fenugreek products may be beneficial for patients who suffer from iron deficiency anemia due to their nutritional and restorative properties.
Full-text available
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is a widely distributed well-known annual plant and has possessed obvious hypoglycaemic and hypercholesterolemia characteristics. In the present study fenugreek seeds and its extracts are utilized for fortification of low nutritional value baked items so as to enhance its nutraceutical properties. It was found that hot extraction and roasted & grinded fenugreek seed extracts had more polyphenol content than cold extraction and raw & grinded fenugreek seed. So it can be concluded that the amount of soluble polyphenols present in fenugreek seeds are increased after heat treatments. Result shows that, the maximum amount of polyphenols is present in three different types of baked items (bread: 0.304±0.002, cookies: 0.291 ±0.003, muffin: 0.345±0.001gm GAE/100gm sample) when fortified with hot extraction of fenugreek seeds. Therefore, for fortification of heat treated baked food items like bread, cookies and muffins, fenugreek seed and its extracts are good sources of polyphenols. Key words: Fenugreek, polyphenol, heat stable, baked food, nutraceutical
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To evaluate fenugreek seeds potential as nutritional and functional feed, chemical compositions, functional properties and in vitro nutritional values of raw, autoclaved (121°C, 15min) and pre-germinated (emergence of the radical in 95% of the seeds) fenugreek seeds were compared. On dry matter basis, raw seeds had: 5.4, 23.8, 40.4, 16.8, 66.9 and 26.4% fat, crude protein, NDF, ADF, total carbohydrates and non-fibrous carbohydrates, respectively. Autoclaving increased (P<0.05) fat (8.5%) and ADF (17.6%) and reduced (P<0.05) carbohydrates (64.3%) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (19.2%). Pre-germinated increased (P<0.05) fat (7.7%), crude protein (24.1%) and ADF (17.3%) and reduced (P<0.05) carbohydrates (64.2%). Raw seeds total phenols, tannins, flavonoids and phytic acid contents were 7.1, 3.5, 2.6 and 6.6 mg /g dry matter, respectively. Autoclaving reduced (P<0.05) only flavonoids level and pre-germinated reduced (P<0.05) phenols, tannins and flavonoids levels. Among the distinctive functional properties of raw seeds were their bulk density (0.69 g DM/ml), water absorption capacity (4.72 g/g DM), foaming capacity (21.37%), swelling coefficient (305%) and extractable color value (8.3 ASTA units). Autoclaving decreased (P<0.05) bulk density by 13% and extractable color by 29%. Pre-germination reduced (P<0.05) water absorption capacity by 17.8% and extractable color by 73.3 to 74.2% and increased (P<0.05) foaming capacity by 37.1%. Autoclaving reduced (P<0.05) protein dispersibility index from 34.78 to 10.25%, had no effect (P>0.05) on digestibility by pepsin (74.12-75.84%) and increased (P<0.05) digestibility by pepsin-trypsin from 82.31 to 85.91%, digestible energy by 6.2% and metabolizable energy by 4 to 4.7%. Pre-germination enhanced (P<0.05) protein dispersibility index to 45.39% and digestible energy by 3.8% and metabolizable energy by 4.3 to 6.7%. It was concluded that fenugreek seeds can serve as a valuable nutritional and functional food. Autoclaving and pre-germination improved such potential and need to be further evaluated and implemented in In Vivo studies.
Full-text available
The present study was undertaken for three years (2009-12) to evaluate thirteen promising genotypes from India for both yield and diosgenin content. Maximum yield was recorded in genotype LFC-103 (584.1 kg ha-1) followed by HM-348 (542.8 kg ha-1). The diosgenin content in the studied genotypes varied significantly, similar observations were recorded with the diosgenin productivity. Local cultivar recorded significantly highest diosgenin content (0.92 %). The highest diosgenin productivity was recorded with UM-364 (3.97 kg ha-1) followed by NDM-119 (3.91 kg ha-1). The superiority of these genotypes can be attributed to their wide adaptability and robust growth under rainfed conditions.
This study evaluated the effect of germination on the chemical composition and functional properties of fenugreek seed flour. Germinated fenugreek flour had higher crude protein 29.89% in fenugreek flour germinated for 72 hrs followed by 29.36% in fenugreek flour germinated for 48 hrs and 27.42% in raw fenugreek flour. The crude fiber ranged from 11.349 to 14.70%. But as the time of germination increased the crude fiber content slightly decreased. Fenugreek flour germinated for 48 hrs proved to be more beneficial in most mineral content than the rest of the germination periods (p<0.05). Germinated fenugreek flour for 72 hrs had significantly lower contents of anti-nutritional factors. The phytate content decreased significantly (p<0.05) from 64.22 to 18.99 with 53.96% reduction. The study showed that fenugreek flour germinated for 72 hrs proved to be the best for highest nutrient content. The reduction of bulk density further increased as germination time increased. The control fenugreek flour have higher amount of water absorption capacity (401.86%). On germination the WAC decreased to 250.07, 248.13, and 245.15% at 24,48,72 hrs germination, respectively. The processed fenugreek flour had a higher oil absorption capacity in the range of 346.13-398.40 ml/g, which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of control flour.
Germination of fenugreek seed showed better nutraceutical profile as evaluated by in vivo (oral glucose tolerance and acute antihypertriglyceridemic tests) on rats and in vitro DPPH and enzyme inhibition assays (α‐glucosidase, lipase, and lipoxygenase). Attempts were made to develop debittered and germinated fenugreek seed flour (DGFSF) by soaking in acesulfame (0.25%, 8 hr), curd (1:1 in water, 8 hr) and sucrose (5%, 8 hr) solution at 1:4 (wt/vol) ratio for debittering and then germinated, of which curd showed the maximum extent of debittering. The effect of substitution of wheat flour with 5, 10, 15, and 20% (wt/wt) of DGFSF on chemical characteristics and sensory properties was investigated; 10% fortified bread was organoleptically acceptable and had enhanced protein and fiber contents. Fortification increased the bulk density and crumb firmness, decreased the specific loaf volume, and darkened the crumb color. Glycemic index of the bread decreased with 10% DGFSF, which is indicative of desirable health benefits. Practical applications Fenugreek seeds are major constituent of Indian spices, bitter to taste and possess various medicinal properties. These seeds are an excellent source of dietary fiber and protein. Although incorporated into traditional foods, its bitterness limits its wide usage. In India, soaking and germination of seeds in water or curd was practiced traditionally since ancient days. Germination and debittering improved antioxidant activity, and various in vitro and in vivo bioactivities. Incorporation of debittered flour improved the polyphenolic, protein, and dietary fiber contents in bread which in turn demonstrated reduced rate of in vitro starch digestibility or lower glycemic index
Processing of pulses (peas, beans, lentils, chickpeas, and faba beans) is necessary to reduce or eliminate the antinutrient compounds. Conventional processing including soaking, dehulling, boiling, and pressure cooking as well as germination and fermentation reduce the levels of phytate, protease inhibitors, phenolics, condensed tannins, lectins, and saponins. Recent research has investigated how innovative processes such as extrusion, microwave heating, micronization, and irradiation affect the antinutrient content. Germination tends to be most effective at reducing phytate levels, regardless of pulse type. Mixed results on the effectiveness of extrusion, microwave heating, and micronization have been reported. More work is needed to understand how processing of consumer-ready foods containing pulse ingredients affects levels of antinutrient compounds.
Wheat flour sev can be prepared by substituting with sorghum and soybean flour at 40:40:20 level of substitution. It was observed that newly released wheat variety, WH-1129 was nutritionally and organoleptically superior to others. Hence, it was recommended that value added products developed from wheat-sorghum-soybean flour blends which are rich in minerals (iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus) and have higher in vitro availability (calcium and zinc) should be commercialized and promoted for use among populations through on-going nutrition intervention programmes like mid day meal programme.