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Purpose The influence of different factors including emotional states on loyalty has been previously discussed in the literature. However, the influence of post-visit emotions evoked by emotional stimuli on tourist loyalty lacks empirical attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty. Design/methodology/approach The study applied an online scenario-based experimental design to identify the impact of positive and negative affective pictorial stimuli on destination loyalty. A sample of 500 adult US residents who visited Orlando within the past 12 months was recruited to take part in the experiment. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the loyalty of three groups, two of which were manipulated with emotional stimuli, positive pictures and negative pictures and one control group with no pictures. Findings Results show that it is possible to influence visitor loyalty after visitation. Post-visit exposure to positive emotional stimuli generates higher levels of destination loyalty, while negative emotional stimuli generate lower levels of destination loyalty, in comparison with no stimuli scenario. Originality/value The study adds to the literature by providing support for the influence of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty, which lacked empirical attention, thus, far. As visitor experience lasts much longer than the visit itself, the study results are significant for increasing destination loyalty after the trip.
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The inuence of post-visit emotions on
destination loyalty
Maksim Godovykh and Asli D.A. Tasci
Purpose The influence of different factors including emotional states on loyalty has been previously
discussed in the literature. However, the influence of post-visit emotions evoked by emotional stimuli on
tourist loyalty lacks empirical attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of post-visit
emotional stimuli on destination loyalty.
Design/methodology/approach The study applied an online scenario-based experimental design to
identify the impact of positive and negative affective pictorial stimuli on destination loyalty. A sample of 500
adult US residents who visited Orlando within the past 12 months was recruited to take part in the experiment.
One-way ANOVA was used to compare the loyalty of three groups, two of which were manipulated with
emotional stimuli, positive pictures and negative pictures and one control group with no pictures.
Findings Results show that it is possible to influence visitor loyalty after visitation. Post-visit exposure to
positive emotional stimuli generates higher levels of destination loyalty, while negative emotional stimuli
generate lower levels of destination loyalty, in comparison with no stimuli scenario.
Originality/value The study adds to the literature by providing support for the influence of post-visit
emotional stimuli on destination loyalty, which lacked empirical attention, thus, far. As visitor experience lasts
much longer than the visit itself, the study results are significant for increasing destination loyalty after the trip.
Keywords Loyalty, Emotions, Destination, Affective stimuli
Paper type Research paper
Loyalty is one of the most widely discussed outcomes of customer experience because of
its commonly accepted influence on the success of a brand through loyal consumers’
intention to return in the future, willingness to pay more and spread positive word-of-mouth
about the brand (Oliver, 1999). Consumer loyalty towards destinations has also received
much empirical attention for the same expectations, namely, destination success through
tourists’ desire to visit the destination, generate positive word-of-mouth and recommend it to
others (Oppermann, 2000;Anton et al.,2017). Several studies discussed and measured the
main antecedents of destination loyalty, mostly satisfaction with prior visits, motivation,
destination image and perceived value (Akroush et al., 2016;Cakici et al., 2019). Tourists’
emotions were also described as antecedents of loyalty and other behavioral outcomes in
tourism and hospitality (Torres et al.,2017;Prayag et al., 2017).
Positive and negative tourism experience can elicit positive and negative emotional states
and even negative emotions could lead to positive outcomes in tourist behavior (Sharma
and Nayak, 2019). The literature suggests that emotional states change over time and can
be different before, during and after a trip (Nawijn and Biran, 2019). Therefore, emotions are
suspected to play a role not only during a visit experience but also long after the trip. Tourist
experience lasts much longer than the actual trip because of memories and post-visit
retrospective evaluations. The emotional aspect of these memories is a critical factor in
consumers’ retrospective evaluations of a product and service (Rubin and Kozin, 1984).
Maksim Godovykh and
Asli D.A. Tasci are both
based at the Rosen College
of Hospitality Management,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, Florida, USA.
Received 23 January 2020
Revised 2 April 2020
5 May 2020
Accepted 6 May 2020
DOI 10.1108/TR-01-2020-0025 ©Emerald Publishing Limited, ISSN 1660-5373 jTOURISM REVIEW j
Even though researchers discussed the significant influence of emotions on loyalty (Prayag
et al., 2015;Leri and Theodoridis, 2019), the temporal dynamics of the emotional impacts
and the influence of post-visit emotions on tourist loyalty lack empirical attention. The
emotional association with destinations was described as one of the most critical factors
influencing tourists’ motivation, decision-making and post-visit behavioral intentions
(Kwortnik and Ross, 2007;Pestana et al.,2019). Several studies suggest that external
emotional stimuli might trigger emotional responses (Brosch et al.,2010), which lead to
specific outcomes and behavioral intentions (Sharma and Nayak, 2019). The purpose of this
research is to investigate the effects of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty
using an online experiment where emotional states are manipulated with positive and
negative pictures, as opposed to a control group with no pictures.
This experimental research on the influences of post-visit emotional stimuli on loyalty is
important from theoretical, methodological and managerial perspectives. Theoretically, the
results of the study would explain if loyalty can be manipulated after a visit experience, even
with factors unrelated to the trip experience. From the managerial perspective, results
would provide practitioners with tools to enhance visitor loyalty using emotional stimuli. In
the highly competitive market environment, the ability for timely stimulation of consumer
emotions to boost their loyalty towards a destination is a valuable resource for destination
marketing organizations and tourism practitioners. Furthermore, the study would reveal
future research implications on the usability of an online experiment with visual stimuli to
manipulate respondent reactions.
Literature review
Destination loyalty
Loyalty in tourism is usually explained as tourists’ willingness to revisit a destination, provide
positive word-of-mouth and recommend it to others (Oppermann, 2000). However, many
different indicators of loyalty have been used to measure destination loyalty including the
intention to recommend, intention to return/revisit, positive opinion leadership, continued
future use, recommendable place perception, likelihood to visit/revisit (Yoon and Uysal,
2005;Tasci, 2011). Depending on the nature of the study, researchers use either single-
item measures of holistic loyalty or multi-item measures of multidimensional loyalty with its
behavioral and/or attitudinal dimensions (Tasci, 2017).
Many different factors have been proposed to affect consumer loyalty in tourism and
hospitality, including experience, satisfaction, price, service quality, perceptions,
familiarity, prior experience, sociodemographic characteristics and some other factors
(Akroush et al., 2016;Gallarza and Saura, 2020;Godovykh et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2019;
Iordanova and Stylidis, 2019;Sthapit et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2019). These factors were
grouped into five categories related to the itself, its competitors, consumers,
the tourism and hospitality industry and the wider environment (Tasci, 2017). Some
cognitive antecedents of loyalty (e.g. motivation, destination image, familiarity, service
quality and satisfaction) have received more attention than others (Kim et al., 2019;
Tasci, 2016;Yoon and Uysal, 2005;Zhang et al., 2014), while the effects of emotional
factors as antecedents of consumer loyalty towards tourism and hospitality products
need further empirical support.
The effects of emotions on destination loyalty
Neurobiologically, emotions can be explained as automatic chemical and neural responses
produced by the nervous system in response to affective stimuli, which could be both
conscious and unconscious (Damasio, 2004). However, the tourism literature traditionally
uses the simplistic definition of emotions as positive and negative reactions to specific
external events (Leri and Theodoridis, 2019;Prentice, 2020), which often result from
pleasurable consumption experiences (Li et al.,2014). It is acknowledged that tourist
experiences might have both positive and negative influences on emotions (Song et al.,
Although the majority of studies describe positive emotions such as happiness, joy or
anticipation (McCabe and Johnson, 2013;Hosany and Prayag, 2013), tourism activities can
elicit negative emotions such as sadness, disgust and anger related to visiting tragedy
places, observing poverty or taking part in dark tourism activities (Sharma and Nayak,
2019). The literature describes a strong influence of emotions on the general assessment of
experiences, satisfaction and behavioral intentions (Prayag et al.,2013;Sthapit et al.,2019;
Sharma and Nayak, 2019).
Due to the complexity of measuring tourist emotions onsite, the majority of studies measures
tourists’ retrospective evaluations of the previous emotions and confirms the effects of post-
visit emotions on different outcomes in different tourism and hospitality settings (Torres
et al.,2017
;Prayag et al.,2017;Sharma and Nayak, 2019). For example, Prayag et al.
(2015) reported positive effects of positive emotions on behavioral intentions in the
restaurant context while Prayag et al. (2017) revealed that the emotional experiences of
domestic tourists visiting Sardinia influence their willingness to recommend the destination.
Torres et al. (2017) found that combined valence of positive or negative emotions is related
to the overall vacation experience evaluations. Sharma and Nayak (2019) confirmed that
tourists’ emotions influence cognitive and affective components of destination image, as
well as their behavioral intentions. While the previous research confirms the effects of tourist
emotions, there is a lack of understanding if it is possible to affect destination loyalty by
presenting positive or negative emotional stimuli after a visit.
According to the Stimulus-Organism-Response framework, external stimuli can affect
emotional responses, which, in turn, affect people’s approach-avoidance responses
(Russell and Mehrabian, 1977). Positive emotions lead to approach behavior, while negative
emotions produce avoidance behavior (Yalch and Spangenberg, 2000). According to the
literature, positive and negative emotional stimuli might trigger predefined emotional
responses, which, in turn, lead to specific behavioral intentions (Brosch et al.,2010). Hence,
this study hypothesizes that positive and negative emotional stimuli presented after a visit
might influence tourist loyalty towards a destination positively and negatively, respectively.
H1. Post-visit positive emotional stimulus has a positive influence on destination loyalty.
H2. Post-visit negative emotional stimulus has a negative influence on destination loyalty.
Study context
Orlando was selected as a study context for several reasons. First, Orlando is the most
visited destination in the US with 75 million annual visitors in 2018 (Visit Orlando, 2019).
Second, Orlando’s most popular theme parks (Walt Disney World, Universal Orlando, Sea
World) provide high levels of emotional experiences and can be considered as the best
places to studying tourist emotions (Torres et al.,2019). The majority of visitors come to
Orlando to experience theme parks and attractions, as well as sport, cultural and business
events. The study examined the destination loyalty of people who visited Orlando for
different purposes during the past 12 months.
Study instrument
Qualtrics XM was used to design manipulations and the measurement instrument. Based on
the previous studies measuring destination loyalty (Tasci, 2017;Yoon and Uysal, 2005), the
main construct of the study, destination loyalty, was measured by a seven-item loyalty scale
(1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree) with the most commonly used loyalty
measurement items. Visit purpose (Skogland and Siguaw, 2004), satisfaction from the visit
(Cakici et al., 2019), as well as sociodemographic characteristics (Mechinda et al.,2009;
Prayag, 2012), can be influential on visit experiences; thus, questions about the purpose of
the last visit, satisfaction and typical demographic questions (age, gender, education,
income, marital status and race/ethnicity) were also included. Satisfaction was measured
with a single item scale: Please, rate your overall satisfaction with your last visit using the
scale below (1 = very dissatisfied, 7 = very satisfied). A screening question was included to
ascertain prior visits; respondents were asked to provide the name of the favorite attraction
they visited in Orlando. For manipulation checks, a question about respondents’ emotional
state after viewing pictures was also included to check if the pictorial stimuli created
expected positive or negative emotions: After seeing those three pictures, how would you
rate your emotional state on the following scale? (1 = very negative, 7 = very positive).
Study design
An online scenario-based randomized experimental design was used to test the study
hypotheses. Experimental design is considered as one of the more practical ways to
analyze proposed relationships because an experiment provides control over confounding
factors and has high levels of internal validity in measuring the expected effects (Victorino
and Dixon, 2016). Three different picture scenarios were used to identify the influences of
emotional stimuli on destination loyalty, namely, a positive emotional stimuli scenario, a
negative emotional stimuli scenario and a no emotional stimuli scenario. Respondents were
randomly selected and assigned to one of the three conditions.
The scenarios of emotional stimuli were designed based on the International Open Affective
Standardized Image Set (OASIS), developed by Kurdi et al. (2017), which were specifically
developed to provide stimuli for experimental studies of emotions. This image set includes
various pictures that induce different levels of arousal and valence in respondents, ranging
between high levels and low levels. From this image set, three positive and three negative
emotional pictures with high levels of arousal and valence were selected as the emotional
stimuli in the current study. The positive emotional scenario group was subjected to three
pictures (Figure 1) with the high levels of arousal and positive valence (valence averages
ranging from 5.446 to 6.088; arousal averages ranging from 4.634 to 4.709). Similarly, the
negative emotional scenario group was subjected to three pictures (Figure 2)withnegative
emotions (valence averages ranging from 1.64 to 2.029; arousal averages ranging from 3.788
to 4.663). The valence and arousal ranges were tested and reported by Kurdi et al. (2017),
and therefore, assumed but not retested in the current study. The neutral scenario or control
group was surveyed without any pictures.
Figure 1 Positive emotional pictures with high valence and arousal borrowed from the
International OASIS (Kurdi et al., 2017) for the positive pictures scenario in the study
Before exposure to scenarios, the purpose of the last visit and satisfaction from the last visit
were assessed. Then, the emotional pictures were shown, followed by questions about their
emotional states, about destination loyalty and demographic characteristics. Manipulation
check was conducted to test the validity of manipulation by asking respondents to rate their
emotional states after seeing the emotional pictures.
Data collection
Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online survey platform, was used for data collection.
MTurk is known as a reliable method of participant recruitment (Buhrmester et al., 2011). A
sample of 500 adult US residents who visited Orlando within the past 12months was
recruited in March 2019 and March 2020. Online sampling is not considered a threat to the
validity of the results, as the emotional stimulus scenarios were designed to examine
respondents’ post-visit emotions’ influence on loyalty towards a destination that they
previously visited and all three groups were recruited with the same sampling method.
The respondents were randomly assigned to the different experimental groups, and the
possibility of introducing a systematic bias into the group assignment was low due to the
sample size of 147-153 cases per experimental group.
Several analysis tools of IBM’s SPSS version 24 were applied. Descriptive statistics and
frequency distribution were used to check the sample profile, missing data and normality of
the data. One-way ANOVA was used for manipulation checks and comparison of
differences among the three groups, namely, positive pictures, negative pictures and no
The sociodemographic profile, rating of satisfaction and past visit purposes of respondents
in each scenario group are provided in Table 1. The average age of respondents ranges
between 34.67 and 36.95years for different groups. The gender distribution shows some
female dominance in all groups, 52.98% in negative pictures, 57.8% in no pictures group
and 58.2% in positive pictures group. The majority of the respondents in all groups were
college or university graduates (between 57.8% and 60.8%). In all groups, about half of the
respondents’ annual income was less than 50,000 USD and the majority were Caucasian
(between 65.9% and 69.0%). The average level of satisfaction from the visit ranges from
5.64 to 5.95 for different groups. The majority of respondents visited Orlando for pleasure/
vacation purposes (between 66.7% and 72.2%).
Potential bias from sociodemographic and trip differences in different picture scenarios was
analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and
tests. The test results displayed in Table 1 fails
Figure 2 Negative emotional pictures with high valence and arousal borrowed from the
International OASIS (Kurdi et al.,2017)forthenegativepicturesscenariointhestudy
to reject the null hypothesis on the absence of association between the experimental group
scenarios and sociodemographic and trip characteristics, suggesting that three scenario
groups are homogeneous. In other words, measured differences in destination loyalty in
different groups can be attributed to the manipulated emotions of respondents rather than
different group characteristics.
Before comparing groups on destination loyalty, a one-way ANOVA test with post hoc
Tukey test was used to check if the positive and negative pictures were effective in creating
positive and negative emotions in respondents. The average rating of the emotional state is
significantly higher for the group that viewed positive pictures (M = 6.08, SD = 0.99) than
the group that viewed negative pictures (M = 2.56, SD = 1.38) at
<0.05; thus, we can
conclude that the pictorial stimuli achieved the expected manipulation of emotional state in
Table 2 Displays the average ratings of destination loyalty dimensions for all groups and
one-way ANOVA test results; Table 3 displays the results of post hoc tukey test of group
comparisons. Overall, all destination loyalty dimensions were rated higher than the mid-
point on the seven-point Likert scale. The highest-rated destination loyalty dimensions were
willingness to encourage friends to visit the destination (between 5.11 and 6.06), willingness
to recommend the destination (between 5.16 and 6.01), willingness to say positive things
(between 4.97 and 6.02) and revisit intentions (between 5.09 and 6.00). Loyalty dimensions
that received lower ratings are more on the extreme side, namely, the first choice to visit,
promote on social media and pay more.
Table 1 Sociodemographic and visit characteristics of respondents in different picture scenario groups
Negative pictures
(n = 152)
No pictures
(n = 147)
Positive pictures
(n = 153)
One-way ANOVA and
test significance
Age (years, mean) 34.67 36.95 36.23 0.186
Gender (%) 0.426
Male 46.4 42.2 40.5
Female 52.9 57.8 58.2
Level of education (%) 0.253
High school 18.3 15.0 10.5
Vocational school/Associate 6.5 8.2 9.2
College/university 58.8 57.8 60.8
Master’s or PhD 15.7 18.4 19.6
Other 0.7
Family’s annual income (%) 0.367
Under $30,000 28.3 20.4 24.8
$30,000-$49,999 26.3 29.9 17.6
$50,000-$79,999 25.5 27.2 37.9
More than $80,000 19.6 22.4 19.6
Race/ethnicity (%) 0.734
White/caucasian 68.6 70.7 69.3
African American 7.2 12.2 9.8
Hispanic 7.8 3.4 8.5
Asian 15.0 10.2 12.4
Native American 0.7 2.7 5.9
Pacific Islander 0 0.7 1.3
Other 0 0 2.0
Visit purpose (%) 0.243
Pleasure/vacation 66.7 71.4 72.2
Business 13.1 11.6 16.7
Visiting friends or relatives 14.4 8.2 11.1
Satisfaction (mean) 5.64 5.80 5.95 0.065
Table 3 Post hoc tukey test on multiple comparisons
Dependent variable Groups Pictures Mean difference Std. error Sig. Group
Say positive things No pictures Negative 0.7270.155 0.000 N <No and P
Positive 0.319 0.155 0.099
Negative No pictures 0.7270.155 0.000
Positive 1.0460.153 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.319 0.155 0.099
Negative 1.0460.153 0.000
Recommend No pictures Negative 0.4280.155 0.016 N <No <P
Positive 0.4210.155 0.019
Negative No pictures 0.4280.155 0.016
Positive 0.8500.153 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.4210.155 0.019
Negative 0.8500.153 0.000
Encourage friends to visit No pictures Negative 0.5410.158 0.002 N <No <P
Positive 0.4130.158 0.025
Negative No pictures 0.5410.158 0.002
Positive 0.9540.156 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.4130.158 0.025
Negative 0.9540.156 0.000
Consider as first choice No pictures Negative 0.354 0.200 0.180 N and No <P
Positive 0.5530.200 0.016
Negative No pictures 0.354 0.200 0.180
Positive 0.9070.198 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.5530.200 0.016
Negative 0.9070.198 0.000
Revisit No pictures Negative 0.5810.177 0.003 N <No and P
Positive 0.327 0.177 0.156
Negative No pictures 0.5810.177 0.003
Positive 0.9080.176 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.327 0.177 0.156
Negative 0.9080.176 0.000
Promote in social media No pictures Negative 0.358 0.205 0.189 N <P
Positive 0.332 0.205 0.237
Negative No pictures 0.358 0.205 0.189
Positive 0.6910.203 0.002
Positive No pictures 0.332 0.205 0.237
Negative 0.6910.203 0.002
Choose even if costs more No pictures Negative 0.405 0.204 0.117 N and No <P
Positive 0.5310.204 0.025
Negative No pictures 0.405 0.204 0.117
Positive 0.9350.202 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.5310.204 0.025
Negative 0.9350.202 0.000
Notes: Significant at <0.05 or <0.01 level.
Table 2 One-way ANOVA test on mean ratings of loyalty among different groups
Destination loyalty items
(n= 152)
No pictures
(n= 147)
(n= 153) FSig.
Say positive things 4.97 5.70 6.02 24.517 0.000
Recommend 5.16 5.59 6.01 15.334 0.000
Encourage friends to visit 5.11 5.65 6.06 18.670 0.000
Consider as first choice 4.22 4.57 5.12 10.676 0.000
Revisit 5.09 5.67 6.00 13.709 0.000
Promote in social media 4.34 4.69 5.03 5.788 0.003
Choose even if costs more 3.89 4.30 4.83 10.804 0.000
Notes: 1 = Strongly disagree; 7 = strongly agree
One-way ANOVA was conducted to identify differences in mean scores of the seven items
of loyalty across the three groups (negative pictures, no pictures, positive pictures). The
results comparing the three groups on seven items in Table 2 show significant differences
(p<0.05) in all items among the three groups.
Post hoc Tukey test of mean differences in Table 3 showed that the positive picture group’s
ratings were significantly higher than those of the negative pictures group for all dimensions
of destination loyalty. Additionally, the positive picture group ratings were significantly
higher on five destination loyalty items (recommend, encourage friends to visit, the first
choice to visit, promote in social media and choose even if costs more) than those of the
group with no pictures. Furthermore, the negative pictures group’s ratings were significantly
lower on five destination loyalty items (say positive things, recommend, encourage friends
to visit, revisit intentions and promote in social media) than those of the group with no
pictures (control group).
As respondents are homogeneous in the potential confounding factors, namely
sociodemographic characteristics, the purpose of the visit and satisfaction form the visit,
these differences can be attributed to the manipulated positive and negative emotional
states. Thus, hypotheses H1 and H2 were supported; post-visit positive emotional stimuli
generate higher levels of destination loyalty in comparison with negative emotional stimuli,
as well as the lack of emotional stimuli, while post-visit negative emotional stimuli lead to
lower levels of destination loyalty in comparison with the positive emotional stimuli, as well
as the lack of emotional stimuli.
Discussion and implications
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of post-visit emotional stimuli on
destination loyalty. The results revealed the potential effects of post-visit emotions related to
the post-visit positive and negative emotional stimuli. The results demonstrated significant
differences between negative and positive picture groups in all destination loyalty
dimensions, which means that positive and negative post-visit emotional stimuli have
opposite effects on destination loyalty. Additionally, the study findings showed that post-
visit emotional stimuli generate higher levels of destination loyalty in comparison with the
lack of any emotional stimuli.
These results confirm the past literature reporting that emotional stimuli trigger emotional
responses (Brosch et al.,2010), which, in turn, influence revisit intentions, willingness to
recommend and willingness to pay more (Barsky and Nash, 2002). Also, these results
describe additional antecedents of destination loyalty related to respondents’ post-visit
emotional states. Post-visit loyalty may be a liquid state, affected by mood, emotions,
memories and other factors (Hosany and Prayag, 2013;Sharma and Nayak, 2019;Akroush
et al.,2016
;Cakici et al.,2019). The results suggest that presenting different post-visit
emotional stimuli can affect revisit intentions, willingness to recommend, willingness to pay
more and other dimensions of destination loyalty. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that
loyalty towards a destination can be affected by emotions evoked by even those stimuli
unrelated to a destination. This implies that destination loyalty can be manipulated at any
point in time, closer to potential revisit time. The results also agree with the findings of other
studies describing the importance of affective dimensions of loyalty and reporting the
influence of emotional factors on different dimensions of customer loyalty (Leri and
Theodoridis, 2019;Sharma and Nayak, 2019).
The results provide important managerial implications for the tourism industry as well.
Results show that it is possible to increase destination loyalty by providing positive picture
stimuli. Focusing on tourists’ post-visit emotions may be a cost-effective way to improve
loyalty, as stimulating emotions might be a lot easier and cheaper than spending valuable
resources on an advertisement and loyalty programs. However, the effects of other stimuli
(affective destination videos, affective texts, sounds, etc.) can be also significant and need
further investigation.
Nonetheless, emotional stimuli cannot be assumed to be pictures of visitors having fun,
which is typically what destination marketing and management organizations and tourism
providers use in the hopes of creating a desire for potential visitors. Similar to the
International Open Affective Standardized Image Set, different destination images need to
be studied to identify the arousal and valence levels of different types of pictures with
different contents. Additionally, potential negative emotions related to typical destination
pictures also need to be identified. A beautiful downtown picture may induce both arousal
and negative emotions for those people who are concerned about the destruction of nature
for development. A comprehensive study of different pictorial, verbal and audio elements
can be identified as a benchmark for destination marketing and management to follow in
creating their positive emotional stimuli.
Even though the current study context was destinations, the results have implications for
any type of products and services. Similar emotional stimuli can be used to induce positive
response on loyalty towards the micro-level products with a destination, namely hotels,
restaurants, attractions and events. When this strategy is used collectively by different
industry partners within a destination, the cumulative impact on the positive response
towards the destination as the encompassing product might be even larger than that of the
effort by the destination marketing organizations only.
Furthermore, the study offers an important methodological implication related to using
picture scenarios to manipulate emotions. As the manipulation check revealed a
significant difference between groups’ average ratings of emotional states in the
positive picture, negative picture and no picture scenarios, this method can be
applied in future experimental studies testing the influence of emotional states on
consumer attitude in tourism and hospitality and other fields. The affective positive
and negative pictures with highest levels of valence and arousal from the International
Open Affective Standardized Image Set developed by Kurdi et al. (2017) and
International Affective Picture System previously introduced by Lang et al. (2008)
make it possible to manipulate positive and negative emotions in online and field
The limitations of the study warrant future research on the subject matter. First, online
sampling can be considered a limitation in terms of the generalizability of the results.
Hence, the study needs to be repeated with an offline sample of people who visited the
destination. Second, the study used a 1-item scale for measuring the emotional state after
viewing negative and positive pictures to test the validity of manipulation. The manipulations
were simple, and a one-item scale was deemed sufficient to measure respondents’
emotional responses. However, to analyze the effects of more complicated emotional
stimuli, it is necessary to apply a multi-item scale with a range of different emotions. For
instance, self-assessment manikin as a non-verbal pictorial assessment technique can be
useful in measuring pleasure, arousal and dominance reaction to emotional stimuli in online
studies (Bradley et al.,2001).
Additionally, the self-reported evaluations of emotions rely on respondents’ memory and
can be biased due to social expectations, autobiographical memory, self-concept and
other biases (Wilhelm and Grossman, 2010). Hence, psychophysiological measures of
emotions (electrodermal activity, electromyography, electrocardiography, pupillometry,
etc.) may help to increase the reliability and validity of the results. Furthermore, this study
did not aim at analyzing the influence of time after the visit on loyalty due to limitations in the
sample size, thus, future studies with cross-sectional survey design would be useful in
generating a large number of respondents in each time period after the visit to test the
temporal influences on emotions’ effect on loyalty.
Finally, the current study focused on visual stimuli’s influence on emotions. A comprehensive
study of different stimuli for different senses may provide a better picture of what evokes
positive emotions to improve loyalty. Thus, future studies need to test the differential influences
of not only affective pictures but also texts, videos and sounds on destination loyalty.
Despite these limitations, the current study helps in better understanding of destination
loyalty or loyalty in general. The study reveals that destination loyalty can be manipulated by
using different stimuli, even if they are not directly related to the destination. Consumers
may consciously or unconsciously relate different stimuli to the destination and change their
reactions based on the emotions evoked by these stimuli. Loyalty may indeed be a fragile
concept vulnerable to many external influences.
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... Typically, destination loyalty is operationalized as behavioral, attitudinal or composite loyalty (Oppermann, 2000). Behavioral loyalty depicts tourists' actual travel experience to a destination, and attitudinal loyalty emphasizes tourists' intention, willingness and likelihood to visit or recommend a destination (Godovykh and Tasci, 2021;Tasci et al., 2021). Composite loyalty refers to integrating behavioral and attitudinal aspects (Oppermann, 2000). ...
... By uncovering the mediating role of tainted memories, this research enriches the literature on travel-related memories (Godovykh and Tasci, 2021;Marschall, 2012;Marschall, 2015;Tung et al., 2017;Yin et al., 2017) and on strategic memory protection theory (Zauberman et al., 2009). Findings of the empirical model suggest that perceived unfavorable changes diminish tourists' destination loyalty by tainting their initial memories and reducing revisit satisfaction. ...
... Findings of the empirical model suggest that perceived unfavorable changes diminish tourists' destination loyalty by tainting their initial memories and reducing revisit satisfaction. Such finding suggests that the favorable long-term memories that can be recollected are precious assets to tourists (Godovykh and Tasci, 2021;Tung et al., 2017). ...
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Purpose Repeat tourists are invaluable to tourist destinations. However, their perceptions and reactions toward unfavorable destination changes remain underexplored. This paper aims to answer two important and unresolved questions: how do repeat tourists react to perceived unfavorable changes? and what are the main unfavorable destination changes for repeat tourists? Design/methodology/approach This research builds on the strategic memory protection theory. This paper consists of two studies (a quantitative one and a qualitative one) conducted in China. The quantitative study proposed and tested a structural equation model linking perceived unfavorable changes, tainted memories, revisit satisfaction and destination loyalty. Data were collected via a questionnaire distributed on an online survey platform with 416 valid responses. The qualitative study was conducted to determine the unfavorable destination changes that repeat tourists perceive. Ninety-five valid responses were used for analysis. Findings This research empirically shows that perceived unfavorable changes diminish repeat tourists’ destination loyalty by tainting their initial memories and reducing revisit satisfaction. This full mediation confirms the importance of personal memories and psychology in tourism experiences. This research further uncovers two main types of unfavorable destination changes: destination mismanagement (i.e. overcommercialization, insufficient facilities, poor destination management, excessive prices and a decline in service qualities) and negative environmental changes (overtouristification, changes to natural and social environments and changes in tourist sites and activities). Originality/value This research adds to the destination loyalty literature by unveiling actual repeat tourists’ revisit perceptions and psychological processes toward unfavorable destination changes. This research also identifies the typical unfavorable changes perceived by repeat tourists.
... In addition, when purchasing products and services, feelings are frequently associated with them [88]. In other words, it is the feeling that originates from the acquisition of a product and/or service, and this emotional state can vary over time [89], representing a positive effect on consumer loyalty [90], as supported by [91] when stating that emotional value significantly influences consumer loyalty. Similarly, [87] highlighted that, in order to attract loyal customers, brands need to develop a strong relationship of love or attachment with their consumers; in other words, customers who feel more attached to the brand are satisfied and committed to it, so they become more loyal. ...
... On the other hand, regarding the contribution of emotional value to brand loyalty, it was found that it represents a contribution in second order with 28.70%, so H2 was accepted; thus, it is important to know the customer's emotional state may change over time, having, in addition, a positive effect on loyalty [89,90]. Emotional value also significantly influences consumer loyalty. ...
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The COVID 19 pandemic brought significant changes in consumption habits, bringing about an era of more sustainable and healthier consumption. The objective of the present study is to measure brand loyalty to healthy foods in Peru, not only in a pandemic context, but also in a natural context based on the dimensions of the PERVAL value scale. Data were collected through an online survey and processed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results of the model among 396 consumers revealed that qualitative value and emotional value have the highest contribution to brand loyalty, followed by economic value and social value. These findings suggest that product quality should be taken as a priority and, although social value does not contribute much to health food brand loyalty, it is a trend sought after by consumers.
... Bicycle sharing can evoke positive emotions, such as happiness, in tourists (Zhou et al., 2020). It also represents a new consumer fashion, a status that will increase tourists' willingness to reuse, which is consistent with the results of Godovykh and Tasci (2021). Strong psychological benefits have a significant positive impact on tourists' willingness to reuse. ...
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Focusing on Hangzhou, a famous tourist city in China, in this study, four regression models were constructed through four items of tourist loyalty to investigate the influence of tourist perceptions and characteristics on male and female tourist loyalty to shared bicycles. A questionnaire survey and ordered logistic regression model techniques were used. Survey data from 467 tourists indicated that there were significant differences between male and female tourists. For male tourists, their willingness to reuse shared bicycles (Models 1 and 2) was positively correlated with ease of access to cycles, environmental awareness, psychological benefit, and management provision; however, their willingness to recommend shared bicycles (Models 3 and 4) was only affected by environmental awareness, psychological benefit, and management provision. Among female tourists, willingness to reuse shared bicycles (Models 1 and 2) was affected by ease of access to cycles, environmental awareness, and rule adherence, while their willingness to recommend shared bicycles (Models 3 and 4) was affected by ease of access to cycles, environmental awareness, psychological benefit, and managerial provision. In addition, female tourists’ socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics had a significant impact on their loyalty, among which length of stay in Hangzhou and education were significant in the four regression models, and number of visits to Hangzhou had a positive impact on female tourists’ willingness to reuse (Models 1 and 2). In addition, female tourists who used Hellobike had higher willingness to reuse and recommend than those who used Mobike. For male tourists, only length of stay in Hangzhou had a significant impact on their reuse intention (Model 2). The current study extends the theory of attribution to explore the factors which may affect tourist’s loyalty to bicycle-sharing from the perspectives of tourists’ perceptions. It will provide further support to decision makers in the development of new shared-bicycle systems at Chinese tourist destinations, with the aim of strengthening tourist loyalty to shared-bicycle programs.
... At the same time, the emotional components of tourism experiences are widely described in the previous tourism literature (e.g. Hosany et al., 2015;Godovykh & Tasci, 2020a;2020b). As tourism activities are inseparably connected with providing positive experiences and interaction between tourists and residents, tourism may bring better health and well-being outcomes for both tourists and residents. ...
Tourism brings with it both positive and negative health impacts on local communities. Although the topic of health in tourism is traditionally associated with tourists’ health, there are potential opportunities to study the influence of tourism on residents’ health as well. This study aims at exploring the direct and indirect effects of tourism development on residents’ health through income and environmental pollution in the case of several European countries. The long-term and short-term relationships among tourism arrivals, emissions, residents’ income, and health were estimated using a generalized least squares (gls) approach. The results demonstrate that tourism arrivals bring significant short-term and long-term impacts on residents’ health directly and indirectly through environmental pollution and residents’ income. Several important theoretical and practical implications are related to considering the long-term health impacts as more important outcomes of tourism development and providing recommendations for destination management organizations and governmental authorities.
... TOS is reflected a precarious mean for measuring destination performance, as a satisfied tourist is more likely to recommend and return destination (Li et al., 2020). DBL refers to a deep attachment between the tourist and a tourism destination through the intention to revisit or by word of mouth referral (Rahman et al., 2020;Godovykh and Tasci, 2020). DBL have been identified as a conative component (Quoquab et al., 2020). ...
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The tourism industry is an important part of the economy of countries around the world. In high competitive and challenging situations, tourism entrepreneurs have adopted tourism logistics and marketing managements as their strategies. The objectives of this research are to study the effects of physical flow (PHF), information flow (INF), financial flow (FIF), infrastructure (IFS) and sustainability (SUS) on tourist satisfaction (TOS) and the effect of TOS on destination brand loyalty (DBL), including the mediation effect of TOS on the effect on PHF, INF, FIF, IFS on SUS of Thailand’s tourists. The study used quantitative method research. The sample was 384 Thailand’s tourists, arisen from convenience sampling. The instruments used in the research were questionnaires. The statistics used for data analysis were frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, confirmative factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The findings revealed that PHF, INF, FIF, IFS and SUS had a direct positive effect on TOS and TOS had a positive direct effect on DBL. In addition, TOS mediates the effect of PHF, INF, FIF, IFS and SUS on DBL. For practical recommendation, such findings can be a guideline for government and related agencies to design the tourism strategies and policy to satisfy the tourists.
... As Wakefield and Blodgett suggest (2016), there remains an opportunity to explore responses to specific elements within a servicescape, an approach this study takes. Emotions have been found to impact guests' satisfaction (Godovykh & Tasci, 2021), loyalty (Barsky & Nash, 2002;Godovykh & Tasci, 2020), or decisions in lodging advertisements (Jeon, Lee, & Jeong, 2018), so it follows that these concepts should be synthesized to understand how the presence of art in space or advertising inspires aesthetic-emotional attitudes or related behaviors. ...
Artworks, from paintings and photographs to sculptures and architectural features, have received prominent placement in hospitality spaces. Art in the servicescape or in advertising for sites can induce positive or negative effects depending on everything from style to color. This paper aims to discuss the impact of art on guests’ attitudes and behavioral intentions and advocate for further research on aesthetic impacts in hospitality. A mixed-methods approach was used to initially understand the impact of art on guests’ attitudes and behavioral intentions in the peer-to-peer accommodation setting. The results showed a major visual difference between guests’ attention to the colored paintings and black and white paintings, as well as indicated that colored pictures caused higher levels of attractiveness perception. The online structured interviews generated major themes related to attractiveness of the visual art in Airbnb settings and demonstrated that art influenced guests’ emotions and booking intentions. These themes provide emerging propositions for future research on the effects of different types of art in hospitality contexts.
Understanding patient experience is crucial as it influences patient satisfaction, perceived quality of healthcare services, loyalty to physicians and providers, as well as patient health and well-being. However, the multidimensional, long-lasting, affective, and dynamic nature of patient experience demands using new metrics and emerging methodology for measurement. This research note aims to review the potential approaches to measuring patient experience in healthcare, provide a typology of patient experience metrics, and call for further research on evaluating patient experience and analyzing its effects on health outcomes.
Purpose This study aims to explore the relationships among novelty, meaningfulness, hedonism and loyalty in the context of an astrotourism experience. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using a convenience sample at an astrotourism event in Portugal. A self‐administered questionnaire was designed using established scales. In total, 296 usable responses were analyzed using partial least square (PLS)-structural equation modeling. Findings The result of the structural model shows that novelty and meaningfulness affect hedonism, which in turn influences loyalty. Novelty and meaningfulness contribute 62.8% to the variance in hedonism and 31.3% to the variability in loyalty. Originality/value This study deepens knowledge of the tourist behavior of astrotourists. Destinations and managers that develop astrotourism activities can also benefit from deeper knowledge about the emotional process of the astrotourism experience and its impact on behavioral loyalty.
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The problem of excessive tourism has overnight become an ideology and a part of the past. With the appearance of the COVID-19 pandemic, the flow of tourist movements was abruptly interrupted, and thus the visits to restaurants. The aim of the research was to determine whether the fear of the users of the pandemic infection affects the intention to visit restaurants. The total number of respondents was 508, in 27 restaurants in the Republic of Serbia. The authors used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multiple regression analysis with mediation for data processing. The research concluded that the perceived fears of the respondents may influence the decision to visit restaurants. The importance of research is reflected in the application of results in theory and practice, in order to facilitate business during the pandemic.
Crowding used to be a double-edged sword in the tourism industry. However, the COVID-19 pandemic seems to make the disadvantage of crowding more obvious. Here, we investigated the relationship between vaccination status (including vaccination completeness and willingness), crowding perception, popular perception, destination attractiveness, and loyalty based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response model. Empirical research data were collected through a survey of 535 tourists to Nanjing's Confucian Temple, China, which is known for its tremendous travel volume. The results show that both crowding perception and popular perception significantly affect loyalty, but with opposite signs. Moreover, if tourists have been vaccinated, the positive effect of destination attractiveness on loyalty will intensify, meaning that the rarely investigated variable vaccination status indeed plays a moderating role.
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A considerable amount of literature describes concepts that predict theme park visitor behavior. Although previous studies made an effort to measure the impact of several variables on theme park visitors’ loyalty, there is a lack of empirical attention on the impact of some consumption variables such as previous experience, perceived queuing quality, waiting time, using of virtual queuing, and the role of anticipating and remembering the visit. The current study introduces several new experience concepts that were not previously discussed in the literature: the amount of pleasure from anticipation, visiting, and remembering the experience, and time allocation for waiting in lines, amusement activities, and food consumption. Factors that explain these variables, as well as factors that explain perceived value, queuing quality, satisfaction, and loyalty were investigated through survey data from a cross-sectional study. The results demonstrate that the previous theme park experience has a significant influence on customer loyalty and explains the amount of pleasure visitors receive from anticipation, remembering, and the actual visiting experience. Another important finding is related to the role of virtual queuing, which has relationships with perceived value, perceived waiting time, perceived queuing quality, satisfaction, loyalty, as well as the amount of pleasure from anticipation, visiting, and remembering the theme park visit. Theoretical and managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.
Purpose This paper aims to discuss how emotional intelligence (EI) can be incorporated into the tourism sector to enhance the tourist experience through managing the service encounter between tourism service representatives and tourists. Design/methodology/approach A review of the relevant literature on EI and tourism is undertaken to understand the link between EI and tourist experience. The paper begins by explaining the evolution and conceptualisations of EI and discusses its empirical evidence in various contexts. Findings EI is proposed to be incepted into the tourism context through its influence on the service encounter between tourism service representatives and tourists. The service encounter is diagnosed as being emotionally charged through discussing tourism offerings, emotional labour performance and tourist attributions. Originality/value This paper provides a fresh look into the link between EI and tourism service encounters and suggests the application of EI into the tourism context to enhance the tourist experience.
Purpose Consumer value (CV) is endemic to marketing, and therefore, it is a crucial notion to understand the evolution of tourism research. This paper aims to review the main achievements made on CV in tourism and hospitality literature and also the shortcomings and propose avenues for future research on tourism through the lens of CV. Design/methodology/approach Through relevant citations from 1975 to 2020, a figure describes diachronically the role of CV in different paradigm flaws, both pre and post digitization: experiential consumption in the 1980s, service quality-satisfaction discussion in early 1990s, customer relationship in late 1990s and Service Dominant Logic in 2000s and beyond. Findings Tourism services have been preferred fields for inquiry on CV, helping to describe the idiosyncrasy of nearly all tourism consumption settings. Although there is not a clear picture on the number and nature of value dimensions (intra-variable perspective), nor in the direct and indirect effects on the quality-value-satisfaction-loyalty chain (inter-variable), new CV frameworks favor ecosystems of value (different stakeholders, different times and places and mixed motivations) in more comprehensive models. Originality/value This paper depicts how CV has contributed to tourism development as a behavioral science through the past 75 years. Moreover, it preconizes that CV is still a valid construct to address all new challenges of human beings as tourists, either online or offline, by enlightening phenomena such as e-value co-creation, over-tourism, peer-to-peer consumption and the power of tourism transformative value.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use a multi-level model as a framework to examine the relationships among experiential quality, green emotional attachment, green image, green switching experience, green experiential satisfaction and green experiential loyalty for the green restaurant industry. Design/methodology/approach The data used in this study were based on a sample of 515 customers at a green restaurant in Taipei City of Taiwan. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and hierarchical regression analysis. Findings The findings identify that interaction quality, peer-to-peer quality, physical environment quality, outcome quality, enjoyment quality and management quality influence experiential quality, which in turn results in green emotional attachment and green image respectively. Experiential quality, green image and green switching experience influence green experiential satisfaction, which in turn results in green emotional attachment. Green loyalty is influenced by green emotional attachment, green image, green experiential satisfaction and green switching experience. Green image moderates the relationships between experiential quality, physical environment quality and outcome quality. Practical implications To increase experiential quality and green emotional attachment, enhance green image, green experiential satisfaction and green loyalty and decrease green switching experience, the study findings will help green restaurant management develop and implement market-orientated service strategies. Originality/value This is the first study to investigate the effects of experiential quality, green emotional attachment, green image, green switching experience and green experiential satisfaction on green experiential loyalty in a green restaurant setting.
Purpose The primary purpose of this study is to examine the effects of destination familiarity on consumers’ evaluations (cognitive image) and feelings (affective image) about the destination, leading to their intention to visit. Design/methodology/approach The data for this study were collected through a Web-based survey. Based on a sample of 460 respondents, structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed hypotheses. Findings The results showed that familiarity with a destination not only influences consumers’ cognitive evaluations of the destination but also affects their feelings about it, which translates into their intentions in travelling to the destination. The findings indicate that destination familiarity can enhance consumers’ knowledge about the destination, but more importantly, their affective perceptions can lead to a higher likelihood of visiting a destination. Practical implications The findings provide useful guidance for efficient marketing programs to attract more visitors to a certain tourist destination. Destination marketers must assess the level of familiarity of potential travelers in the development, design and promotion of a destination. This understanding will enable the marketers to more effectively communicate with their target markets and allow them to tailor advertising to different segments of their customers based on their familiarity. Originality/value The majority of previous studies regarding destination familiarity tend to measure the overall familiarity or experiential familiarity (e.g. a comparison between visitors vs non-visitors) without considering consumers’ indirect familiarity with a destination. This study attempts to conceptualize and empirically test the role of destination familiarity on consumers’ cognitive and affective images and intentions.
Purpose This paper aims to examine the direct and indirect effects of tourists’ value on satisfaction and loyalty intentions in dark tourism. Design/methodology/approach This research was conducted using the data collected through a questionnaire survey from 403 tourists visiting a dark tourism destination in India. Data were analyzed using CFA and SPSS macro (Process). Findings The findings confirmed that tourists’ values have significant direct and indirect effects on loyalty intentions via satisfaction in dark tourism. Among specific value, the strongest direct and indirect influence of emotional value in dark tourism is the unique finding of this research. Practical implications This study would help the marketers, government, local authorities and relevant stakeholders operating in dark tourism to formulate policies and strategies to better serve this niche tourism. Originality/value This research is the first-known attempt to reveal the uniqueness of tourists’ perception of value in dark tourism. It could significantly add to the literature and practice of dark tourism.
The present study explored the key drivers of customer delight and outrage in North American theme parks. Following content analysis of TripAdvisor postings, the authors revealed the most frequently used codes for delight including rides, travel advice, fun, physical environment, positive food and beverage experience, and well-managed lines. The most frequently used codes for outrage included: pricing, wait times, poor service, malfunctioning attractions, lack of variety, low quality of food, and lack of updates. These codes revealed five key constructs of theme park experiential consumption: core products, customer service, affective individual experience, management philosophy and practice, and pricing.
Purpose-This study aims to shed some light on destination image formation by exploring whether image is altered as a result of tourists' experience intensity with a destination. Design/methodology/approach-A visitor experience intensity index was developed based on the amount of events and attractions visitors have already attended/visited or were planning to attend/visit during their stay. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaires and the total sample consisted of 400 tourists in Linz, Austria. Principal Component Analysis, MANOVA and Discriminant Analysis were applied to analyse the data. Findings-The findings indicate that the higher the experience intensity score, the more favourable the cognitive and affective evaluations of destination image, indicating that tourists' experiences are central in the formation of the in-situ image. Research limitations/implications-The 'level of psychological involvement' with the destination should be considered by future studies, as this paper focused on level of experience intensity. Practical implications-This paper supports the effective and innovative solutions for place marketing and branding of tourist destinations such as promoting experiences that further enhance destination image. The study also assists places with bad reputation or negative image, like the selected case study (Linz, Austria), in repositioning themselves as attractive experience providers. Originality/value-The paper's originality lies in applying 'mere exposure theory' in tourism and using an innovative way of measuring tourists' experience through an intensity index. The study addresses a significant, but still neglected image determinant, that of experience intensity, contributing to a better understanding of the in situ destination image formation process. Paper type-Research paper
Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived price justice, satisfaction, revisit intention and loyalty among restaurant customers, specially the mediating effect of revisit intention in the relationship between perceived price justice, satisfaction and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from a questionnaire distributed to customer of restaurants in Turkey. A total of 304 restaurant customers participated. Findings Results from structural equation modeling show that price justice and satisfaction positively influence their revisit intention of restaurant customers, also revisit intention positively influences loyalty of restaurant customers. Also, the empirical results indicate that while revisit intention fully mediates the effect of price justice and loyalty, it partially mediates the effect of satisfaction and loyalty. Originality/value When the studies in the literature are examined, it is seen that there are various studies that deal with perceived price justice, customer satisfaction, revisit intention and loyalty variables from a different viewpoint. However, no study has been found on restaurants that investigate the relationship between these four variables and the mediating role of revisit intention. Furthermore, the authors’ study contributes to the hospitality and service management literature in two ways. First, the authors follow recent calls for studies on antecedents of revisit intention, with the aim of providing empirical support to uncover factor that shape customers’ revisit intentions. Second, the authors investigate the attitudinal mechanism that explains how customers’ perception of price justice and satisfaction in their loyalty by exploring the mediation effect of revisit intention. On the other hand, it is foreseen that the study will shed light on restaurant managers and provide healthy data for strategic planning. Additionally, that the results obtained are the practical purpose of the study is to contribute to the determination of product development and promotional strategies for restaurant managements.
A noticeable void remains in the appreciation of what motivates the senior tourism market. This study aims to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field of tourism consumer psychology by improving the existing understanding of the motivation and related psychological processes that underly intentions and decision-making in respect of tourist destinations. A model explaining the mediation role played by satisfaction in the relationship between motivation, emotion, and behavioural intentions is developed. A sample of 460 seniors visiting Lisbon is used, and through the application of structural equation modelling to the data obtained, it is found that satisfaction mediates the relationship between motivations and emotions, and behavioural intentions, simultaneously strengthening the positive association between push and pull motivations. Seniors’ previous experience is seen to moderate the positive effect of satisfaction on intention. Additionally, there is support for motivational differences, which have a significant impact on behavioural intentions, between younger (55–60 years) and older seniors (> 60 years). Finally, several academic and managerial implications are outlined, including the usefulness of the model developed in different geographical settings.