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Purpose The influence of different factors including emotional states on loyalty has been previously discussed in the literature. However, the influence of post-visit emotions evoked by emotional stimuli on tourist loyalty lacks empirical attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty. Design/methodology/approach The study applied an online scenario-based experimental design to identify the impact of positive and negative affective pictorial stimuli on destination loyalty. A sample of 500 adult US residents who visited Orlando within the past 12 months was recruited to take part in the experiment. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the loyalty of three groups, two of which were manipulated with emotional stimuli, positive pictures and negative pictures and one control group with no pictures. Findings Results show that it is possible to influence visitor loyalty after visitation. Post-visit exposure to positive emotional stimuli generates higher levels of destination loyalty, while negative emotional stimuli generate lower levels of destination loyalty, in comparison with no stimuli scenario. Originality/value The study adds to the literature by providing support for the influence of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty, which lacked empirical attention, thus, far. As visitor experience lasts much longer than the visit itself, the study results are significant for increasing destination loyalty after the trip.
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The inuence of post-visit emotions on
destination loyalty
Maksim Godovykh and Asli D.A. Tasci
Abstract
Purpose The influence of different factors including emotional states on loyalty has been previously
discussed in the literature. However, the influence of post-visit emotions evoked by emotional stimuli on
tourist loyalty lacks empirical attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of post-visit
emotional stimuli on destination loyalty.
Design/methodology/approach The study applied an online scenario-based experimental design to
identify the impact of positive and negative affective pictorial stimuli on destination loyalty. A sample of 500
adult US residents who visited Orlando within the past 12 months was recruited to take part in the experiment.
One-way ANOVA was used to compare the loyalty of three groups, two of which were manipulated with
emotional stimuli, positive pictures and negative pictures and one control group with no pictures.
Findings Results show that it is possible to influence visitor loyalty after visitation. Post-visit exposure to
positive emotional stimuli generates higher levels of destination loyalty, while negative emotional stimuli
generate lower levels of destination loyalty, in comparison with no stimuli scenario.
Originality/value The study adds to the literature by providing support for the influence of post-visit
emotional stimuli on destination loyalty, which lacked empirical attention, thus, far. As visitor experience lasts
much longer than the visit itself, the study results are significant for increasing destination loyalty after the trip.
Keywords Loyalty, Emotions, Destination, Affective stimuli
Paper type Research paper
Introduction
Loyalty is one of the most widely discussed outcomes of customer experience because of
its commonly accepted influence on the success of a brand through loyal consumers’
intention to return in the future, willingness to pay more and spread positive word-of-mouth
about the brand (Oliver, 1999). Consumer loyalty towards destinations has also received
much empirical attention for the same expectations, namely, destination success through
tourists’ desire to visit the destination, generate positive word-of-mouth and recommend it to
others (Oppermann, 2000;Anton et al.,2017). Several studies discussed and measured the
main antecedents of destination loyalty, mostly satisfaction with prior visits, motivation,
destination image and perceived value (Akroush et al., 2016;Cakici et al., 2019). Tourists’
emotions were also described as antecedents of loyalty and other behavioral outcomes in
tourism and hospitality (Torres et al.,2017;Prayag et al., 2017).
Positive and negative tourism experience can elicit positive and negative emotional states
and even negative emotions could lead to positive outcomes in tourist behavior (Sharma
and Nayak, 2019). The literature suggests that emotional states change over time and can
be different before, during and after a trip (Nawijn and Biran, 2019). Therefore, emotions are
suspected to play a role not only during a visit experience but also long after the trip. Tourist
experience lasts much longer than the actual trip because of memories and post-visit
retrospective evaluations. The emotional aspect of these memories is a critical factor in
consumers’ retrospective evaluations of a product and service (Rubin and Kozin, 1984).
Maksim Godovykh and
Asli D.A. Tasci are both
based at the Rosen College
of Hospitality Management,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, Florida, USA.
Received 23 January 2020
Revised 2 April 2020
5 May 2020
Accepted 6 May 2020
DOI 10.1108/TR-01-2020-0025 ©Emerald Publishing Limited, ISSN 1660-5373 jTOURISM REVIEW j
Even though researchers discussed the significant influence of emotions on loyalty (Prayag
et al., 2015;Leri and Theodoridis, 2019), the temporal dynamics of the emotional impacts
and the influence of post-visit emotions on tourist loyalty lack empirical attention. The
emotional association with destinations was described as one of the most critical factors
influencing tourists’ motivation, decision-making and post-visit behavioral intentions
(Kwortnik and Ross, 2007;Pestana et al.,2019). Several studies suggest that external
emotional stimuli might trigger emotional responses (Brosch et al.,2010), which lead to
specific outcomes and behavioral intentions (Sharma and Nayak, 2019). The purpose of this
research is to investigate the effects of post-visit emotional stimuli on destination loyalty
using an online experiment where emotional states are manipulated with positive and
negative pictures, as opposed to a control group with no pictures.
This experimental research on the influences of post-visit emotional stimuli on loyalty is
important from theoretical, methodological and managerial perspectives. Theoretically, the
results of the study would explain if loyalty can be manipulated after a visit experience, even
with factors unrelated to the trip experience. From the managerial perspective, results
would provide practitioners with tools to enhance visitor loyalty using emotional stimuli. In
the highly competitive market environment, the ability for timely stimulation of consumer
emotions to boost their loyalty towards a destination is a valuable resource for destination
marketing organizations and tourism practitioners. Furthermore, the study would reveal
future research implications on the usability of an online experiment with visual stimuli to
manipulate respondent reactions.
Literature review
Destination loyalty
Loyalty in tourism is usually explained as tourists’ willingness to revisit a destination, provide
positive word-of-mouth and recommend it to others (Oppermann, 2000). However, many
different indicators of loyalty have been used to measure destination loyalty including the
intention to recommend, intention to return/revisit, positive opinion leadership, continued
future use, recommendable place perception, likelihood to visit/revisit (Yoon and Uysal,
2005;Tasci, 2011). Depending on the nature of the study, researchers use either single-
item measures of holistic loyalty or multi-item measures of multidimensional loyalty with its
behavioral and/or attitudinal dimensions (Tasci, 2017).
Many different factors have been proposed to affect consumer loyalty in tourism and
hospitality, including experience, satisfaction, price, service quality, perceptions,
familiarity, prior experience, sociodemographic characteristics and some other factors
(Akroush et al., 2016;Gallarza and Saura, 2020;Godovykh et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2019;
Iordanova and Stylidis, 2019;Sthapit et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2019). These factors were
grouped into five categories related to the itself, its competitors, consumers,
the tourism and hospitality industry and the wider environment (Tasci, 2017). Some
cognitive antecedents of loyalty (e.g. motivation, destination image, familiarity, service
quality and satisfaction) have received more attention than others (Kim et al., 2019;
Tasci, 2016;Yoon and Uysal, 2005;Zhang et al., 2014), while the effects of emotional
factors as antecedents of consumer loyalty towards tourism and hospitality products
need further empirical support.
The effects of emotions on destination loyalty
Neurobiologically, emotions can be explained as automatic chemical and neural responses
produced by the nervous system in response to affective stimuli, which could be both
conscious and unconscious (Damasio, 2004). However, the tourism literature traditionally
uses the simplistic definition of emotions as positive and negative reactions to specific
external events (Leri and Theodoridis, 2019;Prentice, 2020), which often result from
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pleasurable consumption experiences (Li et al.,2014). It is acknowledged that tourist
experiences might have both positive and negative influences on emotions (Song et al.,
2019).
Although the majority of studies describe positive emotions such as happiness, joy or
anticipation (McCabe and Johnson, 2013;Hosany and Prayag, 2013), tourism activities can
elicit negative emotions such as sadness, disgust and anger related to visiting tragedy
places, observing poverty or taking part in dark tourism activities (Sharma and Nayak,
2019). The literature describes a strong influence of emotions on the general assessment of
experiences, satisfaction and behavioral intentions (Prayag et al.,2013;Sthapit et al.,2019;
Sharma and Nayak, 2019).
Due to the complexity of measuring tourist emotions onsite, the majority of studies measures
tourists’ retrospective evaluations of the previous emotions and confirms the effects of post-
visit emotions on different outcomes in different tourism and hospitality settings (Torres
et al.,2017
;Prayag et al.,2017;Sharma and Nayak, 2019). For example, Prayag et al.
(2015) reported positive effects of positive emotions on behavioral intentions in the
restaurant context while Prayag et al. (2017) revealed that the emotional experiences of
domestic tourists visiting Sardinia influence their willingness to recommend the destination.
Torres et al. (2017) found that combined valence of positive or negative emotions is related
to the overall vacation experience evaluations. Sharma and Nayak (2019) confirmed that
tourists’ emotions influence cognitive and affective components of destination image, as
well as their behavioral intentions. While the previous research confirms the effects of tourist
emotions, there is a lack of understanding if it is possible to affect destination loyalty by
presenting positive or negative emotional stimuli after a visit.
According to the Stimulus-Organism-Response framework, external stimuli can affect
emotional responses, which, in turn, affect people’s approach-avoidance responses
(Russell and Mehrabian, 1977). Positive emotions lead to approach behavior, while negative
emotions produce avoidance behavior (Yalch and Spangenberg, 2000). According to the
literature, positive and negative emotional stimuli might trigger predefined emotional
responses, which, in turn, lead to specific behavioral intentions (Brosch et al.,2010). Hence,
this study hypothesizes that positive and negative emotional stimuli presented after a visit
might influence tourist loyalty towards a destination positively and negatively, respectively.
H1. Post-visit positive emotional stimulus has a positive influence on destination loyalty.
H2. Post-visit negative emotional stimulus has a negative influence on destination loyalty.
Methodology
Study context
Orlando was selected as a study context for several reasons. First, Orlando is the most
visited destination in the US with 75 million annual visitors in 2018 (Visit Orlando, 2019).
Second, Orlando’s most popular theme parks (Walt Disney World, Universal Orlando, Sea
World) provide high levels of emotional experiences and can be considered as the best
places to studying tourist emotions (Torres et al.,2019). The majority of visitors come to
Orlando to experience theme parks and attractions, as well as sport, cultural and business
events. The study examined the destination loyalty of people who visited Orlando for
different purposes during the past 12 months.
Study instrument
Qualtrics XM was used to design manipulations and the measurement instrument. Based on
the previous studies measuring destination loyalty (Tasci, 2017;Yoon and Uysal, 2005), the
main construct of the study, destination loyalty, was measured by a seven-item loyalty scale
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(1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree) with the most commonly used loyalty
measurement items. Visit purpose (Skogland and Siguaw, 2004), satisfaction from the visit
(Cakici et al., 2019), as well as sociodemographic characteristics (Mechinda et al.,2009;
Prayag, 2012), can be influential on visit experiences; thus, questions about the purpose of
the last visit, satisfaction and typical demographic questions (age, gender, education,
income, marital status and race/ethnicity) were also included. Satisfaction was measured
with a single item scale: Please, rate your overall satisfaction with your last visit using the
scale below (1 = very dissatisfied, 7 = very satisfied). A screening question was included to
ascertain prior visits; respondents were asked to provide the name of the favorite attraction
they visited in Orlando. For manipulation checks, a question about respondents’ emotional
state after viewing pictures was also included to check if the pictorial stimuli created
expected positive or negative emotions: After seeing those three pictures, how would you
rate your emotional state on the following scale? (1 = very negative, 7 = very positive).
Study design
An online scenario-based randomized experimental design was used to test the study
hypotheses. Experimental design is considered as one of the more practical ways to
analyze proposed relationships because an experiment provides control over confounding
factors and has high levels of internal validity in measuring the expected effects (Victorino
and Dixon, 2016). Three different picture scenarios were used to identify the influences of
emotional stimuli on destination loyalty, namely, a positive emotional stimuli scenario, a
negative emotional stimuli scenario and a no emotional stimuli scenario. Respondents were
randomly selected and assigned to one of the three conditions.
The scenarios of emotional stimuli were designed based on the International Open Affective
Standardized Image Set (OASIS), developed by Kurdi et al. (2017), which were specifically
developed to provide stimuli for experimental studies of emotions. This image set includes
various pictures that induce different levels of arousal and valence in respondents, ranging
between high levels and low levels. From this image set, three positive and three negative
emotional pictures with high levels of arousal and valence were selected as the emotional
stimuli in the current study. The positive emotional scenario group was subjected to three
pictures (Figure 1) with the high levels of arousal and positive valence (valence averages
ranging from 5.446 to 6.088; arousal averages ranging from 4.634 to 4.709). Similarly, the
negative emotional scenario group was subjected to three pictures (Figure 2)withnegative
emotions (valence averages ranging from 1.64 to 2.029; arousal averages ranging from 3.788
to 4.663). The valence and arousal ranges were tested and reported by Kurdi et al. (2017),
and therefore, assumed but not retested in the current study. The neutral scenario or control
group was surveyed without any pictures.
Figure 1 Positive emotional pictures with high valence and arousal borrowed from the
International OASIS (Kurdi et al., 2017) for the positive pictures scenario in the study
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Before exposure to scenarios, the purpose of the last visit and satisfaction from the last visit
were assessed. Then, the emotional pictures were shown, followed by questions about their
emotional states, about destination loyalty and demographic characteristics. Manipulation
check was conducted to test the validity of manipulation by asking respondents to rate their
emotional states after seeing the emotional pictures.
Data collection
Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online survey platform, was used for data collection.
MTurk is known as a reliable method of participant recruitment (Buhrmester et al., 2011). A
sample of 500 adult US residents who visited Orlando within the past 12months was
recruited in March 2019 and March 2020. Online sampling is not considered a threat to the
validity of the results, as the emotional stimulus scenarios were designed to examine
respondents’ post-visit emotions’ influence on loyalty towards a destination that they
previously visited and all three groups were recruited with the same sampling method.
The respondents were randomly assigned to the different experimental groups, and the
possibility of introducing a systematic bias into the group assignment was low due to the
sample size of 147-153 cases per experimental group.
Several analysis tools of IBM’s SPSS version 24 were applied. Descriptive statistics and
frequency distribution were used to check the sample profile, missing data and normality of
the data. One-way ANOVA was used for manipulation checks and comparison of
differences among the three groups, namely, positive pictures, negative pictures and no
pictures.
Results
The sociodemographic profile, rating of satisfaction and past visit purposes of respondents
in each scenario group are provided in Table 1. The average age of respondents ranges
between 34.67 and 36.95years for different groups. The gender distribution shows some
female dominance in all groups, 52.98% in negative pictures, 57.8% in no pictures group
and 58.2% in positive pictures group. The majority of the respondents in all groups were
college or university graduates (between 57.8% and 60.8%). In all groups, about half of the
respondents’ annual income was less than 50,000 USD and the majority were Caucasian
(between 65.9% and 69.0%). The average level of satisfaction from the visit ranges from
5.64 to 5.95 for different groups. The majority of respondents visited Orlando for pleasure/
vacation purposes (between 66.7% and 72.2%).
Potential bias from sociodemographic and trip differences in different picture scenarios was
analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and
x
2
tests. The test results displayed in Table 1 fails
Figure 2 Negative emotional pictures with high valence and arousal borrowed from the
International OASIS (Kurdi et al.,2017)forthenegativepicturesscenariointhestudy
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to reject the null hypothesis on the absence of association between the experimental group
scenarios and sociodemographic and trip characteristics, suggesting that three scenario
groups are homogeneous. In other words, measured differences in destination loyalty in
different groups can be attributed to the manipulated emotions of respondents rather than
different group characteristics.
Before comparing groups on destination loyalty, a one-way ANOVA test with post hoc
Tukey test was used to check if the positive and negative pictures were effective in creating
positive and negative emotions in respondents. The average rating of the emotional state is
significantly higher for the group that viewed positive pictures (M = 6.08, SD = 0.99) than
the group that viewed negative pictures (M = 2.56, SD = 1.38) at
a
<0.05; thus, we can
conclude that the pictorial stimuli achieved the expected manipulation of emotional state in
respondents.
Table 2 Displays the average ratings of destination loyalty dimensions for all groups and
one-way ANOVA test results; Table 3 displays the results of post hoc tukey test of group
comparisons. Overall, all destination loyalty dimensions were rated higher than the mid-
point on the seven-point Likert scale. The highest-rated destination loyalty dimensions were
willingness to encourage friends to visit the destination (between 5.11 and 6.06), willingness
to recommend the destination (between 5.16 and 6.01), willingness to say positive things
(between 4.97 and 6.02) and revisit intentions (between 5.09 and 6.00). Loyalty dimensions
that received lower ratings are more on the extreme side, namely, the first choice to visit,
promote on social media and pay more.
Table 1 Sociodemographic and visit characteristics of respondents in different picture scenario groups
Variables
Negative pictures
(n = 152)
No pictures
(n = 147)
Positive pictures
(n = 153)
One-way ANOVA and
x
2
test significance
Age (years, mean) 34.67 36.95 36.23 0.186
Gender (%) 0.426
Male 46.4 42.2 40.5
Female 52.9 57.8 58.2
Level of education (%) 0.253
High school 18.3 15.0 10.5
Vocational school/Associate 6.5 8.2 9.2
College/university 58.8 57.8 60.8
Master’s or PhD 15.7 18.4 19.6
Other 0.7
Family’s annual income (%) 0.367
Under $30,000 28.3 20.4 24.8
$30,000-$49,999 26.3 29.9 17.6
$50,000-$79,999 25.5 27.2 37.9
More than $80,000 19.6 22.4 19.6
Race/ethnicity (%) 0.734
White/caucasian 68.6 70.7 69.3
African American 7.2 12.2 9.8
Hispanic 7.8 3.4 8.5
Asian 15.0 10.2 12.4
Native American 0.7 2.7 5.9
Pacific Islander 0 0.7 1.3
Other 0 0 2.0
Visit purpose (%) 0.243
Pleasure/vacation 66.7 71.4 72.2
Business 13.1 11.6 16.7
Visiting friends or relatives 14.4 8.2 11.1
Satisfaction (mean) 5.64 5.80 5.95 0.065
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Table 3 Post hoc tukey test on multiple comparisons
Dependent variable Groups Pictures Mean difference Std. error Sig. Group
differences
Say positive things No pictures Negative 0.7270.155 0.000 N <No and P
Positive 0.319 0.155 0.099
Negative No pictures 0.7270.155 0.000
Positive 1.0460.153 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.319 0.155 0.099
Negative 1.0460.153 0.000
Recommend No pictures Negative 0.4280.155 0.016 N <No <P
Positive 0.4210.155 0.019
Negative No pictures 0.4280.155 0.016
Positive 0.8500.153 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.4210.155 0.019
Negative 0.8500.153 0.000
Encourage friends to visit No pictures Negative 0.5410.158 0.002 N <No <P
Positive 0.4130.158 0.025
Negative No pictures 0.5410.158 0.002
Positive 0.9540.156 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.4130.158 0.025
Negative 0.9540.156 0.000
Consider as first choice No pictures Negative 0.354 0.200 0.180 N and No <P
Positive 0.5530.200 0.016
Negative No pictures 0.354 0.200 0.180
Positive 0.9070.198 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.5530.200 0.016
Negative 0.9070.198 0.000
Revisit No pictures Negative 0.5810.177 0.003 N <No and P
Positive 0.327 0.177 0.156
Negative No pictures 0.5810.177 0.003
Positive 0.9080.176 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.327 0.177 0.156
Negative 0.9080.176 0.000
Promote in social media No pictures Negative 0.358 0.205 0.189 N <P
Positive 0.332 0.205 0.237
Negative No pictures 0.358 0.205 0.189
Positive 0.6910.203 0.002
Positive No pictures 0.332 0.205 0.237
Negative 0.6910.203 0.002
Choose even if costs more No pictures Negative 0.405 0.204 0.117 N and No <P
Positive 0.5310.204 0.025
Negative No pictures 0.405 0.204 0.117
Positive 0.9350.202 0.000
Positive No pictures 0.5310.204 0.025
Negative 0.9350.202 0.000
Notes: Significant at <0.05 or <0.01 level.
Table 2 One-way ANOVA test on mean ratings of loyalty among different groups
Destination loyalty items
Negative
pictures
(n= 152)
No pictures
(n= 147)
Positive
pictures
(n= 153) FSig.
Say positive things 4.97 5.70 6.02 24.517 0.000
Recommend 5.16 5.59 6.01 15.334 0.000
Encourage friends to visit 5.11 5.65 6.06 18.670 0.000
Consider as first choice 4.22 4.57 5.12 10.676 0.000
Revisit 5.09 5.67 6.00 13.709 0.000
Promote in social media 4.34 4.69 5.03 5.788 0.003
Choose even if costs more 3.89 4.30 4.83 10.804 0.000
Notes: 1 = Strongly disagree; 7 = strongly agree
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One-way ANOVA was conducted to identify differences in mean scores of the seven items
of loyalty across the three groups (negative pictures, no pictures, positive pictures). The
results comparing the three groups on seven items in Table 2 show significant differences
(p<0.05) in all items among the three groups.
Post hoc Tukey test of mean differences in Table 3 showed that the positive picture group’s
ratings were significantly higher than those of the negative pictures group for all dimensions
of destination loyalty. Additionally, the positive picture group ratings were significantly
higher on five destination loyalty items (recommend, encourage friends to visit, the first
choice to visit, promote in social media and choose even if costs more) than those of the
group with no pictures. Furthermore, the negative pictures group’s ratings were significantly
lower on five destination loyalty items (say positive things, recommend, encourage friends
to visit, revisit intentions and promote in social media) than those of the group with no
pictures (control group).
As respondents are homogeneous in the potential confounding factors, namely
sociodemographic characteristics, the purpose of the visit and satisfaction form the visit,
these differences can be attributed to the manipulated positive and negative emotional
states. Thus, hypotheses H1 and H2 were supported; post-visit positive emotional stimuli
generate higher levels of destination loyalty in comparison with negative emotional stimuli,
as well as the lack of emotional stimuli, while post-visit negative emotional stimuli lead to
lower levels of destination loyalty in comparison with the positive emotional stimuli, as well
as the lack of emotional stimuli.
Discussion and implications
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of post-visit emotional stimuli on
destination loyalty. The results revealed the potential effects of post-visit emotions related to
the post-visit positive and negative emotional stimuli. The results demonstrated significant
differences between negative and positive picture groups in all destination loyalty
dimensions, which means that positive and negative post-visit emotional stimuli have
opposite effects on destination loyalty. Additionally, the study findings showed that post-
visit emotional stimuli generate higher levels of destination loyalty in comparison with the
lack of any emotional stimuli.
These results confirm the past literature reporting that emotional stimuli trigger emotional
responses (Brosch et al.,2010), which, in turn, influence revisit intentions, willingness to
recommend and willingness to pay more (Barsky and Nash, 2002). Also, these results
describe additional antecedents of destination loyalty related to respondents’ post-visit
emotional states. Post-visit loyalty may be a liquid state, affected by mood, emotions,
memories and other factors (Hosany and Prayag, 2013;Sharma and Nayak, 2019;Akroush
et al.,2016
;Cakici et al.,2019). The results suggest that presenting different post-visit
emotional stimuli can affect revisit intentions, willingness to recommend, willingness to pay
more and other dimensions of destination loyalty. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that
loyalty towards a destination can be affected by emotions evoked by even those stimuli
unrelated to a destination. This implies that destination loyalty can be manipulated at any
point in time, closer to potential revisit time. The results also agree with the findings of other
studies describing the importance of affective dimensions of loyalty and reporting the
influence of emotional factors on different dimensions of customer loyalty (Leri and
Theodoridis, 2019;Sharma and Nayak, 2019).
The results provide important managerial implications for the tourism industry as well.
Results show that it is possible to increase destination loyalty by providing positive picture
stimuli. Focusing on tourists’ post-visit emotions may be a cost-effective way to improve
loyalty, as stimulating emotions might be a lot easier and cheaper than spending valuable
resources on an advertisement and loyalty programs. However, the effects of other stimuli
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(affective destination videos, affective texts, sounds, etc.) can be also significant and need
further investigation.
Nonetheless, emotional stimuli cannot be assumed to be pictures of visitors having fun,
which is typically what destination marketing and management organizations and tourism
providers use in the hopes of creating a desire for potential visitors. Similar to the
International Open Affective Standardized Image Set, different destination images need to
be studied to identify the arousal and valence levels of different types of pictures with
different contents. Additionally, potential negative emotions related to typical destination
pictures also need to be identified. A beautiful downtown picture may induce both arousal
and negative emotions for those people who are concerned about the destruction of nature
for development. A comprehensive study of different pictorial, verbal and audio elements
can be identified as a benchmark for destination marketing and management to follow in
creating their positive emotional stimuli.
Even though the current study context was destinations, the results have implications for
any type of products and services. Similar emotional stimuli can be used to induce positive
response on loyalty towards the micro-level products with a destination, namely hotels,
restaurants, attractions and events. When this strategy is used collectively by different
industry partners within a destination, the cumulative impact on the positive response
towards the destination as the encompassing product might be even larger than that of the
effort by the destination marketing organizations only.
Furthermore, the study offers an important methodological implication related to using
picture scenarios to manipulate emotions. As the manipulation check revealed a
significant difference between groups’ average ratings of emotional states in the
positive picture, negative picture and no picture scenarios, this method can be
applied in future experimental studies testing the influence of emotional states on
consumer attitude in tourism and hospitality and other fields. The affective positive
and negative pictures with highest levels of valence and arousal from the International
Open Affective Standardized Image Set developed by Kurdi et al. (2017) and
International Affective Picture System previously introduced by Lang et al. (2008)
make it possible to manipulate positive and negative emotions in online and field
experiments.
The limitations of the study warrant future research on the subject matter. First, online
sampling can be considered a limitation in terms of the generalizability of the results.
Hence, the study needs to be repeated with an offline sample of people who visited the
destination. Second, the study used a 1-item scale for measuring the emotional state after
viewing negative and positive pictures to test the validity of manipulation. The manipulations
were simple, and a one-item scale was deemed sufficient to measure respondents’
emotional responses. However, to analyze the effects of more complicated emotional
stimuli, it is necessary to apply a multi-item scale with a range of different emotions. For
instance, self-assessment manikin as a non-verbal pictorial assessment technique can be
useful in measuring pleasure, arousal and dominance reaction to emotional stimuli in online
studies (Bradley et al.,2001).
Additionally, the self-reported evaluations of emotions rely on respondents’ memory and
can be biased due to social expectations, autobiographical memory, self-concept and
other biases (Wilhelm and Grossman, 2010). Hence, psychophysiological measures of
emotions (electrodermal activity, electromyography, electrocardiography, pupillometry,
etc.) may help to increase the reliability and validity of the results. Furthermore, this study
did not aim at analyzing the influence of time after the visit on loyalty due to limitations in the
sample size, thus, future studies with cross-sectional survey design would be useful in
generating a large number of respondents in each time period after the visit to test the
temporal influences on emotions’ effect on loyalty.
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Finally, the current study focused on visual stimuli’s influence on emotions. A comprehensive
study of different stimuli for different senses may provide a better picture of what evokes
positive emotions to improve loyalty. Thus, future studies need to test the differential influences
of not only affective pictures but also texts, videos and sounds on destination loyalty.
Despite these limitations, the current study helps in better understanding of destination
loyalty or loyalty in general. The study reveals that destination loyalty can be manipulated by
using different stimuli, even if they are not directly related to the destination. Consumers
may consciously or unconsciously relate different stimuli to the destination and change their
reactions based on the emotions evoked by these stimuli. Loyalty may indeed be a fragile
concept vulnerable to many external influences.
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Corresponding author
Maksim Godovykh can be contacted at: maksim.godovykh@ucf.edu
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... Typically, destination loyalty is operationalized as behavioral, attitudinal or composite loyalty (Oppermann, 2000). Behavioral loyalty depicts tourists' actual travel experience to a destination, and attitudinal loyalty emphasizes tourists' intention, willingness and likelihood to visit or recommend a destination (Godovykh and Tasci, 2021;Tasci et al., 2021). Composite loyalty refers to integrating behavioral and attitudinal aspects (Oppermann, 2000). ...
... By uncovering the mediating role of tainted memories, this research enriches the literature on travel-related memories (Godovykh and Tasci, 2021;Marschall, 2012;Marschall, 2015;Tung et al., 2017;Yin et al., 2017) and on strategic memory protection theory (Zauberman et al., 2009). Findings of the empirical model suggest that perceived unfavorable changes diminish tourists' destination loyalty by tainting their initial memories and reducing revisit satisfaction. ...
... Findings of the empirical model suggest that perceived unfavorable changes diminish tourists' destination loyalty by tainting their initial memories and reducing revisit satisfaction. Such finding suggests that the favorable long-term memories that can be recollected are precious assets to tourists (Godovykh and Tasci, 2021;Tung et al., 2017). ...
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The present study explored the key drivers of customer delight and outrage in North American theme parks. Following content analysis of TripAdvisor postings, the authors revealed the most frequently used codes for delight including rides, travel advice, fun, physical environment, positive food and beverage experience, and well-managed lines. The most frequently used codes for outrage included: pricing, wait times, poor service, malfunctioning attractions, lack of variety, low quality of food, and lack of updates. These codes revealed five key constructs of theme park experiential consumption: core products, customer service, affective individual experience, management philosophy and practice, and pricing.
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived price justice, satisfaction, revisit intention and loyalty among restaurant customers, specially the mediating effect of revisit intention in the relationship between perceived price justice, satisfaction and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from a questionnaire distributed to customer of restaurants in Turkey. A total of 304 restaurant customers participated. Findings Results from structural equation modeling show that price justice and satisfaction positively influence their revisit intention of restaurant customers, also revisit intention positively influences loyalty of restaurant customers. Also, the empirical results indicate that while revisit intention fully mediates the effect of price justice and loyalty, it partially mediates the effect of satisfaction and loyalty. Originality/value When the studies in the literature are examined, it is seen that there are various studies that deal with perceived price justice, customer satisfaction, revisit intention and loyalty variables from a different viewpoint. However, no study has been found on restaurants that investigate the relationship between these four variables and the mediating role of revisit intention. Furthermore, the authors’ study contributes to the hospitality and service management literature in two ways. First, the authors follow recent calls for studies on antecedents of revisit intention, with the aim of providing empirical support to uncover factor that shape customers’ revisit intentions. Second, the authors investigate the attitudinal mechanism that explains how customers’ perception of price justice and satisfaction in their loyalty by exploring the mediation effect of revisit intention. On the other hand, it is foreseen that the study will shed light on restaurant managers and provide healthy data for strategic planning. Additionally, that the results obtained are the practical purpose of the study is to contribute to the determination of product development and promotional strategies for restaurant managements.
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A noticeable void remains in the appreciation of what motivates the senior tourism market. This study aims to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field of tourism consumer psychology by improving the existing understanding of the motivation and related psychological processes that underly intentions and decision-making in respect of tourist destinations. A model explaining the mediation role played by satisfaction in the relationship between motivation, emotion, and behavioural intentions is developed. A sample of 460 seniors visiting Lisbon is used, and through the application of structural equation modelling to the data obtained, it is found that satisfaction mediates the relationship between motivations and emotions, and behavioural intentions, simultaneously strengthening the positive association between push and pull motivations. Seniors’ previous experience is seen to moderate the positive effect of satisfaction on intention. Additionally, there is support for motivational differences, which have a significant impact on behavioural intentions, between younger (55–60 years) and older seniors (> 60 years). Finally, several academic and managerial implications are outlined, including the usefulness of the model developed in different geographical settings.