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Memindahkan Kera: Hasil Konservasi dan kesejahteraan dari penyelamatan dan pelepasan orangutan Borneo di Kalimantan, Indonesia

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Abstract

Selama lebih dari 50 tahun, orangutan Borneo (Pongo pygmaeus) yang Terancam Kritis telah diselamatkan dari pemburu liar atau penangkap, direhabilitasi, dan dilepaskan ke habitat alami. Orangutan liar juga dipindahkan-secara sengaja ditangkap dari petak-petak habitat dan situasi yang tidak aman dengan tujuan untuk melepaskan mereka kembali ke area yang dianggap lebih aman. Meskipun kegiatan ini diterapkan secara luas, data tentang konservasi orangutan dan dampak kesejahteraannya masih kurang. Studi kami meningkatkan pemahaman tentang hasil-hasil ini melalui analisis penyelamatan dan pelepasan orangutan Borneo yang dilakukan di Kalimantan, Indonesia antara 2007 dan 2017. Kami mengumpulkan data tentang penyelamatan orangutan (n = 1517) dan pelepasan (n = 1219) dari laporan fasilitas penyelamatan, artikel surat kabar, dan publikasi ilmiah, dan menilai hasilnya terkait dengan rencana aksi, standar internasional untuk pelepasan satwa liar, penegakan hukum, dan populasi dan konservasi habitat orangutan liar. Tingginya tingkat pembunuhan orangutan dan kepemilikan ilegal mendorong munculnya fasilitas penyelamatan, sementara deforestasi, aktual atau potensi kemungkinan interaksi manusia-orangutan, dan kebakaran mendorong pemindahan orangutan liar berskala besar. Kami menemukan fasilitas penyelamatan yang menampung 1.112 orangutan pada tahun 2017, jumlah yang sebagian besar tidak berubah sejak 2007 meskipun dilaporkan 1219 telah dilepas termasuk 605 orangutan penangkaran dan setidaknya 523 orangutan liar yang dipindahkan. Penyelamatan belum memfasilitasi perubahan penting dalam penegakan hukum, atau mencegah hilangnya orangutan liar. Pemindahan pada khususnya menimbulkan risiko serius bagi konservasi populasi besar orangutan dan kesejahteraan individu. Perubahan substansial dalam penegakan hukum, sikap dan perilaku manusia terhadap orangutan, dan peningkatan manajemen tentang hidup berdampingan manusia-orangutan diperlukan untuk memutus siklus pembunuhan orangutan dan kepemilikan ilegal saat ini diikuti dengan penyelamatan dan pelepasan. Perubahan ini akan memungkinkan satu fokus pembaruan yang sangat dibutuhkan untuk melindungi orangutan liar di habitat alami mereka.
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