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Blockchain-Based Secure E-Voting with the Assistance of Smart Contract

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Voting is a very important issue that can be beneficial in terms of choosing the right leader in an election. A good leader can bring prosperity to a country and also can lead the country in the right direction every time. However, elections are surrounded by ballot forgery, coercion, and multiple voting issues. Moreover, while giving votes, a person has to wait in a long queue and it is a very time-consuming process. Blockchain is a distributed database in which data are shared with the participant of the node and each participant holds the same copy of the data. Blockchain has properties like transparency, pseudonymity, and data integrity. In this paper, a fully decentralized e-voting system based on blockchain technology is proposed. This protocol utilizes smart contracts in the e-voting system to deal with security issues, accuracy, and voters’ privacy during the vote. The protocol results in a transparent, non-editable, and independently verifiable procedure. The protocol discards all the intended fraudulent activities occurring during the election process by removing the least participation of the third party. Both transparency and coercion are obtained at the same time.
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Blockchain-Based Secure E-Voting
with the Assistance of Smart Contract
Kazi Sadia , Md. Masuduzzaman , Rajib Kumar Paul ,
and Anik Islam
Abstract Voting is a very important issue that can be beneficial in terms of choosing
the right leader in an election. A good leader can bring prosperity to a country
and also can lead the country in the right direction every time. However, elections
are surrounded by ballot forgery, coercion, and multiple voting issues. Moreover,
while giving votes, a person has to wait in a long queue and it is a very time-
consuming process. Blockchain is a distributed database in which data are shared
with the participant of the node and each participant holds the same copy of the
data. Blockchain has properties like transparency, pseudonymity, and data integrity.
In this paper, a fully decentralized e-voting system based on blockchain technology
is proposed. This protocol utilizes smart contracts in the e-voting system to deal with
security issues, accuracy, and voters’ privacy during the vote. The protocol results
in a transparent, non-editable, and independently verifiable procedure. The protocol
discards all the intended fraudulent activities occurring during the election process
by removing the least participation of the third party. Both transparency and coercion
are obtained at the same time.
Keywords Blockchain ·E-voting ·Hash ·Security ·Smart contract
1 Introduction
1.1 Blockchain
Blockchain is essentially a distributed database of records or a public ledger of all
transactions or digital events that have been occurred and shared among participating
K. Sadia ·R. K. Paul
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, American International
University-Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md. Masuduzzaman ·A. Islam (B
)
Department of IT Convergence Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi
39177, South Korea
e-mail: anik.islam@kumoh.ac.kr
© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer
Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020
D. Patel et al. (eds.), IC-BCT 2019, Blockchain Technologies,
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4542-9_14
161
162 K. Sadia et al.
parties connected within a network [1]. A blockchain is a chain of blocks where
blocks are connected to hold data or information regarding any event [2]. Each
transaction or activity within the blockchain is verified by consensus of a majority
of the participants (i.e., without the approval of the majority network, no activity is
acceptable) [3]. Once some data have been inserted into a blockchain, it becomes
very difficult to change it due to having an immutability configuration [4]. To rewrite
any data, dishonest miners must rewrite the previously broadcasted block and these
changes have to be agreed by the other miners in the network [1].
In the blockchain, double spending is prevented by using “proof of work” that
requires computer processing power to generate fingerprints to uniquely identify each
block [1]. Blockchain technology uses cryptography which ensures the legitimacy of
a transaction [5]. Third-party involvement is prevented by the peer-to-peer network
validation. Therefore, cost and trust-related issues are resolved [6]. The structure of
a block in the blockchain is described below.
Data—The data can be any type of information that is stored in the block.
Hash—The hash is a kind of fingerprint that uniquely identifies a block and is
generated based on its contents.
Hash of the previous block—It refers the previous block to form the chain. Any
change in data can change the hash of the block.
According to Fig. 1, when a participant intends to add a block to the chain, the peer
nodes are responsible for validating the block. After the verification, if the majority
agrees to add the block, then the block is added to the blockchain [7]. If the majority
denies, then block is discarded.
Fig. 1 Mechanisms of adding a block in blockchain
Blockchain-Based Secure E-Voting with the Assistance … 163
1.2 E-Voting
In democracy, the main important thing is to secure the election process for the
national security and development of a nation. Ever since the candidates were needed
to be elected through a democratic process, it was done by voting with pen and paper.
Afterward, the result was counted manually and declared. The process of voting with
paper ballot and pen required a lot of time and created hustle in maintaining a long
queue. Also, the manual process ensues with ballot forgery, coercion, and multiple
voting. Now, replacing the traditional process of voting by a new innovative process
might be condemned in stopping any sort of duplicity and forgery [8].
E-voting is the new concept proposed to ensure fair and digitalized voting that
promises to resolve all the issues related to the traditional voting process. By elec-
tronic voting, we generally mean the vote casting process with the help of any sort of
computer or computerized voting equipment or the Internet. The tasks are conducted
through systems to hereby reduce the involvement of manpower during the election
process. Registering the voters, tally ballots, and recording of votes can also be easily
done by this electronic system [9].
Electronic voting machine is neither a complex machine nor a harder one to
operate. It can be easily understood and operated by both the election officer’s in-
charge and the voters. EVM has basically three units—control unit, display unit, and
ballot unit. The main unit of EVM is a control unit that stores all the data and controls
the basic function including voter information. Vote counting is assuredly conducted
with possibly less time and accuracy.
1.3 Smart Contract
Previously, contracts between parties were held upon visual meetings. The smart
contract is aimed to provide contracts between parties where both parties are given the
priority and contracts are conducted upon establishing the conditions of both parties
[4]. It is the executable code that runs on top of the blockchain to facilitate the terms
required in an agreement of a contract between the two parties. The involvement of
any third party is resolved as any medium between parties is not required as contracts
are self-executed.
A smart contract is a legal application that runs on a blockchain network [4].
Smart contracts are much like legal contracts. The smart contract can be used in
many different things. Banks, for example, could use it to issue a loan, worth for
automatic payments, both e-commerce and music rights management can use this.
An insurance company could use it for process claims; postal companies use it for
payment on delivery and so on.
No trust issue in a smart contract just like this vendor machine, as shown in Fig. 2.
A person itself can put the coin into this and get the desired product.
164 K. Sadia et al.
Fig. 2 Example of smart
contract
No involvement of the third party: the same as this vendor machine. When a
person itself involved with this matter can directly interact with it and get the
desired product. Moreover, there is not any involvement of third party.
As the smart contract is distributed in an open ledger, there is no chance of losing
or hacking as in an open environment. It is difficult to involve in and manage to
steal stuff.
The remaining sections of this paper are organized as follows: Sect. 2represents
related works. In Sect. 3, the proposed scheme is depicted. A security analysis based
on different properties is outlined in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5draws a conclusion from
this paper.
Blockchain-Based Secure E-Voting with the Assistance … 165
2 Related Work
There has been a lot of work on blockchain-based e-voting using cryptography, sig-
natures, and other techniques. In such papers, minimal involvement of the third party
observed is significantly less and a problem of coercion and transparency mainte-
nance at the same time is also observed. Additionally, the balancing of transparency
and coercion resistance was a possible future work in [10]. Reduction of third party is
a major portion of work in an election process as the impact of third-party involvement
can have a vulnerable effect on the whole procedure. Moreover, coercion resistance
is a difficult task that is to be mapped with transparency.
Lewis et al. [1] described blockchain as an open, distributed ledger of historical
records that uses cryptography and digital signatures. In his paper, he also mentioned
the logic of blockchain and how does it work. Upon explaining the aftermath of
resolving conflicts, he introduced an idea of not broadcasting a block intentionally.
Two blocks can be created, and one can be left as being not broadcasted. The un-
broadcasted block can be broadcasted when desired. In this paper, we have used this
concept to keep the choices of nominees secured until result calculation.
Liu et al. [10] proposed a protocol where the choice was made safe using a random
string and choice code. The length of the vote string varies depending on the election
requirements. The choice code represents the voter’s choice followed by a random
string which is an indication of a well-formed vote. According to Liu et al. [10],
the phases are pre-voting phase, voting phase, post-voting phase. In the pre-voting
phase, the organizer Bob collected all valid ballots. After ending the voting time,
Bob generates a set of all ballots which means all the ballots that have been received.
Then Bob runs this algorithm 1:
This algorithm runs to gain a set of valid ballots which is set of all the valid ballots.
There are issues regarding an election. Therefore, voters’ privacy must be assured.
Thus, the concept of public and private keys is used in different papers but with a little
modification. Anonymity was ensured by keeping voters’ identity private [10,11].
According to Liu et al. [10] and Hardwick et al. [11], one must authenticate oneself
to the central authority (CA) and CA receives a token that proves one’s eligibility
to vote. In these papers, one central authority or an officer is responsible for initial
verification.
166 K. Sadia et al.
The counting phase described in the protocol discussed by Hardwick et al. [11].
Hardwick et al. [11] deal with broadcasting a ballot opening message that contains
a value which will represent the voter’s choice and the voter’s themselves broadcast
this. Hardwick et al. [11] stored the information of the list of candidates and voters in
the genesis block as the initial storage. The authors revealed the result at the end of
the election using the concept of value representation of the voter choice. A voter can
vote multiple times, and every time the previous vote was replaced by the current one.
By this process, coercion is said to be totally removed. In both the papers, everyone
can view the public blockchain and there is no centralized authority. In [1217], they
also proposed a voting mechanism which utilizes blockchain.
3 Proposed Methodology
3.1 Procedure
The basic functionalities of the proposed protocol are shown in Fig. 3. The code
is executed on top of the blockchain. Therefore, verifying actions that were sup-
posed to be performed by the third party are performed automatically. Moreover, the
peer network connected is in-charge of further verification as mentioned. The figure
introduces some unknown terms that are further described below.
Condition 1—Verify whether the voter is in group X and the flag of X is true.
Also, check whether the voter is on the eligibility list or not.
Condition 2—Mathematical computation (proof of work) is done. Also, verify
whether the voter has cast vote previously or not and check the ballot is in the
correct format or not.
Organizer—In this protocol, the organizer is the only representative who is
involved within the protocol but for a limited time. The role of the organizer
is to arrange and collect the list of nominees, list of eligible voters, start date
and time, end date, and time. The start and end (date and time) are decided and
announced by the election commission. The list of eligible voters is collected
through manual registration.
Ballot string—The string that contains the choice of nominee hidden around
random numbers to avoid recognition.
Sibling block—A block that contains the arrangement of choice value.
st—ST—Start Time
et—ET—End Time
Hash (fingerprint)—a hash function that used on the binary value of the voter’s
fingerprint.
Blockchain-Based Secure E-Voting with the Assistance … 167
Fig. 3 Flowchart representation of the basic functionalities of the protocol
Note: The choice of nominee is hidden in the ballot string. The arrangement of
the choice is hidden in the variable Vc. The arrangement is prepared by random
number generation. Thus, nobody has any idea of the voter’s choice until the end of
the election.
3.2 The Phases of the Proposed Protocol
The protocol is categorized into three phases, in which each phase is dependent upon
another. Following are the three phases:
1. Pre-voting phase.
2. Voting phase.
3. Post-voting phase.
168 K. Sadia et al.
1. Pre-voting phase
The organizer is responsible for collecting the list of the eligible voters and nominees
based on the desired condition (if any). The list of the voters should contain voters’
names, national identification numbers (NID), fingerprint, and any other information
based on the direction of the election commission. Organizer provides the list of eli-
gible voters, and their fingerprint coordinates along with the binary value, nominees,
start date–time, and end date–time as an input on the genesis block. In the case of
people having a problem, an alternative option is considered. A priority list is main-
tained. In the priority list, the thumb is given the priority and people deprived of
thumb can use the grooming finger. For worst case, message verification process can
be used. In that process, a pin code is sent to the particular contact number of the voter
and the voter has to provide the pin to verify himself as an alternative of the finger-
print. Genesis block is the parent block or the first block of the blockchain. The start
date–time and end date–time are mentioned earlier by the election commission. The
role of the organizer ends here; as per the result of the code execution, the procedure
is carried out. The program (code) is previously integrated within the blockchain
as per the concept of smart contract. On reaching the start date–time, one of the
pre-defined conditions fulfills (i.e., {if (DateTime.Now==st) start ();}; a function is
called which invokes the election procedure to start and corresponding activities are
performed). Voters are grouped randomly based on the number of eligible voters.
Moreover, other conditions are also provided and random time is generated for each
group. Each group holds distinct timing; overlapping is not taken into consideration.
Voters of specific groups are notified via email and message; a time limit is set for
each group.
The flag is a Boolean property of a group. The flag remains true until the time
limit of the specified group expires. The duration of each group is also decided by
the election authority. The voting duration for each group must be adjusted in such
a way that none of the voters skip to vote due to load/traffic on the network. No one
is allowed to vote after the flag becomes false (i.e., the time limit exceeds). The flag
becomes false automatically once all the voters within the group are done with their
voting which provides further security.
2. Voting phase
As the voter approaches to voting providing his/her public keys, it is verified (within
the code) whether the voter is in the group with a flag value of true and whether the
voter is in the eligibility list. As a smart contract performs an executable code, it
is verified through the code by the call of a function that checks whether the voter
Blockchain-Based Secure E-Voting with the Assistance … 169
Fig. 4 Conversion of the fingerprint pattern to the binary value
entered is eligible or not. Given that, the eligibility lists of the voters are stored on
the genesis block. As the voter has proved him/her as eligible, and also, the voter
is in the specified group (the group to serve currently); the voter is then to provide
his/her private key (fingerprint which is converted to binary data, as shown in Fig. 4);
as a need of verification that no other people except the voter is casting his/her vote.
This reduces the chance of anyone knowing one’s public keys and using the public
key to cast vote in the name of the voter. This is the second phase of verification of
voters. The fingerprint is matched with the one provided along with the eligibility
list in the genesis block. The fingerprint sensor is used to figure out the coordinates
of particular voters. The coordinates are then matched with the coordinates provided
in the genesis block. If it matches then, according to Fig. 4, the binary value of the
coordinates is obtained from the provided list in the genesis block. Conversion of
the coordinates into the binary value during the voting process will require time and
memory consumption. Thus, this procedure is performed. The hash of the binary
value is the unique voter identification in the ballot within the block. Direct voter’s
identity is avoided to ensure the voter’s security. The hash (fingerprintbinary) value
is the representation of the voter in the block. SHA-256 is used as the secured hash
function, hash (fingerprintbinary) that cannot be reversed. According to some research,
fingerprint is one of the most secure metadata of a person. Thus, fingerprint is used
instead of any other metadata in this protocol.
The voter is then provided with the list of nominees each represented by a logo.
The voter then selects his/her choice of nominee. The nominees are represented by
their representative logo. The logos have a binary value which is basically selected
and worked with when chosen. The calculations and workings are done upon distinct
binary values. Figure 5shows an example of the representation. The number of 1’s
and 0’s in representing the nominees must be the same. Otherwise, it is possible
to guess the choice of nominee in the ballot string. Upon several workings, it has
been seen that an unequal number of 0’s and 1’s for every nominee may result in the
prediction of the selection of a nominee. As a result, the progress of the election is
made visible. If the representations do not remain consistent or if it is not possible
to allocate different representations of nominee within (N) bits, then increase the
number of bits to get different representations for equal numbers of 0’s and 1’s. For
example, three bits with two 1’s and a 0 will have representations—110,011,101.
170 K. Sadia et al.
Fig. 5 Binary representation
of nominee logos
Therefore, three logos can be represented by these in other words three nominees
can be represented.
On choosing the nominee, the preparation of the ballot takes place. A ballot
is designed to have a ballot number in it. The ballot consists of the voters’ hash
(fingerprintbinary) and the ballot string. The ballot string is prepared by the execution
of a function inside the code with the concept of smart contract. The ballot string
must be different for every voter. The ballot string has two substrings, such as choice
string and the random string. The choice string consists of the nominee choice hidden
within other randomly generated values. The random string is randomly generated 0/1
values. These techniques are used to prevent viewers from recognizing the choice of
nominee. A nominee might get multiple votes. Therefore, to distinguish every ballot
strings the concept of random string is used. Generation of the random string results
in unique ballot string formation. The ballot string is prepared in two phases, and the
following are:
Note: The total number of bits has no restriction. 16-bit is just an example. Greater
number of bits is more secure as chances of similar generation of random number
decrease. The decision of the number of bits must be taken into consideration before
making the decision.
Let us consider a 16-bit ballot string of which 8 bits are choice string (i.e., the red
ones) and 8 bits are random string (i.e., the black ones). The ballot string is equally
divided into these two parts.
01 2 3 45 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
(i) If nbits are representing each logo, then nrandom numbers are generated from
0 to 7 as the choice string is between 0 and 7. The binary value of the logo is
arranged in the generated random value indexes of the ballot string (i.e., Alice
chooses the nominee with a binary value of 1100 and the binary value consists of
four bits. Thus, four random numbers are generated to hide the choice of Alice).
Number of bits is representing each logo—4
Random numbers—4,5,7,0 (4)—Vc—opening value
Blockchain-Based Secure E-Voting with the Assistance … 171
Nominee choice—a binary value of logo—1100
Therefore, the four randomly generated numbers—4,5,7,0 are the indexes to hide
the binary value of the nominee’s choice. The value is assigned sequentially.
0 1 1 0
01 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
(ii) Generate another number between 1 and 0. Fill that number in the other four
indexes. Example-1
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
01 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
The other indexes of the choice string are assigned with either 1 or 0. However, all
the other indexes of the choice string must have the same value to avoid recognition
of the choice.
(iii) Generate random numbers randomly between 1 and 0 and put on the indexes
(8–15) suppose—11001010
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1100101
01 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
As 8–15 is the random string part of the ballot string, eight random numbers either
1 or 0 are generated and assigned sequentially to distinguish each ballot string. The
ballot string is prepared, and the choice is hidden inside the string. The choice is
recognized by the Vconly. Dispose of the Vccan only be result in the consideration
of the vote. One block is created containing the ballot, and another sibling block is
created that consists of the voters’ hash (fingerprintbinary), the reference number of
the broadcasted block, its own reference number, and the opening value of the choice
(i.e., in this case—4, 5, 7, 0). Figure 6shows the arrangement.
As the voter casts the vote (i.e., the voter broadcasts the ballot containing block),
the ballot containing block is requested to add in the chain, whereas the sibling block
remains un-broadcasted. The peer nodes start to work for the proof of work for the
block. The one, who complete the puzzle, verifies whether the voter has cast vote
earlier and whether the ballot is in a correct format. After all the verification, the
ballot contained block is added in the blockchain and other peer nodes verify and
update their chain. Majority is taken into consideration. If majority disagrees, then
the block is discarded.
172 K. Sadia et al.
Fig. 6 Blocks in the
blockchain
3. Post-voting phase
Once the ending time is reached, it is checked whether all the voters have voted or
not. If not, then they are shortly given a notification to complete their voting within
the specified time. Their voting is performed similarly as per the voting phase; but
if they fail to do so, then no consideration is taken to be granted. If all the voters
are done with their voting, then as instructed in the contract, all the sibling blocks
are broadcasted one by one sequentially. Once all the sibling blocks are broadcasted,
the peer nodes start to calculate the result referencing the blocks and using the Vcto
extract the choice of nominee for every block. Here, all the nodes are supposed to
come up with the same result as no blocks are discarded unnecessarily in between
and the blockchain supports no changes. Therefore, the voters, in other words, the
peer nodes themselves count the votes and broadcast the result preventing the need
for counting using third party. The blockchain is transparent, and the accuracy is
ensured as everything is made visible.
4 Security Analysis
In e-voting, security is the main concern that must be taken into consideration at first
because if the voters are not assured of their safety, then they are not going to involve
in the protocol. The following are the certain security goals that can be satisfied with
our proposed methodology.
4.1 Anonymity
This protocol uses public and private keys of a voter during the process execution. On
the blockchain, only the voter’s public key is broadcasted which is hashed previously.
Therefore, by excluding the voter’s actual identity, no one will be able to recognize
any voters within the blockchain. The only identity of voters is the hash of fingerprint
that is the binary values of the coordinates.
Blockchain-Based Secure E-Voting with the Assistance … 173
4.2 Voters’ Privacy
Voters are not aware of their timing to vote. Therefore, the chances of manipulation
and coercion by fraudulent supporters are reduced. The timing of the voters’ voting
is only kept within the randomly generated time against each group in the code
executed. As a result, manipulators or the party-specific public cannot blackmail or
threaten voters.
4.3 Confidentiality
Confidentiality is equivalent to part of privacy. The prevention of sensitive informa-
tion from reaching unauthorized users while making sure that the right people are
aware of it. The most common method ensuring confidentiality is a data encryption,
and in this protocol, the data are the voter’s identity and the ballot string which is
encrypted and can only be made visible to all the participants once the election pro-
cess is over. Being concerned about the voter’s identity, only the voter themselves
are aware of their identity and choice. The ballot string is prepared in such a way
that without the Vc, and the choice is not understandable. Once the sibling block is
broadcasted, the choices are visible to all the peer nodes within the network.
4.4 Ballot Manipulation
In this protocol, inappropriate ballots (i.e., one voter voting more than once) is pro-
hibited by the rejection of the approval of the peer nodes. Upon verifying, the peer
nodes reject the ballot and are not further added to the block. Ballots without correct
format are also discarded, and it is made sure that the sibling block of the rejected
block is discarded simultaneously. Ballots are contained in blocks that is why the
modification is not possible. A single change in a block leads to changing the other
blocks linked with it.
4.5 Transparency
Blockchain is an open and distributed ledger where each transaction and activity is
made transparent for peer verification, validation, and visibility. As things are kept
visible, this ensures no fraudulent activities to take place secretly. The fairness and
accuracy are obtained through the blockchain’s property of being transparent.
174 K. Sadia et al.
4.6 Public Verifiability and Individual Verifiability
Our protocol provides the opportunity to publicly verify activities or the voting
process as it is kept transparent with the help of blockchain. Peer nodes or anyone
can monitor activities of the participant of the network. Moreover, voters themselves
can make sure whether their vote is taken into consideration or not. If the block
containing voter’s identity is broadcasted, then this ensures that the voter’s vote is
going to be taken into consideration. Individual verifiability is satisfied through the
protocol.
4.7 Auditability
Results are calculated after the ending of the election process, and the whole process
is auditable as blockchain keeps the record of the whole thing. The rejected blocks
and ballots can be monitored at later stages to have an idea of how often fraudu-
lent activities were intended. Smart contract codes cannot be modified since it is
permanently written on the blockchain.
4.8 Consistency and Accuracy
All the peer nodes will have the same record, and at the end, the same result will
be obtained by all the participants. For every activity, a consensus mechanism is
carried out to satisfy the consistency. Meanwhile, no changes are incurred, and the
consensus mechanism makes the protocol accurate.
4.9 Non-repudiation
The process of non-repudiation is that someone cannot deny something. Therefore,
the result obtained cannot be claimed as being unfair or of fraudulent activities as
every activity is made transparent and verifiable by the majority network. It is not
possible to mess with the majority honest network. Activities are performed by the
execution of code where there is no possibility of unfair means.
Blockchain-Based Secure E-Voting with the Assistance … 175
5 Conclusions
E-voting is an emerging concept or solution of voting to carry out activities with
accuracy and reliability. Moreover, blockchain is an interesting and attractive tech-
nology that provides transparency of data and is a topic of high demand. As the
process of election must be handled with care to avoid unusual circumstances and
occurring, this protocol reduces the constraints of manual voting and other e-voting
systems based on blockchain. Also, the reduction of the third party is proof of a
healthy election which is enabled with the assistance of a smart contract. The coer-
cion is also prevented by the concept of random generation of groups using a smart
contract. The techniques used in the protocol are quite simpler and easily understand-
able. Moreover, this protocol is designed to reduce memory and time consumption
to make tasks faster. Thus, this protocol fulfills all the previously defined properties
of the referred paper along with the prevention of coercion with transparency. The
voters can monitor the whole process, and their privacy is also maintained to avoid
any sort of privacy issues. Moreover, a replacement of the metadata can be taken into
consideration to make this protocol widely used in all areas.
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... The private blockchain provides secure data transactions by containing smart-contract or chaincode, consensus mechanisms, cryptographic algorithms, and some functions. Each peer carries a synchronized ledger where all the data are being stored [23]. ...
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