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Overview of current practices in data analysis for wood identification. A guide for the different timber tracking methods.

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Today we have five types of timber tracking tools available. Each has its own strengths and limitations (see the Timber Tracking Tool Infogram), but together they offer a broad range of methods that can assist us in identifying the botanical as well as the geographic origin (provenance) of most kinds of timber samples, even those smaller than 1 cm³. With this guide we want to provide an overview of the current best-practice methods used to analyse data derived from different wood identification methods, while presenting their respective strengths and limitations. We give advice on data analysis, from the development of reference data, through to the verification of identity and provenance of unknown samples against the reference database. We end with an expert view on combining methods for wood identification and discuss how timber identification possibilities could expand in the future.
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... www.nature.com/scientificreports/ near infrared spectroscopy) can provide more reliable forensic timber identification 8 . Each tool has its own strength and in combination they complement one another allowing authorities to overcome limitations of more traditional methods in species identification, geographic origin verification or linking illegal logs to the stumps of origin. ...
... Genetic approaches have been used to determine the origin of wood samples from many important species, including Neobalanocarpus heimii 9,10 , Gonystylus bancanus 11 , Acer macrophyllum 12 , Cedrela odorata 13 and Chamaecyparis taiwanensis 14 . To develop timber tracking tools suitable for these species, researchers applied the principles of population genetics such as mutation, genetic drift, migration, adaptation, and speciation 8 . These methodologies utilise genetic material (genetic markers) common across groups of individuals to define populations for provenance testing or to define species for species identification 8 . ...
... To develop timber tracking tools suitable for these species, researchers applied the principles of population genetics such as mutation, genetic drift, migration, adaptation, and speciation 8 . These methodologies utilise genetic material (genetic markers) common across groups of individuals to define populations for provenance testing or to define species for species identification 8 . During forensic timber identification, enforcement officers need to identify unknown samples at genus or species level correctly from the start, before further investigating geographic origin or individual identification. ...
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International timber trade communities are increasingly demanding that timber in the wood supply chain be sourced from sustainably harvested forests and certified plantations. This is to combat illegal logging activities to prevent further depletion of our precious forests worldwide. Hence, timber tracking tools are important to support law enforcement officials in ensuring only sustainably harvested timbers are traded in the market. In this study, we developed chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) databases as tracking tools for an important tropical timber tree species, Shorealeprosula from Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 1410 individual trees were sampled from 44 natural populations throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Four cpDNA regions were used to generate a cpDNA haplotype database, resulting in a haplotype map comprising 22 unique haplotypes derived from 28 informative intraspecific variable sites. This cpDNA database can be used to trace the origin of an unknown log at the regional level. Ten SSR loci were used to develop the SSR allele frequency database. Bayesian cluster analysis divided the 44 populations into two genetic clusters corresponding to Region A and Region B. Based on conservativeness evaluation of the SSR databases for individual identification, the coancestry coefficients (θ) were adjusted to 0.1900 and 0.1500 for Region A and B, respectively. These databases are useful tools to complement existing timber tracking systems in ensuring only legally sourced timbers are allowed to enter the wood supply chain.
... For species with similar wood anatomy, it is often possible to identify only the genus, making it difficult to control the forest species and legally trade the products. The microscopic analysis of the anatomical characteristics of products such as paper fibers, solid wood, and wood chips adopts an alternative methodology to perform an assertive identification, having official and legal use (Schmitz et al. 2020). However, for the thin wood veneer, this analysis does not identify typical structural patterns on the transverse surface and, as an alternative, needs to be reconstructed from the corresponding patterns on longitudinal surfaces (Schmitz et al. 2020). ...
... The microscopic analysis of the anatomical characteristics of products such as paper fibers, solid wood, and wood chips adopts an alternative methodology to perform an assertive identification, having official and legal use (Schmitz et al. 2020). However, for the thin wood veneer, this analysis does not identify typical structural patterns on the transverse surface and, as an alternative, needs to be reconstructed from the corresponding patterns on longitudinal surfaces (Schmitz et al. 2020). ...
... Due to its efficiency as a wood tracking method, NIRS technology was inserted as one of the five tools available in the document published by the Global Timber Tracking Network (GTTN) in 2020 (Schmitz et al. 2020), which provides an overview of current practices analysis for wood identification. Additionally, several tools to assist in identifying wood, whether developed or still under development, have recently been revised in a special edition of the IAWA Journal (Yin et al. 2020). ...
Article
The illegal logging of valuable tree species is mainly motivated by a global market that consumes logs, lumber, veneers, and furniture. The use of objective techniques to identify species and the effects of international initiatives such as CITES rules contributes to controlling trade, exploitation, and smuggling of these products. The anatomical identification of wood veneers is limited due to the loss of several anatomical characters in the production process of the veneers. For this reason, we propose the Near-Infrared Spectroscopy technique associated with chemometric tools for the discrimination of wood veneer of woods with similar general characters: Swietenia macrophylla King (mahogany), Carapa guianensis Aubl. (andiroba), Cedrela odorata L. (cedro), Micropholis venulosa Pierre (curupixá), and Hymenaea coubaril L. (jatobá) using a portable spectrometer.The development of the discrimination models was performed using the PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares for Discriminant Analysis) algorithm. The detection and subsequent exclusion of outliers were performed based on Hotelling T ² , Q residuals, and errors in estimating class values. The PLS-DA models showed an efficiency between 96.5% and 100% in the samples’ discrimination among the five forest species. In conclusion, the portable NIRS technology and the PLS-DA models were suitable for the rapid identification and discrimination of the wood veneers.
... To eliminate the risk of pathogenic fungi entering the United Kingdom, samples were subjected to 121 • C heat at 15 psi in an autoclave for 30 min before they were dried and released into the WFID collection for analysis and storage. Prior to routine preparation mold was manually removed as it is considered that it may be source of variability for stable isotope analysis (Horacek et al., 2018;Beeckman et al., 2020). ...
... Samples that presented with hyphae upon receipt at Kew had any mold physically removed as part of preparation in accordance with advice from Beeckman et al. (2020). Samples were dried at 103 • C before being coarsely ground and placed into a ballmill (Retsch MM220, Haan, Germany). ...
Article
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Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the environmental impacts caused by deforestation and illegal logging and there is an increasing demand for supply chain transparency and traceability of wood products. Many importing and exporting nations have implemented regulations which aim to control the origin and species of traded timbers of high ecological importance and economic value. However, despite growing interest in method development for timber authentication purposes, many studies have been limited by insufficient numbers of authentic timber reference samples. Our aim was to address the differences in stable isotope ratio profile of bulk, homogenized wood samples collected from living or recently felled trees in two FSC concessions in Gabon, which are approximately 240 km apart, for the purposes of origin classification and protecting valuable forest commodities. Forty-seven timber samples comprising 10 genera of tropical trees were obtained using a Pickering Punch sampling device or chainsaw from two forest concessions in Gabon (Precious Woods Group and Compagnie des Bois du Gabon) during July 2019. Samples were subject to δ ¹⁸ O, δ ² H, δ ¹³ C, δ ¹⁵ N, and δ ³⁴ S stable isotope analysis using elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). Results show that significant differences are evident in the stable isotope ratios of Aucoumea klaineana between Precious Woods Group and Compagnie des Bois du Gabon forest concessions. Relationships are evident between climatic and geological variables and the stable isotope ratios of the samples suggesting that further degrees of origin classification may be achievable in Gabon. For other species, insufficient numbers meant the possibility to determine discriminating factors between the two concessions was limited though data from these samples may prove useful to contribute to the understanding of stable isotope variability in tropical timber. The data presented establish a basis for evaluating origin claims of forest products and timber from the Compagnie des Bois du Gabon and Precious Woods Group concessions and lay a foundation for future development of timber tracking technologies in Gabon. The technique can be used for purposes of due diligence or forensic investigation by law enforcement as part of demand-side regulations such as the EU Timber Regulation, Illegal Logging Prevention Act, or the Lacey Act.
... One of the greatest limitations is the limited availability of reference data, which are necessary to verify the species and origin of a traded wood-based product. In the last decade, molecular genetic methods have been shown to hold great potential for use at a variety of levels to identify wood, from the identification of species to the verification of source region and concession, and to the tracking of individual logs or timber products (Lowe and Cross 2011;Lowe et al. 2016;Dormontt et al. 2015;Schmitz et al. 2020). ...
... FTA has contributed to setting up the Global Timber Tracking Network (GTTN), 19 which promotes the implementation of innovative tools to identify tree species and determine the geographic origin of traded wood. FTA has also provided contributions in the formulation of an overview of various timber tracking methods and guidelines for sample collection (Schmitz et al. 2019;Schmitz et al. 2020). The guidelines for sampling aim to facilitate the harmonization of practices for collecting samples that are subject to various verification methods, especially if used in combination, to ensure that samples come from the same individual tree and from the same part of the tree. ...
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Forests and trees are critical for the survival of life on earth. They conserve a tremendous biodiversity and fulfill essential ecosystem services such as climate regulation, cycling of nutrients and water. They contribute to food and nutrition security, are a major source of raw materials and offer countless livelihood opportunities. However, forests and trees are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic pressures such as overexploitation and land conversion, which are intensified by climate change. At the same time countless tree species and their forest genetic resources (FGR) with exceptional potential uses for supporting the global transition to low carbon food systems and the UN decade on Ecological Restoration are badly conserved and remain critically underutilized. For the last 10 years, the FTA program has set in place research activities that focused on understanding pressures on and threats to populations of socio-economically important tree species; formulating effective, efficient and equitable safeguards for tree genetic resources that are adapted to the local context and species characteristics; and promoting conservation and characterization of germplasm of high-value tree species from forests to farms. FTA has also conducted a range of ecosystem- and landscape-level research projects that explored how silvicultural and monitoring practices can support sustainable timber production while ensuring delivery of multiple ecosystem services, including biodiversity conservation, carbon storage, livelihood support and nutrition security from forest foods. Much of the program’s later work focused on multiple-use forest management. This review of the program’s most salient experiences — derived from a decade of collaborative research — presents a portfolio of the most promising solutions and the significant contributions to global conservation and sustainable use of tree biodiversity. These achievements also contribute to the international policy arena, particularly to the strategic objectives of various conventions (the Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification), and to the efforts led by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to develop a global conservation strategy for forest genetic resources.
... Typically, analytical techniques that have been used for identification are invasive, require some level of sampling, and can have expenses associated with them 1 . In some cases, the analysis can be undertaken using microscopic techniques 2 , while more advanced techniques using visual learning, chemical analysis and genetics are making rapid strides [3][4][5][6] . The importance of being able to identify tree species is essential in the continuing fight to control the illegal trade of lumber 1,7 . ...
... While it is recognized that rapid-field identification is important, the cost and effort has often been cited as a hindrance to the process 1 . To overcome the lack of trained anatomists and the analytical limitations for determining species, several separate scientific disciplines have focused their attention on this problem 1,6 . ...
Article
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An innovative approach for the rapid identification of wood species is presented. By combining X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with convolutional neural network machine learning, 48 different wood specimens were clearly differentiated and identified with a 99% accuracy. Wood species identification is imperative to assess illegally logged and transported lumber. Alternative options for identification can be time consuming and require some level of sampling. This non-invasive technique offers a viable, cost-effective alternative to rapidly and accurately identify timber in efforts to support environmental protection laws and regulations.
... Any samples that were affected by hyphae had the mould removed prior to preparation in accordance with advice in Horacek et al. (2018) and Beeckman et al. (2020). Samples were initially dried at 103 • C before grinding/drilling. ...
Article
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Global demand for low-cost forest products is leading manufacturers and traders to source timber and wood products from vulnerable nations and delicate ecosystems. One small island nation, the Solomon Islands, is seeing exploitation of natural resources accelerating to such a point that its natural forests may be exhausted by 2036. The main causes of natural forest loss on the archipelago are unsustainable or illegal logging practices. Various laws in consumer countries require that members of industry ensure that only legally sourced timber is placed onto their respective national markets. Those that break these laws or fail to act in a way that is compliant may be subject to harsh penalties. This study aims to establish scientific data to evaluate claims that timber has originated from the Solomon Islands. This will enable Operators to carry out due diligence analysis and permit members of Law Enforcement to conduct forensic investigations. Eighty timber core samples comprising 13 different genera of tropical trees were obtained from mature trees in two sites in the Solomon Islands (Guadalcanal and Kolombangara islands) during the period August 2019 to November 2019 using a Pickering Punch sampling device. Homogenised core samples were subject to d18O, d2H, d13C, and d34S stable isotope analysis using elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Additional stable isotope data from relevant taxa and geographic origins (elevation, geographic co-ordinates) were also included in this research as an initial assessment of differences in stable isotope ratios between countries. Results show that significant differences are evident in the stable isotope ratios of the sampled taxa within the Solomon Islands (Guadalcanal and Kolombangara Islands) and between other countries. These data can be used as a basis of evaluation to evaluate origin claims of timber or wood products from the Solomon Islands, particularly Kolombangara Island. Furthermore, in the right context, these data can also be used to establish whether timber or wood products declared to be from origins other than the Solomon Islands have stable isotope ratios that are consistent with data from the Solomon Islands. If not, this would suggest foreign timber/forest products are from elsewhere and are being passed-off as originating from the Solomon Islands.
... • Providing the first continental scale model for the identification of an important set of North American hardwoods, which is the largest wood identification model reported across all available wood identification technologies (Schmitz et al., 2020); • Reporting on the first multi-site, multi-operator, multiinstantiation study of computer vision identification for North American woods that has been evaluated using a practical field testing surrogate ; Note that Betula alleghaniensis shows comparatively lesser wood anatomical spatial heterogeneity than Robinia pseudoacacia. The nearly three complete growth rings in panels (C,D) present wood anatomical detail sufficient to facilitate an identification. ...
Article
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Availability of and access to wood identification expertise or technology is a critical component for the design and implementation of practical, enforceable strategies for effective promotion, monitoring and incentivisation of sustainable practices and conservation efforts in the forest products value chain. To address this need in the context of the multi-billion-dollar North American wood products industry 22-class, image-based, deep learning models for the macroscopic identification of North American diffuse porous hardwoods were trained for deployment on the open-source, field-deployable XyloTron platform using transverse surface images of specimens from three different xylaria and evaluated on specimens from a fourth xylarium that did not contribute training data. Analysis of the model performance, in the context of the anatomy of the woods considered, demonstrates immediate readiness of the technology developed herein for field testing in a human-in-the-loop monitoring scenario. Also proposed are strategies for training, evaluating, and advancing the state-of-the-art for developing an expansive, continental scale model for all the North American hardwoods.
... The charcoals are classically identified based on anatomical features observed under the reflected light on prepared surfaces (i.e., transverse, radial, tangential). To obtain thin sections for observation under the transmitted light, time-consuming embedding methods and advanced equipment such as sledge-, rotation-or cryo-microtome are needed (Ludemann & Nelle, 2002;Di Pasquale, 2009;Schweingruber, 2012;Beeckman et al., 2020). Scanning electron microscopy with adequate sample preparation is also used to visualise detailed anatomical traits (e.g., Boutain et al., 2010;Hubau et al., 2013). ...
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Izvleček Abstract: Wood identification of barbecue charcoal from commercial packages of three retailers (B1, B2, B3) in Slovenia and Croatia was performed with help of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). CLSM enabled us to image key identification features of charcoal wood that were compared with light micrographs of wood from the reference collection. Product B1 contained charcoal made exclusively of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) and the declaration indicated the address of the producer, in Serbia which allowed traceability of the wood. The selection of wood species in product B2, consisted of red oak (Quercus cerris or Q. rubra), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), and cherry (Prunus avium), which could originate from Serbia, and it did not contain tropical wood as stated on the package. Product B3 contained wood from at least four (sub)tropical species which could not be exactly identified to species/genus level. The declaration on the product did not allow traceability of wood. As the risks of illegal logging are high for wood of (sub)tropical origin, our results support the initiative that the monitoring of the charcoal trade should be covered by the EUTR-European Timber Regulations.
... Multivariate statistical analytical techniques must be used to decipher the complicated information conveyed by such spectra [14,21]. In this study, for the discrimination and identification of wood samples, NIRS data were evaluated by using principal components analysis-discriminant analysis (PCA-DA) and a partial least square regression model (PLSR), which are statistical methods for the classification of data and calculation of models for quantitative analysis, respectively [18,19,27,32]. PCA-DA was used to recognize the distribution of the spectra, which can indirectly lead to discrimination of ebony wood based on growth site differences. ...
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Ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh.) is an endemic plant on Celebes (Sulawesi) island. Extractive compounds within ebony wood cause it to have durability, strength, and beautiful patterns. In this study, we used near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to discriminate between ebony wood samples, based on their origins at different growth sites on Celebes island, and to develop quantitative models to predict the extractive content of ebony wood. A total of 45 wood meal samples from 11 sites located in West, Central, and South Celebes were collected in this study. NIR spectral data were acquired from hot water and ethanol–benzene soluble extracts from ebony wood in this study. The extractive content of the ebony was 10.408% and 10.774% based on hot water solubility and treatment with ethanol–benzene solvent, respectively. Multivariate analysis based on principal component analysis–discriminant analysis revealed that ebony wood from West Celebes differed from most of the wood from South Celebes; however, it was only slightly different from ebony wood from Central Celebes based on NIR spectra data. These findings were in line with the extractive contents obtained. Partial least square regression models based on wood meal spectra could potentially be used to estimate the hot water and ethanol–benzene extractive contents from ebony wood.
Article
Accurate identification of species from timber is an essential step to help control illegal logging and forest loss. However, current approaches to timber identification based on morphological and anatomical characteristics have limited species resolution. DNA barcoding is a proven tool for plant species identification, but there is a need to build reliable reference data across broad taxonomic and spatial scales. Here, we construct a species barcoding library consisting of 1,550 taxonomically diverse timber species from 656 genera and 124 families, representing a comprehensive genetic reference data set for Chinese timber species and international commercial traded timber species, using four barcodes (rbcL, matK, trnH–psbA, and ITS2). The ITS2 fragment was found to be the most efficient locus for Chinese timber species identification among the four barcodes tested, both at the species and genus level, despite its low recovery rate. Nevertheless, the barcode combination matK+trnH–psbA+ITS2 was required as a complementary barcode to distinguish closely related species in complex datasets involving internationally traded timber species. Comparative analyses of family‐level discrimination and species/genus ratios indicated that the inclusion of closely related species is an important factor affecting the resolution ability of barcodes for timber species verification. Our study indicates that although nuclear ITS2 is the most efficient single barcode for timber species authentication in China, complementary combinations like matK+trnH–psbA+ITS2 are required to provide broader discrimination power. These newly‐generated sequences enrich the existing publicly available databases, especially for tropical and subtropical evergreen timber trees and this current timber species barcode reference library can serve as an important genetic resource for forestry monitoring, illegal logging prosecution and biodiversity projects.
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The highly valuable timber species Dalbergia cochinchinensis is severely threatened due to habitat loss and illegal logging throughout its distribution in mainland Southeast Asia and is listed on CITES Appendix II. This study proposes a strategy for conservation and sustainable management of the species based on assessment of genetic structure within and among natural populations. We developed SNP markers from RAD sequencing and used these in combination with SSR genotypes from a previous study to assess the genetic diversity in 26 populations of D. cochinchinensis across its entire range in Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. The species is able of clonal reproduction and we found that trees closer than 45 meters from each other can be clones. Genetic diversity and clustering analysis showed a clear division of populations into five geographical groups with differing levels of diversity. Assignment tests correctly identified the region of origin for approximately 90% of the samples, which demonstrates that despite a low number of successfully identified SNPs, the SSR + SNP marker panel has the potential for tracking the geographic origin of D. cochinchinensis timber for use in CITES regulation and enforcement. We propose the five identified groups to be considered as Management Units and that conservation and breeding programs should be based on a network of in situ and ex situ conservation stands representing the genetic variation among and within these units. We recommend that conservation efforts are directed towards community owned and managed lands, as this has proven an effective strategy locally.
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Using chemical fingerprints for timber species identification is a relatively new, but promising technique. However, little is known about the effect of pre-processing spectral data parameter settings on the timber species classification accuracy. Therefore, this study presents an extensive and automated analysis method using the random forest machine learning algorithm on a set of highly valuable timber species from the Meliaceae family. Metabolome profiles were collected using direct analysis in real-time (DART™) ionisation coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) analysis of heartwood specimens for 175 individuals (representing 10 species). In order to analyse variability in classification accuracy, 110 sets of data pre-processing parameter combinations consisting of mass tolerance for binning and relative abundance cut-off thresholds were tested. Furthermore, for each set of parameters (designated “binning/threshold setting”), a random search for one hyperparameter of interest was performed, i.e. the number of variables (in this case ions) drawn randomly for each random forest analysis. The best classification accuracy (82.2%) was achieved with 47 variables and a binning and threshold combination of 40 mDa and 4%, respectively. Entandrophragma angolense is mostly confused with Entandrophragma candollei and Khaya anthotheca, and several Swietenia species are confused with each other due to the high similarity of their chemical fingerprints. Entandrophragma cylindricum, Entandrophragma utile, Khaya ivorensis, Lovoa trichilioides and Swietenia macrophylla are easy to discriminate and show less misclassifications. The choice of parameter settings, whether it is in the data pre-processing (binning and threshold) or classification algorithm (hyperparameters), results in variability in classification accuracy. Therefore, a preliminary parameter screening is proposed before constructing the final model when using the random forest algorithm for classification. Overall, DART-TOFMS in combination with random forest is a powerful tool for species identification.
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• We investigate chloroplast DNA variation in a hyperdiverse community of tropical rainforest trees in French Guiana, focusing on patterns of intraspecific and interspecific variation. We test whether a species genetic diversity is higher when it has congeners in the community with which it can exchange genes and if shared haplotypes are more frequent in genetically diverse species, as expected in the presence of introgression. • We sampled a total of 1,681 individual trees from 472 species corresponding to 198 genera and sequenced them at a noncoding chloroplast DNA fragment. • Polymorphism was more frequent in species that have congeneric species in the study site than in those without congeners (30% vs. 12%). Moreover, more chloroplast haplotypes were shared with congeners in polymorphic species than in monomorphic ones (44% vs. 28%). • Despite large heterogeneities caused by genus‐specific behaviors in patterns of hybridization, these results suggest that the higher polymorphism in the presence of congeners is caused by local introgression rather than by incomplete lineage sorting. Our findings suggest that introgression has the potential to drive intraspecific genetic diversity in species‐rich tropical forests.
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We developed nuclear and chloroplastic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and INDEL (insertion/deletion) markers using restriction associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq) and low coverage MiSeq genome sequencing to set up a genetic tracking method of the geographical origin of Hymenaea sp. From two initial sets of 358 and 32 loci used to genotype at least 94 individuals, a final set of 75 nSNPs, 50 cpSNPs and 6 INDELs identifying significant population structure was developed.
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There are nearly 40 items that should ideally be reported when an NIR (near infrared) spectroscopy project is completed, either as a report or as a scientific paper. However, in our reading of the extensive literature, many of the papers presented or published report no more than 6–10 of these. The purpose of this tutorial is to indicate all of the items and the reasons for reporting them. Most of the items that need to be reported are important for anyone who seeks to duplicate the type of application and methods reported in a peer-reviewed journal article for their own work. Practically, all of the items are significant to any worker if the eventual objective of their work is to extend it to the level of industrial application. The tutorial will summarize these items, and give some explanation for their inclusion. The tutorial should be useful to potential authors, as well as to reviewers.
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Confronted with growing competition, wood industry manufacturers are increasingly looking to optimize their processing processes and to control the quality of their finished products. Similarly, research and development teams in genetics and forest genetic improvement need new powerful tools enabling the evaluation of a large number of samples at a low cost and quickly. In this context, the development of non-destructive tools for measuring wood material performances (in all its forms: massive, de structured or reconstructed) is essential. Since the early 1990s, numerous research studies have explored the usefulness of using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate the properties of wood material.This chapter, divided into two parts, aims to present a state of the art on the use of NIRS methodology in the wood domain. The first part describes technology and principles of its operation as well as its various fields of application for macromolecules, some physical and mechanical properties. The second part takes stock of the latest knowledge gained to date on the use of NIRS in the cooperage sector and takes example of an original industrial process for measuring the quality of oak wood directly on the production line.
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Dipteryx timber has been heavily exploited in South America since 2000's due to the increasing international demand for hardwood. Developing tools for the genetic identification of Dipteryx species and their geographical origin can help to promote legal trading of timber. A collection of 800 individual trees, belonging to six different Dipteryx species, was genotyped based on 171 molecular markers. After the exclusion of markers out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or with no polymorphism or low amplification, 83 nuclear, 29 chloroplast, 13 mitochondrial SNPs, and two chloroplast and five mitochondrial INDELS remained. Six genetic groups were identified using Bayesian Structure analyses of the nuclear SNPs, which corresponded to the different Dipteryx species collected in the field. Seventeen highly informative markers were identified as suitable for species identification and obtained self-assignment success rates to species level of 78-96%. An additional set of 15 molecular markers was selected to determine the different genetic clusters found in D. odorata and D. ferrea, obtaining self-assignment success rates of 91-100%. The success to assign samples to the correct country of origin using all or only the informative markers improved when using the nearest neighbour approach (69-92%) compared to the Bayesian approach (33-80%). While nuclear and chloroplast SNPs were more suitable for differentiating the different Dipteryx species, mitochondrial SNPs were ideal for determining the genetic clusters of D. odorata and D. ferrea. These 32 selected SNPs will be invaluable genetic tools for the accurate identification of species and country of origin of Dipteryx timber.
Article
We developed nuclear and plastid single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (INDEL) markers for Dipteryx species using a combination of restriction associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq) and low coverage MiSeq genome sequencing. Of the total 315 loci genotyped using a MassARRAY platform, 292 loci were variable and polymorphic among the 73 sampled individuals from French Guiana, Brasil, Peru, and Bolivia. A final set of 56 nuclear SNPs, 26 chloroplast SNPs, 2 chloroplast INDELs, and 32 mitochondrial SNPs identifying significant population structure was developed. This set of loci will be useful for studies on population genetics of Dipteryx species in Amazonia.