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... Various new research challenges and future directions are also discussed in detail. In paper , authors have proposed a solution for Semantic IoT interoperability by combining SDN, NFV, and IoT. The future directions of this paper are to provide a bridge between various IoT platforms and frameworks. ...
In the coming few years, there is going to be rapid advancement in terms of technology like 5G, 6G, etc. When we think about 5G, the performance of the internet is going to increase multifold. The 5G i.e. fifth-generation network is going to be very heterogeneous. There is a need for a standardized solution to the issues in this technology. In this work, we are trying to understand the problems specifically in IoT (Internet of Things) area of 5G. In the literature survey, we found out that various solutions have been proposed in the area of the Internet of Things, but there is a lack of some generic solutions for all IoT projects. Every project works excellent in its closed and specified environment. When we try to connect multiple IoT projects, there is a big problem of interoperability. Some ICT standardization organizations have proposed some solutions to interoperability to overcome this scenario. Few solutions have been proposed by some authors to provide interoperability using semantic technologies. The solution for this problem of heterogeneous IoT can be provided using the semantic technologies in combination with that of SDN (Software Defined Network), NFV (Network Function Virtualization), and Cloud infrastructure.
The Web of Things (WoT) recommendations of the W3C have been introduced to enable interoperability between different Internet of Things platforms. Although previous studies have confirmed the practical applicability of the WoT specifications, research in regard to the scalability of the WoT is still missing. To fill this particular gap, this work describes a practical case study to investigate the characteristics of the WoT in the context of large scale deployments. To this end, a system is designed and implemented, adapting the WoT architecture and consisting of a simulation of virtual Things, which communicate with a Thing Directory and a client application in the form of a rule engine. To evaluate this system it is deployed to a cluster of inexpensive web servers under realistic conditions using state of the art authorization services and transport layer security. The evaluation of the system is performed by simulating up to 200.000 virtual entities, measuring the systems stability and correct functionality. The results show, that the current implementation is able to operate stable and correctly with 20.000 virtual entities, with parts of the system being barely under load. The protocols implemented and technologies used, particularly HTTP and MQTT, provide opportunities to scale the system vertically and horizontally, although the use of HTTP could become a bottleneck in larger implementations.
Semantic interoperability is the designed property where various systems can interact with each other and exchange data with unambiguous, shared meaning. This enables knowledge discovery, machine computable reasoning and federation of different information systems. Traditionally, technologies from the Semantic Web are adapted in order to capture the inherited properties of the Internet of Things (IoT) domain. Such technologies provide common description and representation of data and services; they characterize things and their capabilities , deal with the semantic annotation, resource discovery, access management, knowledge extraction in a machine-readable or interoperable manner. Thus, the common interpretation of semantic information in a globally shared ontology could be quite useful. However, several local systems may utilize popular or standardized ontologies, eventually they extend them and establish their own semantics and interfaces. As a result, the direct interaction between these systems is not feasible. With this in mind, our goal is to propose the use of semantic interoperabil-ity mechanisms, which correlates the required information and enables the interoperability of systems with different semantics or cross-domain interaction. A motivating example of smart sensing is analyzed along with the implementation of the proposed approach.
The vast amount of connected devices on the Internet of Things (IoT) creates an enormous potential for new applications, by leveraging synergies arising through the convergence of consumer, business and industrial Internet, and creating open, global networks connecting people, data, and "things". In this context, the SEMIoTICS project aims to develop a pattern-driven framework, built upon existing IoT platforms, to enable and guarantee secure and dependable actuation and semi-autonomic behaviour in IoT/Industrial IoT applications. To achieve this, patterns are used to encode proven dependencies between the security, privacy, dependability and interoperability (SPDI) properties of individual smart objects and corresponding properties of orchestrations (composition) involving them. This paper sketches this approach followed by SEMIoTICS, whereby the SPDI patterns are used to generate IoT orchestrations with proven SPDI properties at design time, while at runtime these properties are monitored in real-time, across system layers, triggering adaptations to return the deployed orchestration to the desired SPDI state, when needed.
Next generation networks, as the Internet of Things (IoT), aim to create open and global networks for connecting smart objects, network elements, applications, web services and end-users. Research and industry attempt to integrate this evolving technology and the exponential growth of IoT by overcoming significant hurdles such as dynamicity, scalability, heterogeneity and end-to-end security and privacy. Motivated by the above, SEMIoTICS proposes the development of a pattern-driven framework , built upon existing IoT platforms, to enable and guarantee secure and dependable actuation and semi-autonomic behaviour in IoT/IIoT applications. Hence, in this paper, we describe the design of the SEMIoTICS architecture that addresses the afore-mentioned challenges. Specifically, the functional components of the proposed architecture are presented including also an overview of the appropriate realization mechanisms. Finally, we map two verticals in the areas of energy and health care and one horizontal in the areas of intelligent sensing use-cases scenarios to the suggested architecture in order to demonstrate its applicability to different IoT enabling platforms, types of smart objects, devices and networks.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an important research area, and substantial developments for a wide range of devices and IoT platforms is evident. However, one of the critical issues in IoT is that the different proprietary IoT platforms and systems are still not interoperable; unable to talk with each other. In this paper, we survey the state-of-the-art on interoperability in IoT. First, we provide a classification of techniques and schemes looking at IoT interoperability from different perspectives. For each category, we present the approaches proposed in the papers. Second, we use the interoperability classification as a baseline to compare some of the existing IoT research projects and identify gaps in the existing solutions. Our findings will help domain experts and professionals to get an overview and categorization of existing interoperability solutions in IoT and select an appropriate approach to help increase the number of interoperable IoT products.
This paper presents an overview of the interoperability concepts along with the challenges for the IoT domain and the upcoming Web 3.0. We identify four levels of interoperability and the relevant solutions for accomplishing vertical and horizontal compatibility between the various layers of a modern IoT ecosystem, referred to as: technological, syntactic, semantic, and organizational interoperability. The goal is to achieve cross-domain interaction and facilitate the proper usage and management of the provided IoT services and applications. An interoperability framework is also proposed where the involved system components can cooperate and offer the seamless operation from the device to the backend framework. This by-design end-to-end interoperation enables the interplay of several complex service composition settings and the management of the system via patterns. The overall proposal is adopted by the EU funded project SEMIoTICS as an enabler towards the IoT and Web 3.0, even when products from different vendors are utilized.
In the last few years, many smart objects found in the physical world are interconnected and communicate through the existing internet infrastructure which creates a global network infrastructure called the Internet of Things (IoT). Research has shown a substantial development of solutions for a wide range of devices and IoT platforms over the past 6-7 years. However, each solution provides its own IoT infrastructure, devices, APIs, and data formats leading to interoperability issues. Such interoperability issues are the consequence of many critical issues such as vendor lock-in, impossibility to develop IoT application exposing cross-platform, and/or cross-domain, difficulty in plugging non-interoperable IoT devices into different IoT platforms, and ultimately prevents the emergence of IoT technology at a large-scale. To enable seamless resource sharing between different IoT vendors, efforts by several academia, industry, and standardization bodies have emerged to help IoT interoperability, i.e., the ability for multiple IoT platforms from different vendors to work together. This paper performs a comprehensive survey on the state-of-the-art solutions for facilitating interoperability between different IoT platforms. Also, the key challenges in this topic is presented.
The Internet of Things (IoT) brings connectivity to about every objects found in the physical space. It
extends connectivity to everyday objects. From connected fridges, cars and cities, the IoT creates
opportunities in numerous domains. However, this increase in connectivity creates many prominent
challenges. This paper provides a survey of some of the major issues challenging the widespread adoption
of the IoT. Particularly, it focuses on the interoperability, management, security and privacy issues in the
IoT. It is concluded that there is a need to develop a multifaceted technology approach to IoT security,
management, and privacy.
The advent of the Internet of Things opens a plethora of possibilities, provided the research and industry com- munities are able to overcome a number of challenges such as the dynamicity, scalability, heterogeneity and end-to-end security and privacy requirements of such environments. Motivated by these challenges, this paper proposes leveraging architectural patterns to provide, in an integrated manner, security, dependability, privacy, and interoperability guarantees, across horizontal and vertical compositional structures of IoT applications. The pattern language design process and definition is presented, along with an implementation enabling the automated, pattern-driven property verification and adaptation of IoT orchestrations.
In this position paper we explore the challenges and issues around interoperability in the web of things. A key concern is how to increase interoperability while maintaining a high degree of innovation and exploration in the community. To that end we propose a hub- centric approach toward interoperability consisting of four levels or stages. We are working to validate this approach in the context of a large-scale IoT ecosystem project consisting of eight IoT hubs in different domains where a key requirement is hub-to-hub and hub- application interoperability.
By following an analysis of the state of the art in the convergence of cloud computing and the Internet of Things IoT, this paper presents design principles for the IoT in cloud environments. A framework for on-demand establishment of IoT services based on the automated formulation of societies of internet-connected objects is described and the interactions between architecture modules are explained in detail to validate this approach. The main building blocks of the functional framework and its operational components follow the utility-driven cloud-based computing model. The framework leverages well-known technologies i.e. linked sensor data and standards notably the W3C semantic sensor networks ontology. Finally, an example for service formulation and delivery of services for a smart campus scenario is provided and discussed. This paper also introduces some experiment results using the utility-driven service formulation model for mobile applications.
The growing trends towards integrating legacy application s with new systems in a network-centric environment has introduce d yet another level of complexity beyond those we witnessed in dev el- opment of large monolithic systems. In this context, most re search challenges focus on interoperability within the same domai n. How- ever, provision of cross-domain interoperability among co llabo- rating domains is a new challenge that needs more attention f rom the research community. Such interoperability requires da ta and service extraction to obtain common subsets of informationand services in collaborating domains, e.g., healthcare and in surance. The first step in achieving such a large interoperability is to follow similar development processes for collaborating domains,which provides homogeneity in their architectures. The second st ep would be to provide intra-domain and inter-domain semantic inter oper- ability through proprietary and shared ontology systems. I n this paper, we address the above challenges through descriptionof a framework that is based on core information standards and te rmi- nology systems and employs a guideline to achieve service in ter- operability among systems of the collaborating domains. A r eal- world case study of cross-domain interoperability among tw o do- mains healthcare and insurance is presented.
Smart end-to-end massive iot interoperability, connectivity and security (semiotics)
N E Petroulakis
A functional approach to information system interoperability
Internet of things-iot: definition, characteristics, architecture, enabling technologies, application & future challenges