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Tourism Destination Management Post COVID-19 Pandemic: a new humanism for a Human-Centred Tourism (Tourism 5.0)

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The COVID-19 pandemic will probably be the toughest stress test ever for the entire tourism industry and, when over, travellers will surely find a changed industry. The changes will take place in various ways, both on the demand and supply side. The present piece reflects on the great and unexpected opportunity that this difficult moment is giving the sector - albeit through such a dramatic experience - to rethink tourist activity, tourism planning, management and destination development based on a new humanism that would consider the “human factor” more than it has done so far (if not in theory, for sure in the practice). In particular, the chapter focus on the opportunity to recover and reinvigorate the idea of tourism as a vehicle for human development, intercultural dialogue and sustained peace. A human centred tourism, Tourism 5.0. To this end, the chapter first outlines the situation in which this work is contextualized, and then conceptually explore the opportunities this crisis is providing for the sector to radically rethink itself before its restarts.
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World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 43
Fabio Carbone
School of Marketing and Management & Centre for Trust, Peace, and Social Relations,
Coventry University; International institute for Peace through Tourism
Chaos gives birth to dancing stars
(Friedrich Nietzsche)
(Winston Churchill)
The COVID-19 pandemic will probably be the toughest stress test ever for the entire
The changes will take place in various ways, both on the demand and supply side.
moment is giving the sector - albeit through such a dramatic experience - to rethink
tourist activity, tourism planning, management and destination development based
on a new humanism that would consider the “human factor” more than it has done
so far (if not in theory, for sure in the practice). In particular, the chapter focus on
the opportunity to recover and reinvigorate the idea of tourism as a vehicle for
human development, intercultural dialogue and sustained peace. A human centred
this work is contextualized, and then conceptually explore the opportunities this
crisis is providing for the sector to radically rethink itself before its restarts.
COVID-19; Tourism; Tourism Destination Management; Human-centred society
Tourism and Peace.
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
A pandemia COVID-19 será provavelmente o stress test
toda a indústria do turismo e, quando terminar, os turistas irão certamente encontrar
uma indústria mudada. As mudanças terão lugar de várias formas, tanto do lado
duma forma tão dramática - para repensar a atividade turística, planeamento, ges-
tão e desenvolvimento de destinos turísticos com base num novo humanismo que
consideraria o “fator humano” mais de quanto tem feito até agora na prática. Em
particular, o capítulo centra-se na oportunidade de recuperar e revigorar a ideia do
turismo como veículo para o desenvolvimento humano, o diálogo intercultural e a paz.
delineia a situação em que este trabalho contextualiza-se, e, em seguida, explora
as oportunidades que esta crise está proporcionando para o setor a repensar-se
radicalmente antes de seu reinício.
COVID-19; Turismo; Gestão de destinos turísticos;Sociedade centrada no ser humano
Turismo e paz.
When our war against the COVID-19 will be won, the pandemic will leave behind
a long trail of changes in our personal and professional lives. The tourism studies’
is a pioneer of the future trend. The aim of the present paper in particular is to
propose - after outlining the context studied, that of the COVID-19 pandemic and
its general impacts on the tourism industry - a possible way to follow to rethink
tourism and tourism destination management for the post pandemic. A proposal
inspired and based on the noblest responses people worldwide gave to the struggles
and constraints caused by the pandemic, in a rediscovered sense of community and
belonging to the human species. The inauguration of a new, human-centred app roach
to tourism would contribute to keep this momentum up, feeding a new humanism.
World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 45
1. A brief overview on the COVID-19 pandemic and general impacts on
tourism: “It’s the End of the World as We Know It” (?)
The refrain of a popular rock song from ‘80s by the American band R.E.M rings
out: . Will this really be the outcome of the
COVID-19 pandemic? No one can say for sure, but many signs point to the fact
that this global, unexpected and painful experience will have great impacts on our
pandemic (still ongoing while writing this book) and its socioeconomic impacts,
and in particular those on tourism.
1.1 Chronicle of a pandemic (so far!)
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses known to cause diseases ranging from
common colds to more serious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory
Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). A new
coronavirus, the ( 19, for the year in which it
occurred) started to spread in China in December 2019 and, being highly contagious,
the virus has rapidly spread globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) has
but soon they had to acknowledge the World was dealing with a pandemic2.
As showed in Figure 1, on March 31st, 2020, 826,222 cases of COVID-19 were
40,708 deaths (CSSE, 2020).
1 The WHO classified the COVID-19 as “health emergency of international interest” on January, 30th 20 20 (W HO, 2 020a )
2 COVID-19 was classified as a pandemic on March, 11th 2020 (WHO, 2020b).
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
Measures for social distancing were adopted by the governments worldwide
in order to prevent or mitigate the spread of the virus: quarantines, closure of
borders and travel restrictions, workplace hazard controls, and facility closures
(including schools and universities). The pandemic outbreak had also motivated
the postponement or cancellation of international events, such as the Olympic
Games 2020, as well as cultural and religious events worldwide. Impacts of this
unexpected crisis vary from political and geopolitical, as well as socioeconomic,
to climate, security, and civil and multicultural coexistence, having been recorded
worldwide episodes of racism towards people from China (place where the global
contagion of Covid-19 has started), but also towards Italians, as Italy was one of
1.2. Covid-19 and tourism. General impacts
Social distancing is the antithesis of all that tourism represents. Even if the sector
is not new to major upheavals in demand (some examples being the consequences
of the terroristic attacks of 09/11, 2001 and SARS-Severe Respiratory Syndrome
pandemic, 2002-2004), we have never seen before a shock of this magnitude strike
the whole world. More than many words, Figure 2 visually and quite clearly
Figure 1. Screenshot of the web site of the “Center for Systems Science and Engineering” (CSSE)
at Johns Hopkins University, dedicated to Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases.
bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6, retrieved on March 31st, 2020
World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 47
illustrates the effect of the pandemic on tourist destinations (and social life, in
general), by showing some of the most popular international tourist destinations
completely empty.
Widespread fear, social distancing, closed borders, travel restrictions and quarantine are
having serious negative effects on the tourism sector: mass cancellation of hotel and
sine die in the ports; arts and cultural
industries are threatened. A worrying scenario, particularly from the socioecono-
mical point of view considering that tourism - one of the largest industries in the
world - employs 319 million people (one in ten jobs globally) and generates 10.4%
of total gross domestic product. According to the World Travel & Tourism Council
(WTTC) 50 million jobs worldwide are at risk. If at global level the losses of the
tourism industry are estimated around 25%- the equivalent of three months of lost
trips - at domestic level this percentage can raise massively, in particular for those
countries heavily relying on tourism for their economies. In Italy, for instance, loss
Figure 2. The effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on some of the most popular international tourist destinations.
Top : Ro m e, v ie w ov e r t h e S p an i s h S te p s , t h e Barcaccia and Via Condotti (on the left); Trevi Fountain (on the right).
Bottom: Las Vegas (on the left), view of The Vegas Strip casinos (on the left); Madrid, Puerta del Sol (on the right).
Source: The author, assembly of screen shots retrieved from live webcams at, on March 30th, 2020.
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
are expected to be around 73% in 2020, if compared with the previous year (Giubilei,
2020). In a dramatic communication, the UNWTO (2020) warns:
worldwide, the wider social impact of the crisis will go far beyond tourism,
In short, the COVID-19 pandemic will probably be the toughest stress test ever for
industry. The changes will take place in various ways. The present chapter focuses
 
sector - albeit through such a dramatic experience - to rethink tourist activity,
tourism planning, management and destination development towards a renewed
and reinvigorated ability to use tourism as a vehicle for human development,
intercultural dialogue and sustained peace.
2. Rethinking tourism beyond tourism
It is very likely that some of the changes imposed during the pandemic in a sudden
way as a response to the health threat and a form of adaptation to the crisis will
remain (if not in full, at least in part) among the common practices in post-COVID-19
society. Namely, the predominance of smart working and online courses also within
the formal education, less consumption and travel. With regards to national politics,
international relations, and geopolitics we will eventually witness the establishment
of higher borders between states, an increased reticence towards globalization,
active promotion of national production of all essential goods and public expendi-
ture more focused on environment and national health systems (Malagutti, 2020).
In this scenario, what about tourism? What changes can be expected? what changes
are desirable?
2.1. Tourism Destination Management Post COVID-19 Pandemic:
(re)discovering the human factor for a Tourism 5.0?
namely, the innumerable manifestations of solidarity and creativity, and the revived
(and revisited) sense of local and global community. As promptly pointed out by
World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 49
Higgins-Desbiolles (2020), “these responses challenge the atomised individualism that
has gone hand in hand with the consumerism of travel and tourism. In the above
considerations I see one of the possible cues from which to draw inspiration for a
general, conceptual review of tourism, on which to base the rebirth of the tourist
industry and on which to prepare the destinations to the zero hour of travellers’ return.
However, while concern about socioeconomic damage is understandable, it is
development – largely grounded on an economicist vision - has largely proved to be
at the fragility of those economies particularly dependent on tourist activity; the
social inequalities often created by tourist activities through tourist-local population
contact; the phenomena related to the uncontrolled growth of tourism (even when
as that of overtourism and its consequences on the quality of life for the local popu-
lations and on the quality of the tourist experience itself; the irreversible damage to
tangible and intangible cultural heritage and the climate impacts. Considering the
pandemic has already caused an unprecedent damage to tourism, but even greater
harm would be to fail to seize this opportunity - given by the forced stop - to rethink
tourism in general and, in particular, the approach to management and tourist
destination development.
One of the possible ways to proceed could be to apply to tourism, in general, and
tourism destination management in particular the principles of underlying the
Society 5.0 introduced by the Japanese 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan.
The Society 5.03 is supposed to be a human-centred society that balances economic
advancement with the resolution of social problems by a system that highly
integrates cyberspace and physical space” (UNESCO, 2019). The idea of the Society
5.0 necessarily underlies the acknowledgment of the strong presence of technology
in our lives, on the one hand, and the need for a new humanism, on the other.
In this sense, the parallelism between this idea and tourism is particularly valid,
if we consider the strong application of new technologies to various aspects of the
3 Fol lowi ng t he hunt ing soc iety (S ocie ty 1 .0), th e a gric ultu ral soci ety (So ciet y 2 .0), th e in dust rial so ciet y ( Soci ety 3.0) ,
and the information society (Society 4.0)
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
The global experience of the pandemic and the communities’ responses based on
solidarity and cohesion could represent an incentive for tourism to combine a
sort of new humanism with the use of technologies. Placing a newfound human
factor and a rediscovered sense of community and belonging to the human race at
the centre of Human-Centred Tourism would deeply influence the practices of
the sense of identity of the population (cultural awareness) through increased public
participation in the management of cultural and natural heritage (Carbone, Oosterbeek,
& Costa, 2013) also through the use of the most innovative Information Technology
(IT). On the other side, technologies and IT communication could be used to promote
intercultural dialogue through tourist-host encounter before, during and after the visit.
In this sense, particular attention should be given to mobile technologies. The mobile
phone was already the protagonist of the new way of travelling, as it had become
our tourist guide, our travel agency, the best adviser about the best restaurants, the
during the COVID-19 pandemic, mobile technologies are representing our window
to the world, allowing us not only to keep in contact with our relatives and friends,
but also to “travel” and visit the most remote corners of the planet without getting
off the sofa, thanks to the augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR). Mobile
technology thus became part of our daily lives even more than before during the
COVID-19 pandemic. A human-centred tourism destination in post COVID-19
scenario will seek for a balance between the use of mobile technologies and the
human interaction tourist-host, by sensitising visitors about the importance of this
practice for a more satisfying and authentic tourist experience, and by stimulating
the proactivity of local communities by encouraging participation in capacity building
programs (foreign language, local history, intercultural communication, etc.).
Implementing the Human-Centred Tourism would thus req uire the coura ge of taking
bold decisions at destination level, such as to opt once and for all for severely
restricting the number of visitors. Furthermore, public and private sector should
promote the trend of long stays over shorter stays, especially for international
new cultures, avoiding phenomenon of predatory tourism and staged authenticity.
Promoting dialogue and authentic encounter (activities we will anxiously looking
for, once the periods of social distancing will end) and experience lived at a more
human pace would indeed be at the expense of the revenues so far known in the
World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 51
economy of tourism, but this would directly and indirectly be encouraging for a
more sustai
It is therefore a real (though audacious) opportunity that the pandemic is offering
human development, sustainability, intercultural dialogue and peace through the
combination of community participation and social innovation (Malek & Costa,
2015) and with bold political measures at destination level.
2.2. Boosting the contribution of tourism to the building of inclusive societies
and sustaining peace
bution Tourism 5.0 would give in building inclusive societies and sustaining peace. In
a post-COVID 19 scenario, indeed, the implementation of a Human-Centred Tourism
would indeed boost the role of tourism as catalyst of positive peace. Notice, the rea-
der: to refer to positive peace4 rather than simply peace, allows to associate tourism
but that experience anyway a negative peace, that is, forms of structural or/and
For instance, social integration is one of the most urgent issues in Western countries,
being at the basis of a negative peace. The promotion of cultural awareness on the
one hand and the enhancement of intercultural competences on the other can
represent an effective measure to promote understanding and intercultural dialo-
gue in post-multicultural societies (Adachi, 2011; Carbone, 2018). In this context,
tourism 5.0 can potentially be facilitator of intercultural dialogue and encounter
(Carbone, 2017; Carbone, Oosterbeek, & Costa, 2012).
On the other hand, if we consider the communities and areas suffering direct violence
pressing. The international Crises Group - an independent peacebuilding organisation
– has outlined seven key aspects re
4 Peace do es not mean the total absence of any confli ct. It mea ns the abs ence of vio lence in a ll forms an d the unfol ding
of conflict in a constructive way. Peace therefore exists where people are interacting non-violently and are managing
their conflict positively – with respectful attention to the legitimate needs and interest of all concerned (Johan
Galtung, 1996).
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
3) Political exploitation of the crisis by domestic political leaders;
4) A possible turning point in major power relations;
5) Opportunities of dialogue to be seized;
6) Potential crisis mitigation measures, and
7) Risks to social order, as the disease’s catastrophic economic impact could
well sow the seeds of future disorder (International-Crises-Group, 2020).
These considerations represent to us – scholars and practitioners - a call of duty and the
demonstration of the urgency to going back to the debate (and its implications) on the
possible contribution that tourism can make to the construction of a peaceful society.
The coronavirus pandemic is causing, and will cause in the long term, enormous
socioeconomic damages at global level. In particular, tourism is possibly experien-
cing the worth ever stress test. We will witness many changes, but in this stormy
moment it is important to maintain a certain perspective, as the quality of these
changes depends on us to a large extent: history shows that tragic events happen,
but human beings come together, and innovation increase, solutions are found and
society advances. We should therefore take the opportunity offered by this moment
as UNWTO Secretary General:
Whatever our business in life may be, let us always remember that our core
business is, and will always be, to make this world a better place
In this sense, this paper proposes to work towards a new paradigm of tourism, to
5.0, a Human Centred Tourism in which the myth of economicism gives way to a
ground-breaking association between technology and a new humanism to promote
sustainability, human development and peace. More contemporary than ever echoes
the speech Charlie Chaplin wrote for his  (1940):
World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 53
And this world has room for everyone, and the good Earth is rich can provide for
The very nature of these inventions cries out for the goodness in men - cries out for
We have the technology, we have the resources, we have the knowledge, and during
the COVID-19 pandemic we have shown that we still have a great humanity in us.
We now n eed th e will a nd co ura ge to co mbi ne th ese a sse ts to wards a Human-Centred
Touris m, the tourism 5.0. We sent tourists out into the outer space, it’s time now to
bring them back on the Earth and build together a better future of global understanding
and peace.
A special thanks to Luís Mota Figueira,(Portugal) for
the opportunity he gave me to be part of this pioneering project that will surely pave
the way for many more of this kind worldwide. This work is dedicated to doctors and
medical staff, police and military around the World, who have become our guardian
angels and heroes in these stormy days. Stay safe. Stay Hopeful. Stand strong!
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
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... Tourism 5.0 flourished during the pandemic time in the virtual tourism model [1][2][3]. Federated learning (FL) is distributed machine learning that ensures privacy preservation of the crowd and involves statistical training prototypes on many mobile users, i.e., workers, whereas keeping data localized over various geographical locations is challenging [4,5]. 5G network provides potential federated learning applications. ...
... 'GeoLens' is used for geospatial site survey using mobile crowdsensing (MCS) [1]. Human-centred tourism 5.0 evolved during the post-pandemic era [2]. The hybrid tourism recommender system [3] evolved in-game theory-based mobile crowdsensing [4]. ...
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FedLens is the federated learning model based on viewing world tourist spots virtually in a privacy-preserving manner. We define Virtual Tourism as enjoying the natural beauty, other related activities online, using AR/VR/MR technology-based ‘virtual eye’, to interact actively with nature and people at tourist spots. Federated learning-based mobile crowdsensing is an emerging collaborative distributed learning paradigm for privacy-preserving, energy-efficient, and scalable networks. Edge intelligent mobile crowdsensing uses geotagged tourist attractions. The purpose of this study is to explore the geo-statistics of tourist areas. The proposed ‘FedLens’ brings tourists closer to the interests using augmented reality through the virtual guide. ArcGIS software maps a tourist area. 5G mobile crowdsensing helps to explore unknown tourist spots in real time. ‘FedLens’ provides a privacy-preserving incentive mechanism to encourage reliable contributors to get better Quality of Information. The average global data aggregation time is approximately 12%. The contributor’s collection time is 88% of the total processing time. The contributors use multifaceted intelligent federated computing to provide detailed geospatial information and promote sustainable ecotourism. Augmented reality-based virtual tourism ecosystem development is the ultimate goal of this work to attract more virtual tourists for a sustainable environment. Future physical tour-planning recommendation systems are incorporated in the proposed model.
... Posto isto, fica evidente e notório que a pandemia impactará sobretudo em países emergentes e turísticos como é o caso do Brasil, em especial na região Nordeste a qual a Rota das Emoções se localiza (Costa, Nascimento, Hoffmann & Silva, 2017;Silva, Hoffmann & Costa, 2020). Deste modo, países como estes precisam aprender de maneira coletiva a vencer essa tragédia do COVID-19, que impactou, impacta e impactará ainda mais o contexto do setor do turismo dos países, inviabilizando fortemente a economia local destes países (Carbone, 2020;Menegaki, 2020;Oliveira & Arantes, 2020;Gossling, Scott & Hall, 2020;Sayfullaev, 2020;Sheresheva, 2020), inclusive do Brasil (Aguiar & Melo, 2020). ...
... Tal fato mostra que o desgaste do turismo por conta do COVID-19 é mais aflorado e contundente em países emergentes, como é o caso do Brasil, e com isso, estes terão que instruir-se em uma rede de colaboração e interação mais densa para conseguir se recuperar com o mínimo de danos possíveis dessa tragédia global, minimizando efeitos e transformações em suas respectivas localidades turísticas (Carbone, 2020;Farzanegan, et al., 2020;Gossling, Scott & Hall, 2020 "Sim, com toda certeza, nossa região é rica em belezas naturais, sol e praia, uma diversidade de culturas, tem muito atrativo, são três estados cada um com sua diferença regional. É um produto que vende por sí só, uma foto do destino visitado vale mais que mil palavras. ...
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Objetivo do estudo: Estudar os efeitos e as implicações ocorridas no destino turismo da Rota das Emoções localizada no Nordeste do Brasil em decorrência da pandemia do COVID-19.Metodologia/abordagem: Metodologicamente, utilizou-se a abordagem qualitativa, mediante o método do estudo de caso múltiplo em três Empresas de Passeio (receptivos) que compõem a Rota das Emoções, Ceará, Maranhão e Piauí (uma empresa em cada estado).Originalidade/Relevância: O presente estudo enfoca o turismo da Rota das Emoções sob a óptica do COVID-19, tema este delicado que abrange, ainda hoje, a saúde humana e das empresas em todo o mundo. E que neste estudo buscou contemplar informações para a academia no que concerne especificamente o setor do Turismo do Nordeste do Brasil.Principais resultados: Apontam os efeitos e as implicações que a pandemia do COVID-19 trouxe para a Rota da Emoções nas empresas objeto de estudo, e, consequentemente para empresas parceiras que fazem parte desse citado clusters. Conclui-se que as empresas investigadas sofreram impacto direto da pandemia, impactando em seus clientes, parceiros, receitas, resultados.Contribuições teóricas/metodológicas: Enfatiza o tema do setor do Turismo do Nordeste do Brasil, a Rota das Emoções, e os efeitos e implicações que o citado setor sofreu em decorrência da pandemia da COVID-19.Contribuições sociais/para a gestão: Contempla informações sobre o COVID-19, que é um tema de saúde pública que influenciou de maneira macro a sociedade, sobretudo no que concerne ao setor do Turismo da Rota das Emoções.
... that provide added value(Hadjielias E. et al., 2022).Digitalisation has increased through the last years, especially during COVID-19 as the pandemic has affected the whole industry(Carbone F., 2020; Akhtar N. et al., 2021; Borges-Tiago T. et al. 2021). As physical distancing was necessary, people looked for another way to maintain their communication with families, friends and also colleagues and to continue to work, study and live. ...
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The introduction of digital technologies in agricultural production is one of the most important elements of strategic development in the agricultural sector and rural areas in Ukraine. In agriculture, these new technologies can modernize the industry, promoting innovation in agribusiness and creating new opportunities for rural development. The introduction of digital technologies in agriculture ensures the accuracy of measurements, speed data collection and processing. Digitization in rural areas is an inevitable process that brings a number of economic, social and environmental benefits. The immediate aim of this paper is to assess the state of implementation of digital technologies in agriculture and to examine opportunities for rural development in Ukraine. Research methods: monographic, descriptive, analysis, synthesis, induction. The results indicate that only large agricultural enterprises in Ukraine are able to implement and use digital technologies. Thus, it is proposed to create an integrated digital portal for agricultural needs, combining solutions that optimize activities of agricultural enterprises: land bank management, production, crop monitoring, warehouse, procurement and supply, equipment and repairs, logistics, inventory and finished products. The article identifies technological and human barriers to introduction of digital technologies in rural areas of Ukraine. In addition it proposes strategies for development of digital literacy and skills among rural residents in Ukraine. The results of the research can have a significant impact on the development of agriculture in Ukraine, promoting digital technologies among other agricultural enterprises and ensuring the development in rural areas, attracting additional agricultural market participants and infrastructure that provide relevant information and digital services to rural residents.
... Teknolojik gelişim konusu çeşitli çalışmalarla desteklenmiş ve akademik eksende ele alınmıştır. Fukuyama (2018), Salgues (2018), Mashur vd., (2019), Carbone (2020) toplum bazında, Wong ve Hazley (2020), Suryanata ve Pematun (2018), Zamfir ve Corbos (2015) ekonomi ve sürdürülebilir turizm bazında ele almışlardır. Yapılan çalışmalardan hareketle çalışmanın amacı, İstanbul'da faaliyet gösteren turizm işletmesi yöneticilerinin teknolojik sistemlerin kullanımına yönelik görüşlerinin belirlenmesidir. ...
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The purpose of the research is to determine the views of the managers of the tourism enterprises operating in Istanbul on the use of technological systems. The research is designed as a qualitative research. The research data were obtained with the help of a semi-structured interview form from the managers of the tourism enterprises (hotel businesses, travel agencies, food and beverage businesses and entertainment businesses) in Istanbul. The research is based on examining the technological systems of the enterprises, the future use of technological systems, the providers of the systems used, the technological conditions of the enterprises in the region and the factors that prevent the implementation of technological systems. According to the research findings, especially; The issues that the enterprises in the region do not benefit from the technological systems sufficiently, that the technological system providers of the enterprises are out of the enterprise, that the factors of economic and investment difficulties prevent the technological system have been brought to the fore. Some suggestions were tried to be developed in the light of the findings. These are the unwillingness of the business owners to invest, and this is a situation that will force business managers in the future. The fact that technology is at the forefront of today and its development day by day is an important issue on the subject. Businesses with high workload should not ignore the issue of technological systems. If the technological systems of the enterprises are weak for the future, they may not be in a position to competition.
... In this context, there are a growing number of academics and practitioners who are advocating for innovative strategies and digital transformation in support of a sustainable restart of tourism. Augmented reality (AR) and other ICT-driven tools are driving the relaunch of tourism post-COVID-19 (Carbone, 2020;Mora, 2020). However, no article has exclusively examined the various prospects of AR that can support the relaunch of post-pandemic tourism. ...
Purpose This paper aims to understand the various facets of augmented reality (AR) and to explore its prospects for supporting the relaunch of the tourism sector post-COVID-19 in accordance with the guidelines set out by WHO and UNWTO. Design/methodology/approach This study falls into the category of exploratory research. It is based on a systematic review of secondary data. Thematic content analysis has been adopted to trace out the various ways in which AR can be an aid in overcoming challenges in the relaunch of tourism after the pandemic. Findings It was found that norms such as social distancing and lower mobility are going to be followed even after the COVID-19. Therefore, there will be a great demand for mobile and Web-based AR to not only ensure tourist safety but also to create unique, accessible, personalized, context-specific, deep and memorable experiences. Practical implications Apart from its academic contribution to the existing body of knowledge, this work can assist various tourism DMOs and policymakers to devise futuristic policies for AR-driven tourism management and development. Originality/value The COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented and never seen before. In this context, this study establishes its novelty by exclusively focusing on the aspects of AR that can support the relaunch of tourism post-pandemic.
This study aims to conceptualize the notion of event technology by examining past and current trends in the event technology industry. Based on social representation and agenda-setting theories, this study analyzed approximately 390,000 posts related to event technology on Twitter and Instagram. For an in-depth examination, the authors performed multilateral big data analytics: descriptive, comparative, sentiment, and content analysis. The results revealed that product life cycles are clearly discernible in the event technology industry and that the COVID-19 pandemic has provided an opportunity for rejuvenation. The findings also suggest that event technology is the dominant terminology over meeting technology and Twitter is the preferred platform for discussing event technology-related agenda. This study examines the previously unvisited topic of technology usage in the MICE industry and provides academic and practical implications to prepare for the upcoming MICE 5.0 era.
COVID-19 outbreak has affected several sectors globally, including tourism. As different shreds of evidence show, the contributions of tourism to human beings have been plagued by the incidence of disease and violent conflict at different times and at various places. The social, economic, cultural, and environmental impact of tourism has been disrupted by the incidence of COVID-19. Thus, to what extent the symbiosis relation between tourism and positive peace is affected by the incidence of the virus is the main intention of this article. To address this intended outcome, the researcher relied on a desk research approach. As the source of information, different commentaries that were done by professionals, communities, and stakeholders were consulted. Published articles, books, and unpublished theses were consulted to substantiate the various sources of evidence. The finding clearly reveals that COVID-19 severely affected the tourism industry in terms of its socio-cultural, economic, and environmental spheres, which are the basis for positive peace and sustainable development.
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We study the formation of pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) by integrating both the promoting (moral obligation) and inhibiting (moral disengagement) PEB mechanisms. Results of a sample of 285 tourists at a National Nature Reserve in China affirm that moral obligation positively affects PEB intention, while moral disengagement has significant negative impact. There is little difference in the relative importance of moral obligation and moral disengagement in affecting PEB intention. Social influence plays an important role in regulating the impacts of moral variables on PEB intentions. This study also broadens knowledge of the structure of PEB, by unveiling low-effort PEB intention as a precursor to high-effort PEB intention, and a mediator between moral obligation / moral disengagement and high-effort PEB intention. This study provides insights and implications for tourism practitioners and policy makers, and opens up future research exploration of the paradox of the promoting and inhibiting PEB mechanisms.
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The coronavirus pandemic will deeply affect the tourism and travel sector. However, one should remember that COVID-19 is not the Black Death Plague. Thanks to the science and progress we have excellent healthcare and understanding of how to prevent and cure infectious diseases. The numbers of cured people are also growing. These people have the immunity against the coronavirus and might become the new risk-free travelers of the post-virus world who would help the tourism organisations to survive. Smart technological tracing solutions can be used to mark these people and to let them travel freely.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a swift perspective to JTF readers on the novel coronavirus outbreak that commenced in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and is currently ongoing. The study situates the current outbreak within prior pandemics and offers some directions for research and practice. Swift attention is needed to this event and the future of travel and tourism in a world where disease outbreaks and pandemics will become increasingly frequent due to increased travel and ease of access to destinations worldwide. Design/methodology/approach This paper draws from published academic research studies, as well as current media sources emerging, as the novel coronavirus situation is unfolding. In addition, the authors draw on the multidisciplinary expertise of the two authors (one based in tourism studies and the other an epidemiologist and public health expert). Findings This paper captures events on the novel coronavirus, as they are unfolding now, situates this in relation to the research literature on past pandemics like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Ebola and draws some important directions to guide research and practice. Research limitations/implications This is a viewpoint paper and offers some emerging perspectives, issues and challenges arising in relation to the current novel coronavirus outbreak. This is situated more broadly in a large research literature that has been drawn on in a very succinct manner to ground this viewpoint. Future research will need to explore the larger literature. Practical implications This viewpoint offers the following valuable implications for practice at the local level and the regional/global level: countering misinformation and xenophobia through the communication of accurate facts related to the disease in question (the novel coronavirus in this case) is essential; close collaboration and cooperation between tourism stakeholders (including service providers and destination management organizations) and public health authorities; greater responsibility by residents and tourists to seek out correct scientific facts on the disease and take sensible precautions, as well as exercise care to those suffering the adverse impacts; and global coordination and attention to vulnerable destinations is needed more concretely (recommended in crisis management and recovery studies but not well implemented yet). Social implications As noted above under practical implications, this viewpoint identified important social implications in terms of inequities and injustices that arise during disease outbreaks like the novel coronavirus and prior outbreaks like SARS and Ebola. These range from discrimination and racism as well as inequities related to managing the impacts on vulnerable destinations whose health facilities may be far from adequate to handle such outbreaks and the challenges of misinformation among visitors and residents that indirectly or directly affect the destination. Originality/value This viewpoint is being submitted as the novel coronavirus epidemic is unfolding, and it is hoped that sharing it speedily via an open access journal will assist in better managing the research of what will continue to be an increasing future challenge for destinations and societies in a world of mobilities and increasing travel forecast.
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Despite the rising number of creative tourism publications, creative tourism is still emerging as a recent research area. Its study ranges from urban cities to rural areas implicating different uses for creativity, culture, events, creative networks and the co-creation of experiences. This paper had the goal to focus on the main theoretical subjects of creative tourism as a research area. As a result, the authors pinpoint vital issues present in creative tourism literature even though its definition is still evolving. After a thorough literature review, the authors conceptualised three main theoretical contributions present in creative tourism literature: 1) creativity and its relation to tourism, (2) specialised consumption as a characteristic of the postmodern tourist and 3) the experience economy paradigm and co-creation. This study identifies the main theoretical underpinnings of creative tourism, which made this special interest tourism gain so much importance in recent years. Keywords: Creative tourism, creativity, specialized consumption, experience economy and co-creation.
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O facto turístico é um facto social total – com dimensões económicas, culturais, sociais, políticas – complexo e antigo. Começou, assim poderíamos dizer, quando o indivíduo se afastou da sua aldeia, da sua cidade, para dormir, pelo menos uma noite, num lugar que não lhe era familiar. Esta definição não faz, no entanto, a diferença entre o viajante especialista – explorador, aventureiro, missionário e filósofo dos séculos das Luzes, etnólogo, arqueólogo, escritor e pintor do século XIX – e o viajante lúdico, o turista do século XX. Este artigo trata das motivações de quem se desloca: encontro do outro, busca por si mesmo, procura de uma identidade. Através de citações literárias, procura-se conhecer como se viajava ao longo do tempo, a evolução do perfil do viajante e o que tenderia a se tornar no início do século XXI.
No âmbito de um trabalho que procurou esclarecer e promover o processo de construção da identidade profissional docente no período de formação inicial, destacámos as dimensões motivacional, representacional e socioprofissional da referida identidade, que apresentamos na sua complexa dinâmica.
Despite growing interest in transformative tourism and its benefits, there is not yet a precise understanding of tourist transformation. This study contributes to fill this research gap by reviewing the contexts where transformative tourism research has emerged, and the main theories employed. Through a multi-disciplinary approach, the paper discusses key dimensions of transformative tourism experiences. The discussion suggests that liminality, cultural shock and challenges faced at the destination initiate transformation by provoking peak episodes, dilemmas and new performances. Contextual stimuli can lead tourists to reflectively interpret the experience and acquire skills, values and knowledge, with consequences on attitude, habits, and behaviour. A tourist transformation model is created, which provides a conceptual foundation for future research, and is relevant for designing and marketing transformative tourism experiences.
Climate change will have far-reaching consequence for the future of tourism. A Climate Change Vulnerability Index for Tourism (CVIT) comprised of 27 indicators provides a transparent and systematic first analysis of the differential vulnerability of the tourism sector in 181 countries. Countries with the lowest vulnerability are found in western and northern Europe, central Asia, Canada and New Zealand. High sector vulnerability is found in Africa, Middle East, South Asia and Small Island Developing States. Vulnerability is highest in many countries where tourism represents the largest proportion of GDP and regions where tourism growth is expected to be the strongest over the coming decades. Climate change will pose an increasing barrier to tourism contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals.