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Tourism Destination Management Post COVID-19 Pandemic: a new humanism for a Human-Centred Tourism (Tourism 5.0)

Abstract and Figures

The COVID-19 pandemic will probably be the toughest stress test ever for the entire tourism industry and, when over, travellers will surely find a changed industry. The changes will take place in various ways, both on the demand and supply side. The present piece reflects on the great and unexpected opportunity that this difficult moment is giving the sector - albeit through such a dramatic experience - to rethink tourist activity, tourism planning, management and destination development based on a new humanism that would consider the “human factor” more than it has done so far (if not in theory, for sure in the practice). In particular, the chapter focus on the opportunity to recover and reinvigorate the idea of tourism as a vehicle for human development, intercultural dialogue and sustained peace. A human centred tourism, Tourism 5.0. To this end, the chapter first outlines the situation in which this work is contextualized, and then conceptually explore the opportunities this crisis is providing for the sector to radically rethink itself before its restarts.
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World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 43


Fabio Carbone
School of Marketing and Management & Centre for Trust, Peace, and Social Relations,
Coventry University; International institute for Peace through Tourism
Chaos gives birth to dancing stars
(Friedrich Nietzsche)

(Winston Churchill)
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic will probably be the toughest stress test ever for the entire

The changes will take place in various ways, both on the demand and supply side.

moment is giving the sector - albeit through such a dramatic experience - to rethink
tourist activity, tourism planning, management and destination development based
on a new humanism that would consider the “human factor” more than it has done
so far (if not in theory, for sure in the practice). In particular, the chapter focus on
the opportunity to recover and reinvigorate the idea of tourism as a vehicle for
human development, intercultural dialogue and sustained peace. A human centred
tourism
this work is contextualized, and then conceptually explore the opportunities this
crisis is providing for the sector to radically rethink itself before its restarts.
Keywords
COVID-19; Tourism; Tourism Destination Management; Human-centred society
Tourism and Peace.
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
44
Resumo
A pandemia COVID-19 será provavelmente o stress test
toda a indústria do turismo e, quando terminar, os turistas irão certamente encontrar
uma indústria mudada. As mudanças terão lugar de várias formas, tanto do lado


duma forma tão dramática - para repensar a atividade turística, planeamento, ges-
tão e desenvolvimento de destinos turísticos com base num novo humanismo que
consideraria o “fator humano” mais de quanto tem feito até agora na prática. Em
particular, o capítulo centra-se na oportunidade de recuperar e revigorar a ideia do
turismo como veículo para o desenvolvimento humano, o diálogo intercultural e a paz.

delineia a situação em que este trabalho contextualiza-se, e, em seguida, explora
as oportunidades que esta crise está proporcionando para o setor a repensar-se
radicalmente antes de seu reinício.
Palavras-chave
COVID-19; Turismo; Gestão de destinos turísticos;Sociedade centrada no ser humano
Turismo e paz.
Introduction
When our war against the COVID-19 will be won, the pandemic will leave behind
a long trail of changes in our personal and professional lives. The tourism studies’

is a pioneer of the future trend. The aim of the present paper in particular is to
propose - after outlining the context studied, that of the COVID-19 pandemic and
its general impacts on the tourism industry - a possible way to follow to rethink
tourism and tourism destination management for the post pandemic. A proposal
inspired and based on the noblest responses people worldwide gave to the struggles
and constraints caused by the pandemic, in a rediscovered sense of community and
belonging to the human species. The inauguration of a new, human-centred app roach
to tourism would contribute to keep this momentum up, feeding a new humanism.
World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 45
1. A brief overview on the COVID-19 pandemic and general impacts on
tourism: “It’s the End of the World as We Know It” (?)
The refrain of a popular rock song from ‘80s by the American band R.E.M rings
out: . Will this really be the outcome of the
COVID-19 pandemic? No one can say for sure, but many signs point to the fact
that this global, unexpected and painful experience will have great impacts on our

pandemic (still ongoing while writing this book) and its socioeconomic impacts,
and in particular those on tourism.
1.1 Chronicle of a pandemic (so far!)
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses known to cause diseases ranging from
common colds to more serious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory
Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). A new
coronavirus, the ( 19, for the year in which it
occurred) started to spread in China in December 2019 and, being highly contagious,
the virus has rapidly spread globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) has
1
but soon they had to acknowledge the World was dealing with a pandemic2.
As showed in Figure 1, on March 31st, 2020, 826,222 cases of COVID-19 were

40,708 deaths (CSSE, 2020).
1 The WHO classified the COVID-19 as “health emergency of international interest” on January, 30th 20 20 (W HO, 2 020a )
2 COVID-19 was classified as a pandemic on March, 11th 2020 (WHO, 2020b).
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
46
Measures for social distancing were adopted by the governments worldwide
in order to prevent or mitigate the spread of the virus: quarantines, closure of
borders and travel restrictions, workplace hazard controls, and facility closures
(including schools and universities). The pandemic outbreak had also motivated
the postponement or cancellation of international events, such as the Olympic
Games 2020, as well as cultural and religious events worldwide. Impacts of this
unexpected crisis vary from political and geopolitical, as well as socioeconomic,
to climate, security, and civil and multicultural coexistence, having been recorded
worldwide episodes of racism towards people from China (place where the global
contagion of Covid-19 has started), but also towards Italians, as Italy was one of

1.2. Covid-19 and tourism. General impacts
Social distancing is the antithesis of all that tourism represents. Even if the sector
is not new to major upheavals in demand (some examples being the consequences
of the terroristic attacks of 09/11, 2001 and SARS-Severe Respiratory Syndrome
pandemic, 2002-2004), we have never seen before a shock of this magnitude strike
the whole world. More than many words, Figure 2 visually and quite clearly
Figure 1. Screenshot of the web site of the “Center for Systems Science and Engineering” (CSSE)
at Johns Hopkins University, dedicated to Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases.
Source: https://gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/
bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6, retrieved on March 31st, 2020
World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 47
illustrates the effect of the pandemic on tourist destinations (and social life, in
general), by showing some of the most popular international tourist destinations
completely empty.
Widespread fear, social distancing, closed borders, travel restrictions and quarantine are
having serious negative effects on the tourism sector: mass cancellation of hotel and
sine die in the ports; arts and cultural
industries are threatened. A worrying scenario, particularly from the socioecono-
mical point of view considering that tourism - one of the largest industries in the
world - employs 319 million people (one in ten jobs globally) and generates 10.4%
of total gross domestic product. According to the World Travel & Tourism Council
(WTTC) 50 million jobs worldwide are at risk. If at global level the losses of the
tourism industry are estimated around 25%- the equivalent of three months of lost
trips - at domestic level this percentage can raise massively, in particular for those
countries heavily relying on tourism for their economies. In Italy, for instance, loss
Figure 2. The effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on some of the most popular international tourist destinations.
Top : Ro m e, v ie w ov e r t h e S p an i s h S te p s , t h e Barcaccia and Via Condotti (on the left); Trevi Fountain (on the right).
Bottom: Las Vegas (on the left), view of The Vegas Strip casinos (on the left); Madrid, Puerta del Sol (on the right).
Source: The author, assembly of screen shots retrieved from live webcams at
https://www.skylinewebcams.com/, on March 30th, 2020.
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
48
are expected to be around 73% in 2020, if compared with the previous year (Giubilei,
2020). In a dramatic communication, the UNWTO (2020) warns:

worldwide, the wider social impact of the crisis will go far beyond tourism,

In short, the COVID-19 pandemic will probably be the toughest stress test ever for

industry. The changes will take place in various ways. The present chapter focuses
 
sector - albeit through such a dramatic experience - to rethink tourist activity,
tourism planning, management and destination development towards a renewed
and reinvigorated ability to use tourism as a vehicle for human development,
intercultural dialogue and sustained peace.
2. Rethinking tourism beyond tourism
It is very likely that some of the changes imposed during the pandemic in a sudden
way as a response to the health threat and a form of adaptation to the crisis will
remain (if not in full, at least in part) among the common practices in post-COVID-19
society. Namely, the predominance of smart working and online courses also within
the formal education, less consumption and travel. With regards to national politics,
international relations, and geopolitics we will eventually witness the establishment
of higher borders between states, an increased reticence towards globalization,
active promotion of national production of all essential goods and public expendi-
ture more focused on environment and national health systems (Malagutti, 2020).
In this scenario, what about tourism? What changes can be expected? what changes
are desirable?
2.1. Tourism Destination Management Post COVID-19 Pandemic:
(re)discovering the human factor for a Tourism 5.0?


namely, the innumerable manifestations of solidarity and creativity, and the revived
(and revisited) sense of local and global community. As promptly pointed out by
World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 49
Higgins-Desbiolles (2020), “these responses challenge the atomised individualism that
has gone hand in hand with the consumerism of travel and tourism. In the above
considerations I see one of the possible cues from which to draw inspiration for a
general, conceptual review of tourism, on which to base the rebirth of the tourist
industry and on which to prepare the destinations to the zero hour of travellers’ return.

anxio
However, while concern about socioeconomic damage is understandable, it is

development – largely grounded on an economicist vision - has largely proved to be

at the fragility of those economies particularly dependent on tourist activity; the
social inequalities often created by tourist activities through tourist-local population
contact; the phenomena related to the uncontrolled growth of tourism (even when

as that of overtourism and its consequences on the quality of life for the local popu-
lations and on the quality of the tourist experience itself; the irreversible damage to
tangible and intangible cultural heritage and the climate impacts. Considering the

pandemic has already caused an unprecedent damage to tourism, but even greater
harm would be to fail to seize this opportunity - given by the forced stop - to rethink
tourism in general and, in particular, the approach to management and tourist
destination development.
One of the possible ways to proceed could be to apply to tourism, in general, and
tourism destination management in particular the principles of underlying the
Society 5.0 introduced by the Japanese 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan.
The Society 5.03 is supposed to be a human-centred society that balances economic
advancement with the resolution of social problems by a system that highly
integrates cyberspace and physical space” (UNESCO, 2019). The idea of the Society
5.0 necessarily underlies the acknowledgment of the strong presence of technology
in our lives, on the one hand, and the need for a new humanism, on the other.
In this sense, the parallelism between this idea and tourism is particularly valid,
if we consider the strong application of new technologies to various aspects of the

3 Fol lowi ng t he hunt ing soc iety (S ocie ty 1 .0), th e a gric ultu ral soci ety (So ciet y 2 .0), th e in dust rial so ciet y ( Soci ety 3.0) ,
and the information society (Society 4.0)
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
50
The global experience of the pandemic and the communities’ responses based on
solidarity and cohesion could represent an incentive for tourism to combine a
sort of new humanism with the use of technologies. Placing a newfound human
factor and a rediscovered sense of community and belonging to the human race at
the centre of Human-Centred Tourism would deeply influence the practices of

the sense of identity of the population (cultural awareness) through increased public
participation in the management of cultural and natural heritage (Carbone, Oosterbeek,
& Costa, 2013) also through the use of the most innovative Information Technology
(IT). On the other side, technologies and IT communication could be used to promote
intercultural dialogue through tourist-host encounter before, during and after the visit.
In this sense, particular attention should be given to mobile technologies. The mobile
phone was already the protagonist of the new way of travelling, as it had become
our tourist guide, our travel agency, the best adviser about the best restaurants, the

during the COVID-19 pandemic, mobile technologies are representing our window
to the world, allowing us not only to keep in contact with our relatives and friends,
but also to “travel” and visit the most remote corners of the planet without getting
off the sofa, thanks to the augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR). Mobile
technology thus became part of our daily lives even more than before during the
COVID-19 pandemic. A human-centred tourism destination in post COVID-19
scenario will seek for a balance between the use of mobile technologies and the
human interaction tourist-host, by sensitising visitors about the importance of this
practice for a more satisfying and authentic tourist experience, and by stimulating
the proactivity of local communities by encouraging participation in capacity building
programs (foreign language, local history, intercultural communication, etc.).
Implementing the Human-Centred Tourism would thus req uire the coura ge of taking
bold decisions at destination level, such as to opt once and for all for severely
restricting the number of visitors. Furthermore, public and private sector should
promote the trend of long stays over shorter stays, especially for international

new cultures, avoiding phenomenon of predatory tourism and staged authenticity.
Promoting dialogue and authentic encounter (activities we will anxiously looking
for, once the periods of social distancing will end) and experience lived at a more
human pace would indeed be at the expense of the revenues so far known in the
World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 51
economy of tourism, but this would directly and indirectly be encouraging for a
more sustai
It is therefore a real (though audacious) opportunity that the pandemic is offering

human development, sustainability, intercultural dialogue and peace through the
combination of community participation and social innovation (Malek & Costa,
2015) and with bold political measures at destination level.
2.2. Boosting the contribution of tourism to the building of inclusive societies
and sustaining peace
-
bution Tourism 5.0 would give in building inclusive societies and sustaining peace. In
a post-COVID 19 scenario, indeed, the implementation of a Human-Centred Tourism
would indeed boost the role of tourism as catalyst of positive peace. Notice, the rea-
der: to refer to positive peace4 rather than simply peace, allows to associate tourism


but that experience anyway a negative peace, that is, forms of structural or/and
cultural
For instance, social integration is one of the most urgent issues in Western countries,
being at the basis of a negative peace. The promotion of cultural awareness on the
one hand and the enhancement of intercultural competences on the other can
represent an effective measure to promote understanding and intercultural dialo-
gue in post-multicultural societies (Adachi, 2011; Carbone, 2018). In this context,
tourism 5.0 can potentially be facilitator of intercultural dialogue and encounter
(Carbone, 2017; Carbone, Oosterbeek, & Costa, 2012).
On the other hand, if we consider the communities and areas suffering direct violence

pressing. The international Crises Group - an independent peacebuilding organisation
– has outlined seven key aspects re
4 Peace do es not mean the total absence of any confli ct. It mea ns the abs ence of vio lence in a ll forms an d the unfol ding
of conflict in a constructive way. Peace therefore exists where people are interacting non-violently and are managing
their conflict positively – with respectful attention to the legitimate needs and interest of all concerned (Johan
Galtung, 1996).
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
52

2
mechanisms;
3) Political exploitation of the crisis by domestic political leaders;
4) A possible turning point in major power relations;
5) Opportunities of dialogue to be seized;
6) Potential crisis mitigation measures, and
7) Risks to social order, as the disease’s catastrophic economic impact could
well sow the seeds of future disorder (International-Crises-Group, 2020).
These considerations represent to us – scholars and practitioners - a call of duty and the
demonstration of the urgency to going back to the debate (and its implications) on the
possible contribution that tourism can make to the construction of a peaceful society.
Conclusion
The coronavirus pandemic is causing, and will cause in the long term, enormous
socioeconomic damages at global level. In particular, tourism is possibly experien-
cing the worth ever stress test. We will witness many changes, but in this stormy
moment it is important to maintain a certain perspective, as the quality of these
changes depends on us to a large extent: history shows that tragic events happen,
but human beings come together, and innovation increase, solutions are found and
society advances. We should therefore take the opportunity offered by this moment

as UNWTO Secretary General:
Whatever our business in life may be, let us always remember that our core
business is, and will always be, to make this world a better place
In this sense, this paper proposes to work towards a new paradigm of tourism, to

5.0, a Human Centred Tourism in which the myth of economicism gives way to a
ground-breaking association between technology and a new humanism to promote
sustainability, human development and peace. More contemporary than ever echoes
the speech Charlie Chaplin wrote for his  (1940):
World Tourism, Health Crisis and Future: sharing perspectives 53





And this world has room for everyone, and the good Earth is rich can provide for



The very nature of these inventions cries out for the goodness in men - cries out for


We have the technology, we have the resources, we have the knowledge, and during
the COVID-19 pandemic we have shown that we still have a great humanity in us.
We now n eed th e will a nd co ura ge to co mbi ne th ese a sse ts to wards a Human-Centred
Touris m, the tourism 5.0. We sent tourists out into the outer space, it’s time now to
bring them back on the Earth and build together a better future of global understanding
and peace.
Acknowledgments
A special thanks to Luís Mota Figueira,(Portugal) for
the opportunity he gave me to be part of this pioneering project that will surely pave
the way for many more of this kind worldwide. This work is dedicated to doctors and
medical staff, police and military around the World, who have become our guardian
angels and heroes in these stormy days. Stay safe. Stay Hopeful. Stand strong!
Turismo Mundial, Crise Sanitária e Futuro: visões globais partilhadas
54
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... Tourism 5.0 flourished during the pandemic time in the virtual tourism model [1][2][3]. Federated learning (FL) is distributed machine learning that ensures privacy preservation of the crowd and involves statistical training prototypes on many mobile users, i.e., workers, whereas keeping data localized over various geographical locations is challenging [4,5]. 5G network provides potential federated learning applications. ...
... 'GeoLens' is used for geospatial site survey using mobile crowdsensing (MCS) [1]. Human-centred tourism 5.0 evolved during the post-pandemic era [2]. The hybrid tourism recommender system [3] evolved in-game theory-based mobile crowdsensing [4]. ...
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... Posto isto, fica evidente e notório que a pandemia impactará sobretudo em países emergentes e turísticos como é o caso do Brasil, em especial na região Nordeste a qual a Rota das Emoções se localiza (Costa, Nascimento, Hoffmann & Silva, 2017;Silva, Hoffmann & Costa, 2020). Deste modo, países como estes precisam aprender de maneira coletiva a vencer essa tragédia do COVID-19, que impactou, impacta e impactará ainda mais o contexto do setor do turismo dos países, inviabilizando fortemente a economia local destes países (Carbone, 2020;Menegaki, 2020;Oliveira & Arantes, 2020;Gossling, Scott & Hall, 2020;Sayfullaev, 2020;Sheresheva, 2020), inclusive do Brasil (Aguiar & Melo, 2020). ...
... Tal fato mostra que o desgaste do turismo por conta do COVID-19 é mais aflorado e contundente em países emergentes, como é o caso do Brasil, e com isso, estes terão que instruir-se em uma rede de colaboração e interação mais densa para conseguir se recuperar com o mínimo de danos possíveis dessa tragédia global, minimizando efeitos e transformações em suas respectivas localidades turísticas (Carbone, 2020;Farzanegan, et al., 2020;Gossling, Scott & Hall, 2020 "Sim, com toda certeza, nossa região é rica em belezas naturais, sol e praia, uma diversidade de culturas, tem muito atrativo, são três estados cada um com sua diferença regional. É um produto que vende por sí só, uma foto do destino visitado vale mais que mil palavras. ...
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