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Abstract

Career guidance and counseling have been gaining importance in the last ten years. Given the changes in the labor market and the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the young person must be prepared for these changes. The research aimed, as a part of the broader and long-term scientific scope, to evaluate the situation of career counseling and learning from the perspective of secondary school students in the Czech upper secondary vocational schools (ISCED3). Specifically, the question was asked about what these pupils expect in terms of career learning and how schools, in reality, respond to this demand. A questionnaire survey (N = 1126) provided feedback on 21 topics relevant to vocational training and career management. Factor analysis identified four basic types of pupils in terms of their needs: Pragmatic, Personality-oriented, Seekers and Ambitious. The examples of strategies and methods suitable for working with identified categories of pupils are discussed. https://erie.v2.czu.cz/en/r-15999-proceedings-2020

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The aim of this study is to describe a proposal of a concept draft of teachers’ training at universities which accepts new needs of the educational reality in the context of transformation of regional education in Slovakia. The draft is based on an analysis of knowledge about the current status of undergraduate training of secondary school teachers within the secondary education in the Slovak Republic and an international comparison.
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Kahoot! is a game-based learning platform used to review students' knowledge, for formative assessment or as a break from traditional classroom activities. It is among the most popular game-based learning platforms, with 70 million monthly active unique users and used by 50% of US K-12 students. Since the platform was released in 2013, many studies have been published on the effect of using Kahoot! in the classroom, but so far, no systematic analysis of the results. This article presents the results of a literature review on the effect of using Kahoot! for learning and, more specifically, on how Kahoot! affects learning performance, classroom dynamics, students' and teachers' attitudes and perceptions, and students' anxiety. The literature review includes 93 studies, and the main conclusion is that Kahoot! can have a positive effect on learning performance, classroom dynamics, students' and teachers' attitudes, and students’ anxiety. However, there are also studies where Kahoot! has little or no effect. The main challenges mentioned by students include technical problems such as unreliable internet connections, hard to read questions and answers on a projected screen, not being able to change answer after submission, stressful time-pressure for giving answers, not enough time to answer, afraid of losing, and hard to catch up if an incorrect answer had been given. Further, the main challenges mentioned by teachers include getting the difficulty level of questions and answers right, problems related to network connectivity, scoring based on how quickly the students answer reducing student reflection and cause some students to guess without thinking, that some students can have a problem with failing a quiz, and some teachers find it challenging to use the technology.
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Game-based learning has attracted considerable attention over the past few years. Mobile apps are welcomed by the digital generation. Debate continues regarding the approach that will most benefit students in English language classrooms, and the impact of mobile applications, particularly on English as a foreign language (EFL) learning, remains unclear. Specifically, little is known about EFL learners’ perceptions of mobile applications. The main purpose of this study was to understand Chinese students’ attitudes toward the application of Kahoot!, a mobile game-based learning app, in a college EFL class in Taiwan. No gender differences were found in students’ perceptions of the use of Kahoot! for English learning. Although the participants expressed positive attitudes towards the application of Kahoot! in the EFL reading class, several negative opinions were expressed regarding the use of Kahoot! as a testing tool. These results provide support for the affective filter hypothesis. Implications for EFL teachers and future research are discussed.
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Individuals are challenged by increasingly more career transitions in the 21st century. Each of these transitions entails making a career decision, typically by locating promising alternatives, collecting information about them, comparing the alternatives on the short list and choosing one. Finding the areas where individuals are experiencing difficulties in this process is important for helping them and facilitating their career decision making. The goal of the present review is to propose a taxonomy for analyzing, comparing, and classifying assessments of the career decision-making process in terms of three facets: (i) Antecedents – assessments of the challenges that may emerge prior to or during this process and cause difficulties, (ii) Effects of the challenges and difficulties on the process, namely, the individual's behavioral responses, and (iii) Effects on the decision, as reflected in individuals' career decision status and their feelings about the process and the outcome. Based on theoretical considerations and the constructs underlying the assessments, there are three categories of assessments in Antecedents: (1) Readiness includes assessments of dysfunctional beliefs about career decision making, career decision-making self-efficacy, willingness to engage in the process, and career indecisiveness; (2) Orientation includes assessments of career decision-making styles and profiles, ways of coping with career decision-making, and adaptability; and (3) Information includes assessments of difficulties that stem from feelings of Lack of information – about the self, the world of work, and how to make career decisions – or the Use of Information – unreliable information, internal conflicts, and external conflicts. The associations between Antecedents and their Effects on the Process and on the Decision are discussed. The psychometric properties of each assessment were evaluated, using the evidence-based assessment approach of Hunsley and Mash (2008). Inspecting and evaluating of the assessments show that most of them have a well-defined focus and evidence for acceptable reliability, but more evidence is needed for validity. The advantages of unidimensional/multidimensional and homogeneous/heterogeneous assessments are discussed. Ways of incorporating the assessments of the antecedents of career decision-making difficulties effectively into career counseling are suggested, to help career counselors better tailor their interventions to their clients' needs. The proposed categorization can also help researchers locate the most relevant career decision-making process-based assessments and decide how to use them to measure specific constructs.
Article
Purpose Many higher education institutions (HEIs) have constructed their internal evaluation systems to secure teaching quality. This paper aims to analyze teaching quality, HEIs use students to evaluate their professors as they have direct contact with the professors during the whole semester. The authorities hope to receive valuable information, which can be used for many administrative purposes. The bias in the evaluation toward professors’ gender and attractiveness has already been proven. However, there is only limited evidence whether students give higher value to teaching quality over the professors’ personality. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the authors go further in the gender-attractiveness evidence and put the evaluation in contrast with professors’ experience, age, etc. Findings The results indicate that the effect of experience predominates the effect of gender and in some areas also the effect of age. What is more, a semester in which a course is taken also influences the evaluation as different professors’ abilities are required in teaching in a different semester. On the other hand, the results do not fully confirm the effect of gender on the evaluation. Originality/value The results reveal that it is important to consider the course structure to assign professors to the right courses.
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La escuela es el principal escenario formativo y de socialización del individuo. Allí se consolidan los imaginarios, realidades, subjetividades y conductas del estudiante. Por consiguiente, el papel de los docentes es fundamental, debido a que operan como guías y modelos de las reacciones, relaciones y vínculos interindividuales que se generan en el ambiente escolar. Gracias a ellos la escuela se configura como un escenario que posibilita la gestión del aula como un espacio en el que se puede aprender a experimentar la paz. El artículo se plantea como una revisión teórica respecto a cómo las habilidades socioemocionales de los docentes inciden en la gestión de los ambientes de paz en la escuela, teniendo en cuenta factores como el clima de aula, el conflicto escolar, la cultura de paz y las relaciones interpersonales, tanto entre docentes, como entre docentes y alumnos.
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There is an increasing use of mobile technologies in the classroom, particularly its use in supporting contextual learning, but comparative research on the effects of mobile learning in mathematics are few. The aim of this research was to examine student perceptions of using mobile technologies and their effect on mathematics achievement in a randomised controlled trial. Seventy-four Grade 5 and 6 students and three teachers participated in the study. Both groups participated in six weeks of active and collaborative learning activities on math. The experimental group used tablets to support them in their activities while the control group had similarly designed activities without the tablets. The tablets were observed to have facilitated constructivist learning activities as students moved in and out of different learning contexts. Most of the experimental group had positive evaluations but their end activity ratings were not significantly different from the control group. Gender differences were found in terms of how students perceived the mobile learning activities. There was no difference found in the groups’ post-test achievement scores following an analysis of covariance with pre-test as covariate. For items relating to student misconception, students in the experimental group performed better. Overall, the study highlights that the success of a mobile learning intervention is dependent on various factors, such as student characteristics, stability of the technology and content compatibility. Implications for practice and future researchers are discussed.
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In many real–world cases, disjunction is expressed as the fusion of full alternatives and less relevant ones, which leads to an OR ELSE connective. Obviously, this connective, so-called intensified disjunction, should provide a solution lower than or equal to the MAX operator, and higher than or equal to the projection of the full alternative. Further, to cover the cases when higher satisfaction degrees to the less relevant alternative cause that it becomes the full alternative, non–continuous asymmetric disjunction is required. The dual observation holds for the fusion of constraints (hard conditions) and wishes (soft conditions) expressed by an AND IF POSSIBLE connective. In order to cover these requirements, the paper focuses on developing a full axiomatization of asymmetric disjunction and asymmetric conjunction by averaging functions. Next, the necessity and sufficiency for associative behaviour have been proven. Moreover, the non–dual cases are also documented. Finally, the obtained results are illustrated on examples, and their applicability is also discussed.
Article
Two controversial topics related to the teaching of statistics to psychology students are (a) when to introduce statistical software and (b) which statistical software package to use. The current research looked at the use of statistical software in statistics classes from every university with a psychology program in Canada. Researchers collected data from 321 statistics courses offered to psychology students at 65 Canadian universities and coded the type of statistical software used (if any) in each course. Results show that slightly more than half of all universities introduce software at the introductory level. Point-and-click software is most popular, particularly SPSS. There is a considerable amount of variability in when and which software is introduced to students. Departments can use these data to inform their own practices.
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The development of math reasoning and 3-d mental rotation skills are intertwined. However, it is currently not understood how these cognitive processes develop and interact longitudinally at the within-person level – either within or across genders. In this study, 553 students (52% girls) were assessed from fifth to seventh grades on 3-d mental rotation spatial skills (assessed each fall) and numerical and algebraic math reasoning skills (assessed each spring). Boys outperformed girls on mental rotation tests across all three grades, and on fifth and seventh grade math reasoning tests. Consistent with the literature on between-person comparisons, there was a positive correlation between mental rotation and math reasoning skills in the full sample and for both genders. A random intercept cross-lagged panel model was used to control for these confounding group-level differences in order to isolate within-person associations between earlier and later performance. Initially in fifth grade, math reasoning predicted subsequent sixth grade mental rotation skills. By seventh grade, more advanced mental rotation skills were associated with subsequent math reasoning skills while math reasoning skills were no longer predictive of mental rotation skills. An examination of gender differences revealed that this pattern was driven by boys while girls experienced less within-person change. These findings suggest that boys may initially rely in part on their math reasoning skills to solve 3-d mental rotation tasks. However, as their 3-d mental rotation skills mature, they begin to primarily depend upon these developing spatial skills to solve math reasoning problems rather than the reverse.
Article
Purpose This study aims to illustrate an interactive project in an advanced accounting course at a Middle Eastern higher education institution, which introduced students to practical/applied financial and managerial accounting and sustainability reporting and created an element of cognitive dissonance with regard to their financial reporting-biased prior knowledge. Design/methodology/approach Groups are formed that create fictitious companies and then prepare an annual report for this company. Part of the project is a critical reflection on the experience afterwards. Students needed to critically reflect on their learning experience as part of the project assessment to fulfil the required learning outcomes, as constructive learning needs reflection. Findings This project introduced students to practical/applied financial and managerial accounting and sustainability reporting and created an element of cognitive dissonance with regard to their financial reporting-biased prior knowledge. While some students considered the project on financial/managerial accounting and sustainability reporting a beneficial undertaking and felt their disciplinary worldview challenged, others thought it was interesting but still preferred to remain with the primarily financial focus of their discipline. Originality/value The project was undertaken to allow students to engage with their disciplinary material, both conventional and sustainability reporting-related, in a constructive learning manner.
Article
A key feature of academic texts is the heteroglossic interaction that occurs between the writer and the experts he/she references. When integrating outside experts into their texts, writers often employ integral, author prominent reporting structures, selecting reporting verbs (RVs) to evaluate the veracity and merit of the propositions. This paper examines EAL and English L1 learners' RV use and compares it with that of experts, providing a corpus-assisted, comparative analysis. It further explores how writers build intertextuality through these RV choices. Using the resources of Appraisal theory, and specifically, the Engagement system, we found that experts tend to favor dialogically contracting RVs (e.g., show and find) that endorse the proposition whereas learners rely heavily on expanding RVs that entertain the evidence as an option to consider (e.g., suggest) or simply attribute it to an outside expert (e.g., state). In particular, both the EAL and English L1 learners strongly rely upon more "neutral" attribute: acknowledge structures (e.g., state, according to), providing no overt indication as to their intersubjective stance on the evidence. These comparative findings provide a roadmap for novice writers to develop authorial stance and adapt to the expert conventions of their given fields.
Article
The level of scientific publications of Indonesian students at the international level is still very minimal. Even when compared to Malaysia and Thailand, Indonesia is still lagging behind. The Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education targets that in 2019 Indonesia will reach 30,000 international publications. Therefore, students' interest in writing must be increased, especially writing based on sources. Therefore, this study would like to find students' perspectives and perceived challenges in writing based on sources. This research was based on a case study. The research involved 68 students from one of the state universities in Bandung, and it analyzed 20 selected scientific papers written by students. The instruments for data collection included questionnaire and observation. The results of this study found that 59% of students perceived that writing scientific papers is very difficult. The students found it difficult to find suitable sources for writing material and develop their ideas. They tended to use articles as the sources from the internet whose originality is unclear. One reason this happens was because 80% of students did not know where to find or get indexed journals to use as references for their writing. In addition, many students also preferred not to use journals that were majorly English-based because of their limitation of English skills. The implication is that students should be given further understanding of how to access journals and use reference sources in writing. It is expected that every lecturer will give more source-based writing assignments so that the ability of students to write and develop ideas based on existing sources can be further improved.