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This paper review aimed at understanding the various results generated from previous studies conducted on the awareness of employees in terms of social media policy, guidelines, its uses and limitations at work as very few studies have focused on this matter. The researchers conducted a systematic review of evidence of the various findings of previous studies conducted by researchers from different countries to further examine research gaps, emerging trends, and further study which may be conducted which may add to the existing stock of knowledge. Resources came from various sources which are scientifically based. The review found that most of the employees found social media as a valuable tool in their productivity and performance at work. It has made their job more satisfactory as they can reach more people with no boundaries in time and in place. However, there are few studies which said that social media became a distraction at their work. Studies also revealed that employees are aware on the pros and cons of using social media at work as this might damage the reputation of
Jessie I. Quierrez
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Manila, Philippines
Ann-Lyn O. Vinuya
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Manila, Philippines
Jennifer D.G. Munsayac
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Manila, Philippines
December 2019
This paper review aimed at understanding the various results generated from previous
studies conducted on the awareness of employees in terms of social media policy,
guidelines, its uses and limitations at work as very few studies have focused on this
matter. The researchers conducted a systematic review of evidence of the various
findings of previous studies conducted by researchers from different countries to further
examine research gaps, emerging trends, and further study which may be conducted
which may add to the existing stock of knowledge. Resources came from various
sources which are scientifically based. The review found that most of the employees
found social media as a valuable tool in their productivity and performance at work. It
has made their job more satisfactory as they can reach more people with no boundaries
in time and in place. However, there are few studies which said that social media
became a distraction at their work. Studies also revealed that employees are aware on
the pros and cons of using social media at work as this might damage the reputation of
their company if not properly used. Studies on the policies and limitations on the use of
social media are still very scarce and this needs further exploration of future
Keywords: Employee awareness, Social media, Policy, Guidelines, Limitation at
Social; media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the
creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests, and other forms of
expression via virtual communities and networks (Kietzman & Hemkens, 2011; Singh,
D.P. & Dwivedi, 2013; Drury, 2008). The use of social media has become an integral
part of the public and personal lives of civil servants and emerged into mass use.. And
because of its inherent ability to reach large number of public, it is widely used to
convey message to build public opinion and awareness; share and interact with each
other; user-generated content (Deka, 2013; Boyd and Ellison, 2008; Utz, 2010;
Leftheriotis and Giannakos, 2014). Thus, it must responsibly be used to improve
productivity and governance; it is imperative to formulate a policy that will guide
government agencies and employees on the responsible use of social media and
ensure that such will redound to global competitiveness, performance accountability,
shared governance, organizational and personal effectiveness, and service excellence
as well as counterpart government transformation (Goldstein and O’Connor, 2000;
Hanna, 2010). This study was utilized to explore the employees’ level of awareness of
the employees on this matter as very few studies were taken to further understand
where they stand on this subject.
Through this review based on evidences found on previous studies, the researchers
hope to achieved the following: (1) To understand the different views of employees
about social media policy, guidelines, uses and limitation at work; (2) To explore the
employees’ level of awareness on the social media policy, guidelines, uses and
limitation at work; and (3) To develop a research hypothesis that will be used for a
similar study which will be conducted by the researchers.
Emerging Trends
Various studies done by researchers have focused on various organizations’
management considering social media to be included in crafting their policies, include
such in their company guidelines and employee contracts (Cox and Rethman (2011;
(Stafford & Mearns, 2009; Hutley, 2009; Aguenza, 2012 ), and provide clear
information on the limitation of its uses, which will reflect employee understanding of
the policies and guidelines (Bennett, 2010). As other studies said, avoiding or
controlling social media use in the workplace may reduce productivity and may result to
legal litigation, (Skeels & Grudin, 2009; Bennett, 2010; )
Browsing from various websites available in the internet, a total of 34 peer-reviewed
completed studies and some literatures was reviewed, particularly on the results and
conclusions of the study, a careful systematic evidence-based approach was made by
the researchers.
Findings showed that in the perspectives of social networking, people are aware that
the basic knowledge of others’ way of communications plays an important role in
providing people of useful information associated to personal, interpersonal and other
related information which will help them positively in their interactions to people across
nations. (Leonardi and Meyer, 2015; Benson,, 2015; Bucher, Fieseler &
Suphan 2013) Also, previous studies revealed that employees seem to agree that social
media and social networks are part of the characterization of human beings or rather
human behavior and that human beings need to fulfill the urge to communicate and
interact with people they know (Golder, Wilkinson and Huberman,2007), and is
considered by many as now a normal part of life that is why it attracts millions of users
worldwide (Buffardi and Campbell, 2008). Furthermore, in this age of social media,
professionals should comprehend that it is not enough to know how an individual can
properly retrieve and process information in various social settings, but more importantly
is to rationally manage with information overload, uncertainty, and annexation (Bucher,
Fieseler & Suphan, 2013) .
Social media no doubt becomes a powerful tool of communication in and out of the
workplace (Holland, Cooper & Hecker, 2016) and brings plenty of advantages such as
it improves communication (Leftheriotis and Giannakos, 2014) builds relationships,
connects and allows for information, of common interests, and issues-sharing or
knowledge transfer all over the world (Cao, X., Guo, X., Vogel, D. and Zhang, X., 2016;
Zoonen, van der Meer, Verhoeven, 2014) ) in split seconds. In other circumstances
social media can be used to find life partners (Golder, Wilkinson and Huberman, 2007;
Cao, X., Guo, X., Vogel, D. and Zhang, X. 2016; Bennet, 2010). Specifically at the
education area, faculty members considers social media as an effective instructional
tool which will help bring knowledge to students as they are actively searching at the
internet and significantly help them in learning collaboratively. (Lory, 2010; Hill,
2004; Moran, Seaman, & Tinti-Kane, 2011) In fact, over fifty percent of teenagers
between twelve and seventeen are using social networking every day, perhaps
suggesting they wouldn’t be able to really think without the internet (Farias, Paskor, and
Walter, 2015).
On the other hand, studies also presented negative thoughts about social media use
such that this becomes a distraction in performing their tasks and productivity,
(Warnakula and Manickam, 2010; Mastrangelo et al., 2006; Sherman, 2009) distort
work-life balance, exacerbate tensions, and threatens personal privacy, (Walden, 2016)
affects personal and office relationships and personal relationships (Herraiz, 2015),
increase narcissism (Wallace and Baumeister, 2002; Treem & Leonardi, 2013 ).
Various studies conducted have mentioned all the same things about social media
awareness and very few dealt with policy, and guidelines, uses and limitation at work of
it. One example of this is an article of Bertot (2012) where it focused on the impact
of policies on the government social media usage as well as trust, security, participation
and recordkeeping, yet it did not touched the employee awareness on the various
subjects which is the focus of the current study. Pence (2011) stated that many
organizations can no longer avoid accessing social media using computers in the
workplace, therefore, management should come up with their own tactics to control their
employee on the use of social media. Likewise, It was also concluded from the different
studies conducted that there is a need for the management of every organizations to
balance any actions of the employees and need to monitor the use of social media for a
quality and reliable exchanges of information to positively be used for organization’s
communication, public relations and community-building and improve organizational
processes. (Moorhead, 2013; Rokka, Karlsson & Tienari, 2014; Macnamara &
Zerfass; 2012; Treem & Leonardi; 2013). Moreover, studies conducted by Bizi (2017)
concerning HR executives’ dilemma about social media policies, Leftheriotis and
Giannakos (2014) on the impact of social media use in work performance, Dreher
(2014) and Charoensukmongkol (2014) on social media and the world of work, did not
focused on understanding employee awareness on the use of social media policies,
guidelines, and limitations at work. Lastly, the reviews conducted by Stafford & Mearns,
(2009) on the previous studies done by various researchers, it revealed that employees
are very much aware on the good and bad effects on the use of social media but does
not present enough evidences that organizations were able to adapt clear employee
guidelines and policies on how the use of social media be controlled, filtered, and sets
its limitations at work, which shall not hamper the smooth operation and damage the
good reputation of the organization, as well as brings negative effect on the
performance and productivity among employees”.
Basing the reviewed literature and studies, none of those were able to tackle the
employee awareness on social media policies, guidelines and limitations at work.
Instead, it presented various suggestions that organizations may consider including
social media on their existing company policies and guidelines, making employees
aware of the pros and cons on the usage of it and its impact not only on their work
productivity as well as on their personal aspect and on the image that may be created of
the company they work for. It is therefore concluded that a deeper study of this matter
will bring clarity and answer questions on how aware are the employees on the policies,
guidelines and limitation at work on the use of social media.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of social media on employees’ work performance, as well as the underlying mechanism for how they create value at work. Design/methodology/approach – Based on media synchronicity and social capital theories, the authors propose that social media can foster employees’ social capital and subsequently facilitate knowledge transfer. Both social capital and knowledge transfer help promote work performance. Specifically, the authors adopt shared vision, network ties and trust to represent, respectively, the cognitive, structural and relational dimensions of social capital. The research model is tested using data collected from 379 Chinese working professionals. Findings – The empirical results reveal that social media can promote the formation of employees’ social capital indicated by network ties, shared vision and trust, which, in turn, can facilitate knowledge transfer. Shared vision and knowledge transfer positively influence work performance. Although network ties and trust do not have a direct impact on work performance, the influence is partially mediated by knowledge transfer. Practical implications – For organizations that wish to build knowledge networks in the workplace, connecting experts with various social media can effectively complement other knowledge management technology. Further, managers should encourage employees to consciously exploit the byproducts created via social media, e.g., social capital, to promote knowledge exchange. Originality/value – The integration of media synchronicity and social capital theories offers a new theoretical lens and reasonable explanations for investigating communication performance. The research offers empirical evidence regarding how the influence of social media on work performance is transmitted through social capital and knowledge transfer. The authors quantify social media’s benefits for organizations, providing managers an impetus to deploy them in the workplace with optimistic expectation.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to trace the relationship between social media and socialism. Design/methodology/approach – The design of this paper is to articulate what is socialism and social media. We trace the relationship between the two based on quotations and citations between these two separate universes of discourse. Findings – Social media leads to socialism; this is the most unsophisticated understanding of economics, and pretty much anyone can take part in this mode of communication. The economically illiterate excoriate capitalism, but they fail, utterly, to distinguish between the crony capitalism, which really does exploit workers and the poor, from laissez-faire capitalism, which is the last best hope for humanity to prosper and even to survive. Originality/value – There is great originality in this paper because there is no other extant study that attempts to explain social media and socialism in terms of each other.
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Amid widespread resistance to online social networking tools, their effectiveness in promoting knowledge sharing in a knowledge-driven organisation was demonstrated in the study. Usage patterns, user attitudes and perceptions regarding online social networking technologies as a professional application for knowledge sharing within the workplace were investigated. Self-administered questionnaires were administered to a sample of IBM Global Business Services employees in South Africa. Upon completion of the questionnaire analysis an interview was conducted with the knowledge manager for verification and clarification purposes. The results revealed the respondents' positive attitudes regarding the use of social networking tools for knowledge sharing. The culture of knowledge sharing at IBM and the contribution that social networking tools makes within the company were uncovered. Findings disclosed that the online social networking tools were effective and that management at IBM encourages employees to make more and more use of the tools for knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of online social networking tools and serve as encouragement to hesitant organisations to adopt social networking in their business practices.
There is a dilemma for HR executives concerning social media policies: Should HR managers allow employees to use social media while at work? The question has no easy answer because there are conflicting views on the matter. However, the conflicting views can be resolved if we focus on the individuals with whom an employee interacts through social media. Building on data on the blogging activity of 269 employees working for a Canadian health-care provider, the paper reveals a new problem: The extent to which employees engage in personal blogging with outsiders – individuals who do not work for the organization – is negatively related to intrinsic work motivation and to proactive behavior. After having introduced the problem, the paper shows a solution. If employees engage in blogging with coworkers, the negative effects turn positive: Blogging with coworkers positively affects intrinsic work motivation and proactive behavior. Finally, the paper offers a recommendation for HR managers to leverage the solution. Through social job design and increasing formal interaction requirements, HR executives can reinforce the association between social media use and blogging with coworkers. Overall, the paper helps HR executives to clarify the outcomes of social media, find a problem, suggest a solution, and recommend how to achieve it.
The use of social media technologies—such as blogs, wikis, social networking sites, social tagging, and microblogging—is proliferating at an incredible pace. One area of increasing adoption is organizational settings where managers hope that these new technologies will help improve important organizational processes. However, scholarship has largely failed to explain if and how uses of social media in organizations differ from existing forms of computer-mediated communication. In this chapter, we argue that social media are of important consequence to organizational communication processes because they afford behaviors that were difficult or impossible to achieve in combination before these new technologies entered the workplace. Our review of previous studies of social media use in organizations uncovered four relatively consistent affordances enabled by these new technologies: Visibility, persistence, editability, and association. We suggest that the activation of some combination of these affordances could influence many of the processes commonly studied by organizational communication theorists. To illustrate this point, we theorize several ways through which these four social media affordances may alter socialization, knowledge sharing, and power processes in organizations.
Research indicates that people are increasingly spending time with social media and other information communication technology. However, scholars have not fully examined how employees as holistic media consumers utilize social media in multiple contexts. Through in-depth interviews (N = 29), this study demonstrates that even as social media are embedded in organizational media use routines, employees question this technology for 2 reasons: It distracts from tasks and threatens personal privacy. These concerns often, but not exclusively, relate to employee age and the amount of time they have worked for the company. The study concludes by arguing that social media’s arrival in the workplace may exacerbate tensions and problems that are associated with presence-creep and the distortion of the work-life balance.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the risks and benefits of employees’ social media use for an organization's reputation, and delivers suggestions for a strategic management approach. Design/methodology/approach – The findings of this research paper are based on a comprehensive literature review and supported by a leading practice example. Findings – Through social media, employees function as powerful brand ambassadors who shape reputation with everything they do and say online. This requires a strategic management approach to employees’ social media use, including research, internet access at the workplace, a strong commitment from the C-suite, the establishment of social media teams, the implementation of guidelines and policies, training and education, integration, as well as goal setting and measurement. These eight key steps will help communications professionals to better prevent the risks and leverage the benefits of their employees’ participation in the social web. Originality/value – This research project is built upon significant deficits in the management approach to employees’ social media use and provides eight strategic key steps to better handle employees’ participation in social conversations.
Knowledge stickiness often impedes knowledge transfer. When knowledge is complex and the knowledge seeker lacks intimacy with the knowledge source, knowledge sticks in its point of origin because the knowledge seeker faces ambiguity about the best way to acquire the needed knowledge. We theorize that, given the extent of that ambiguity, knowledge seekers will make a choice to either ask for needed knowledge immediately after deciding it is needed, or wait and ask for it at a later date. We hypothesize that when knowledge is sticky, knowledge seekers will delay asking for knowledge and, in the interim period, use an enterprise social networking site to gather information that can lubricate stuck knowledge, such as how, when, and in what way to ask for the desired knowledge. We propose that by doing this, knowledge seekers can increase their ultimate satisfaction with the knowledge once they ask for it. Data describing specific instances of knowledge transfer occurring in a large telecommunications firm supported these hypotheses, showing that knowledge transfer is made easier by the fact that enterprise social networking sites make other peoples’ communications visible to casual observers such that knowledge seekers can gather information about the knowledge and its source simply by watching his or her actions through the technology, even if they never interacted with the source directly themselves. The findings show that simple awareness of others’ communications (what we call ambient awareness) played a pivotal role in helping knowledge seekers to obtain interpersonal and knowledge-related material with which to lubricate their interactions with knowledge sources.
This study explores the antecedents of work-related social-media use. To date the role of employees in organizational sense giving through work-related social-media use remains under investigated. The findings suggest that – in a work-related context – social media serve multiple functions: as a vehicle for information dissemination, relationship management, and organizational ambassadorship. Employees willingly utilize their personal social media account to contribute to organizational goals.