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Abstract

Resource integration is fundamental to value cocreation. In service-dominant logic, operant resources are the primary interest of actors’ economic exchange. However, the resources in service-dominant logic are rarely classified and analysed in detail. In addition, natural resources are widely neglected in conceptualizations of resources and resource integration. To fill these research gaps, this article aims to extend the existing conceptualizations of resource integration by specifically focussing on the integration of different types of resources. For this purpose, resource classifications from both the German-language literature, which is internationally mostly unknown, and the English-language research are included. Furthermore, natural resources are used as a case to discuss the peculiar role of pure public resources. Following calls for ‘oscillating foci’ to gain a better understanding of value co-creation, we further analyse resource integration at different levels of analysis by specifically focusing on the micro-level. Nevertheless, we emphasize the interdependencies between different levels of analysis. Therefore, we close important research gaps in the service-dominant logic literature, specifically regarding resource integration.

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... Vargo and Akaka (2012) consider institutions as necessary operant resources for value co-creation, as they influence and guide actors' behavior and by that enable social interaction. Complex problems and interrelationships within a service ecosystem can be observed throughout different levels of aggregation (Woratschek et al., 2020a). ...
... Hence, firms, customers, and other actors, provide and use resources and integrate them in a collaborative value co-creation process (Woratschek et al., 2020a). ...
Thesis
In service management and marketing, the question of how to engage customers and other relevant actors becomes increasingly important. Customer and actor engagement is understood as social and economic actors’ contributions to an organisation exceeding typical roles and transactional behaviours. From a corporate perspective, a key marketing objective is to foster the engagement of customers and other actors. Customer and actor engagement facilitated by virtual and physical engagement platforms leads to increased revenues, reputation, and cost savings. This emphasises the active role of customers’ and other actors’ as contributors to the creation of value for companies and organisations. Therefore, value co-creation is an appropriate theoretical foundation for addressing this phenomenon because it focuses on various actors’ resource exchanges to co-create value in service ecosystems. Value is always co-created by the interactions of multiple actors. However, value co-creation is a theory on a higher level of abstraction. Thus, applying concepts, such as actor engagement and engagement platforms, is essential to break down abstraction and enable accessibility for empirical research. Engagement platforms are virtual and physical touchpoints. They are provided by focal actors to enable and facilitate actors’ interactions and are embedded in service ecosystems. Although the concepts of actor engagement and engagement platforms have been introduced into the service management and marketing literature, there remain several calls for further research. Therefore, this doctoral thesis aims to advance the understanding of how actors and engagement platforms are interconnected within service ecosystems and how actors’ resource exchange is facilitated by engagement platforms. Thus, the following research question is addressed: How does actor engagement in terms of exchanging resources on engagement platforms contribute to value co-creation in service ecosystems? This doctoral thesis uses empirical insights to extend the theoretical conceptualisations of actor engagement at different levels of analysis. Hence, the analyses were conducted at organisational and dyadic levels (intra- and micro-levels) as well as in triadic relationships and networks (meso- and macro-levels) to allow for a multi-perspective consideration of the research question. As the research context, sport sponsorship and sport management in a broader sense were selected as specific parts of the service industry.
... Vargo and Akaka (2012) consider institutions as necessary operant resources for value co-creation, as they influence and guide actors' behavior and by that enable social interaction. Complex problems and interrelationships within a service ecosystem can be observed throughout different levels of aggregation (Woratschek et al., 2020a). The three aggregation levels are micro (i.e., actors), meso (i.e., sets of actors on platforms), and macro (i.e., ecosystems and institutions) (Storbacka et al., 2016). ...
... The joint creation and acceptance of a value proposition thereby sets the stage for resource integration. Hence, firms, customers, and other actors provide and use resources and integrate them in a collaborative value cocreation process (Woratschek et al., 2020a). ...
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Network approaches in sport management are mainly guided by the logic of sport products, where firms produce value that is used-up by consumers. This logic neglects the collaborative nature of sport. On the contrary, the logic of value co-creation provides a perspective where actors collaborate to co-create value in sport networks. Thus, this purely conceptual research aims to examine approaches to value co-creation in sport ecosystems to offer a holistic perspective on the interconnectedness of actors and engagement platforms. Using the concepts of value co-creation, engagement platforms, and sport network approaches, this paper conceptualizes the Sport Ecosystem Logic as a general theory to promote innovative research. Comprising five fundamental premises, the Sport Ecosystem Logic explains how actors’ shared interests in sporting activities evolve into an entire sport ecosystem. The Sport Ecosystem Logic advances our understanding of actors’ resource integration on sport engagement platforms and how these platforms are interconnected in a sport ecosystem.
... (4) Meso-level: all related actors and their interrelationships on a specific engagement platform, considering that the value-in-context may be different depending on the engagement platform and the network of actors, for example, in the stadium or at home (Chandler & Vargo, 2011;Horbel et al., 2016). (5) Macro-level: the service ecosystem that includes all physical and digital engagement platforms and resource-integrating actors (Storbacka et al., 2016;Vargo & Lusch, 2016;Woratschek et al., 2020). ...
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Thesis
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Thesis
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We explore S-D logic's development in the direction of a unifying paradigm that can provide the foundations for a general theory of the market and value cocreation. The evolution of S-D logic can be grouped into three periods: a formative period, spanning 2004 to 2007, that provided an alternative perspective of markets and marketing; a refinement period from 2008 to 2011, that clarified and broadened S-D logic's narrative; and an advancement period (2012 onwards), which has seen the emergence of S-D logic's paradigmatic status. Drawing on three categories of conditions (metaphysical, sociological and artefacts), we analyze the extent to which S-D logic meets the conditions of a paradigm. Our findings indicate that while S-D logic aligns with most of the metaphysical and sociological conditions for a paradigm, further development is needed for S-D logic to meet the conditions for an artefact. S-D logic references many different theories and methodologies, a situation that implicitly assumes different philosophical perspectives or orientations, notably objective, subjective and inter-subjective. To further develop S-D logic we offer a variety of ontological, epistemological and methodological questions. We also outline research directions that have the potential to move S-D logic towards a unifying paradigm.
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Purpose Although humans are part of nature, the relationship between humans and nature is not well understood, neither in sustainable marketing nor in relationship marketing. Nature is damaged by humans, and a lot of natural resources coming from nature are taken for granted. The services provided by nature are also often taken for granted. However, humans cannot live without these services, but nature can probably survive without humans, especially man-made (artificial) services. The paper aims to offer a frame that allows aligning marketers and academics’ understanding of service with that of sustainability for sustainable marketing. Design/methodology/approach A literature review of different literature streams, biological, ecological and service literature shows that service is a much broader phenomenon as discussed in the service literature. The paper will show that a fundamental relationship between either humans or humans and nature is service as defined here. Service is understood here as an ongoing process of exchange and change. Service as proposed here is a form of coexistence. Findings Service will be defined as an ongoing process of exchange and change (transfer and transformation) of resources. This understanding integrates human and natural service without connecting it only to human intentions, wishes or needs as causation for service. The process of service as conceptualized here is in line with the understanding of sustainability, as it is discussed nowadays. Aligning marketers’ understanding of service with that of sustainability gives a new frame for sustainable marketing. Research limitations/implications The work may be understood as a step toward a sustainable marketing by framing sustainable processes from a service perspective. The holistic understanding of sustainable marketing offers new chances not only for further research but also for a better (more sustainable) understanding of day-to-day practices. Practical implications If humans understand the fundamental relationship with nature, it can help to act in harmony with nature and not against it to improve sustainable development based on a better understanding of human’s relationship with nature. Social implications Mainstream sustainable marketing is sometimes based on a strong anthropocentrism. This paper balances the role of humans toward nature. Originality/value It is the first paper in relationship marketing looking at the relationship with nature and uses this view to frame this concept of sustainable marketing.
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Die Wirtschaftswissenschaft allgemein, aber erst recht die Marketing-Wissenschaft hat bis vor einigen Jahren den Dienstleistungsbereich nur sehr stiefmütterlich behandelt — um nicht zu sagen: mit Ausnahme des Handelsmarketing weitgehend vernachlässigt.
Article
What if Sheila Fitzpatrick's string-pulling, free-loading Homo sovieticus was compelled to enroll creatively not only his compatriots but also materials and nature in the struggles for survival? What if the fuzziness of private property in postsocialist Romania in Katherine Verdery's classic article “The Elasticity of Land,” had just as much to do with meandering streams, winds, and trees dying or growing, as with the absence of proper legal or cartographic documentation due to “purely social” history? What if figurative spaces such as Alexei Yurchak's “internal exile,” “ zagranitsa ,” “parallel universe,” or “ vnye ” were real places and were in and of nature—as Douglas Weiner started to consider when he called his nature preserves and circles of conservationists “little corners of freedom”?
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to adopt a conservation of resources (COR) theoretical approach to examine the process of value co-destruction (VCD) emanating from the misuse of customer resources by organisations. Design/methodology/approach – A critical incidents approach was adopted where 120 customers recounted their negative experiences. The analysis identified both the nature of resources and processes involved. Findings – From a customer perspective, the VCD process is triggered by a failure of the resource integration process to co-create expected value (resources). This involves customers in unexpected primary, and often secondary, resource loss. Loss “cycles” or “spirals” develop impacting negatively on well-being. Customers' attempts to restore their resources through coping strategies typically involve loss of well-being for the organisation. Research limitations/implications – The research is limited to a relatively small sample of UK customers involving diverse contexts. However, COR theory provides a framework for a better understanding of customer perceived value, the value co-creation and co-destruction process. Practical implications – The findings offer a new perspective to practitioners for understanding customer expectations and behaviour. There is a need to re-evaluate and re-design value propositions in line with organisational capabilities and customers' resource needs. Social implications – Organisations' misuse of customers' resources negatively impacts on “well-being”: a phenomenon of increasing interest at the societal level. Originality/value – This study is the first to empirically examine the concept of VCD, as perceived and experienced by customers, from a resource ecology perspective. It contributes to the growing body of work deriving from the service-dominant logic approach to value co-creation.
Article
Purpose Leading businesses are learning how to use the engagement experiences of individuals and communities as the new basis of their value creation for customers. This paper aims to look at this issue. Design/methodology/approach To initiate and implement this co‐creation model, especially in established organizations, the paper proposes adopting a new mindset. Findings The paper finds that once leaders recognize the “interactions among individuals everywhere in the system” as the new locus of value creation, it stands to reason that organizations must be designed to function around them. Practical implications In the co‐creation paradigm, value is a function of experiences other than the product itself, such as web platforms and environments for consumer interactions with the product and with a community of other users. Intuit's www.intuitlabs.com is another good illustration; there, Intuit's internal engineers get a fast, direct connection to customers, and the community of customers connects to the “makers” of Intuits offerings. Originality/value Becoming a co‐creative organization is impossible without the active involvement of managers at all levels and every employee who interacts with customers – from the call center operator to the service mechanic, from the sales representative to the logistics manager, from the software engineer to the product developer.
Article
Purpose – This case aims to demonstrate how leading firms are learning how to sustain competitive advantage by co-creating experiences of value with customers. Design/methodology/approach – The shoe company Nike provides a glimpse of the next “best practices” of value co-creation with customers. By engaging with informed, connected, and networked customers around the globe, Nike has found their shared experiences to be a new source of value. Findings – The paper finds that customers are now informed, connected, networked, and empowered on a scale as never before, thanks to search engines, engagement platforms, the growth of internet-based interest groups, and widespread high-bandwidth communication and social interaction technologies. Customers have learned how to use these new tools to make their opinions and ideas heard. Practical implications – A few leading companies like Nike are involving customers in the value creation process by offering Internet sites where they can share their interactions and experiences. These range from customers' ideas about how to improve or customize products to their feelings when they use products.). For Nike, the learning from these interactions creates new strategic capital. The company can now learn directly from customers' direct input on their preferences. Nike can build relationships and trust with the Nike+ community and experiment with new offerings, all the while enhancing its brand. Originality/value – The strategic opportunity for Nike is to build and promote the use of Internet engagement platforms through which the firm can build customer relationships on a scale and scope as never before. Effectively managing these new initiatives initially posed a new challenge for Nike, a traditionally product-centric organization. Now their viewpoint is reversed. “In the past the product was the end point of the consumer experience. Now it is the starting point.”
Article
Determining the strategic thrust of the firm, it may be argued, is the principal task of top management. This task is aided by recent theories of business and marketing strategy, including the normative imperatives based on industry factors, resource factors, competences, market orientation, and relationship marketing. Choosing wisely from among the various theories of strategy requires an accurate understanding of the contexts of competition. This article argues that resource-advantage theory, an evolutionary, disequilibrium-provoking process theory of competition, provides that understanding. That is, resource-advantage theory grounds theories of business and marketing strategy.
Article
In the networked world, firms are recognizing the power of the Internet as a platform for co-creating value with customers. We focus on how the Internet has impacted the process of collaborative innovation—a key process in value co-creation. We outline the distinctive capabilities of the Internet as a platform for customer engagement, including interactivity, enhanced reach, persistence, speed, and flexibility, and suggest that firms can use these capabilities to engage customers in collaborative product innovation through a variety of Internet-based mechanisms. We discuss how these mechanisms can facilitate collaborative innovation at different stages of the New Product Development process (back end vs. front end stages) and for differing levels of customer involvement (high reach vs. high richness). We present two detailed exploratory case studies to illustrate the integrated and systematic usage of Internet-based collaborative innovation mechanisms—Ducati from the motorbike industry and Eli Lilly from the pharmaceutical industry. We derive implications for managerial practice and academic research on collaborative innovation.
Article
Die Ausführungen von Engelhardt/Kleinattenkamp/ Reckenfelderbäumer zum Dienstleistungabegriff werden im Ergebnis geteilt und für zweckmäßig erachtet. Eine strenge Unterscheidung zwischen Sachgütem und Dienstleistungen ist aus ökonomischer Sicht nicht adäquat Durch die informationsökonomischen Ausführungen von Kaas und Schade/Schott wird die unzweckmäßige Unterscheidung zwischen Dienstleistungen und Sachgütem theoretisch untermauert. Hoch integrative Dienstleistungen verdienen eine besondere Betrachtung, da sie für den Anbieter mit Erlös- und Kostenkonsequenzen verbunden sind (vgl. Abbildung 2). Die Immaterialität führt zu Unsicherheiten in der Beurteilung der Dienstleistungsqualität durch den Konsumenten. Allerdings ist die Immaterialität nur eine unter vielen Determinanten der Bewertungsunsicherheit. Durch die Berücksichtigung von unterschiedlichen Graden der Verhaltensunsicherhert und unter Verzicht auf die Dimension “Immaterialität” erhält die Typologie eine informationsökonomische Fundierung. Es empfiehlt sich eine eigenschaftsorientierte Einordnung der Dienstleistungen, um Implikationen für das Dienstleistungsmarketing abzuleiten, die sich aus der jeweiligen Positionierung In der Typologie ergeben.
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Kundenintegration ist schon seit längerem ein schillernder Begriff im Dienstleistungs-marketing. Er steht grundsätzlich für die Tatsache, dass Nachfrager durch das Einbringen eigener Leistungsbeiträge Einfluss auf die betrieblichen Leistungserstellungsprozesse erlangen und diese mit gestalten. Bei der Sichtung der Dienstleistungsmarketing-literatur fällt jedoch auf, dass der Begriff im deutschen und angelsächsischen Raum und zum Teil auch innerhalb einzelner hier vorfindbarer Schulen im Detail unterschiedlich ausgelegt wird bzw. mit unterschiedlichen Stoßrichtungen verbunden wird. Eine einheitliche und klare Terminologie hat sich bislang nicht herausgebildet. Die unterschiedlichen Auslegungen und Schwerpunktsetzungen führen zu verschiedenen Sichten sowohl der Mechanismen der Wirkung der Kundenintegration als auch der Konsequenzen im Umgang mit ihr.
Article
Co-creation is the process by which products, services, and experiences are developed jointly by companies and their stakeholders, opening up a whole new world of value. Firms must stop thinking of individuals as mere passive recipients of value, to whom they have traditionally delivered goods, services, and experiences. Instead, firms must seek to engage people as active co-creators of value everywhere in the system.
Article
By taking a closer look at the research in marketing and especially services marketing there is to point out that fundamental discussions about the determinants of market processes are taking place. With regard to the hard conditions of competition, nowadays, and the fast growing relevance of customer orientation it was no great surprise that one phenomenon found great attention: It is the so-called “co-makership”. This co-makership means that the customer participates in the dispositions of his supplier. This collaboration is shaping different forms and can be carried out in an also active and passive way. It is very interesting for marketing theory and marketing practice that this state is a characteristic feature of all transactions taking place. The latest step of customer’s participation — sometimes also called “pro-suming” (Toffler 1980) — is the sales respectively distribution act. Here, an integration always takes place. Usually the integration is observable on other steps, such as production, procurement or administration. In the German marketing literature the term “integrativity” is used to name and describe the phenomenon of customer participation (Engelhardt; Kleinaltenkamp; Reckenfelderbäumer 1993). The integrativity means that the customer is owning resources that are relevant in order to form products in a customer-specific way. Therefore, the supplier needs to integrate these resources, the so-called “extemal factors” (Berekoven 1966 and 1974, Meyer 1983), into his own radius of action. Parallels to the resource-dependence-discussion (Pfeffer; Salancik 1978) become evident.
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