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Film Industry International for the Future of Work and Social Inclusion


Abstract and Figures

The global economic environment is progressively making us rise the question of the importance of value creation to adapt to the new reality. It also shows that the future of work is increasingly determined by the climate change and not only by the technological advances. (Burch, 2010). Meanwhile, the covid19 pandemics teaches us that the transcendental changes in human history do not necessarily lie nor in economy, neither in technology. In this sense, the future of work is addressed as a great challenge. While there is huge uncertainty regarding the future that humanity, it is a great challenge to envisage employment or other meaningful living and fulfilment ways for people.
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Social Inclusion and
First edition, 2020
Sánchez-Gutiérrez, José; González-Alvarado, Tania Elena (coordinators).
Social Inclusion and the Future of Work. Mexico: Universidad de
This book is a product of the members of RIICO (Red Internacional de
Investigadores en Competitividad) with external contributions. The
findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this work do not
necessarily reflect the views of Universidad de Guadalajara and RIICO.
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This work is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-
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Cover photo byDaniele FranchionUnsplash
Cover design: González Alvarado Tania Elena
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Prologue……………………………………………………………….. 5
Sánchez-Gutiérrez, José
Employment is more than a Job. It Is the Essential Pedestal
Underpinning Social Inclusion and Democracy Itself…………… 7
Argyriades, Demetrios
Innovation for the Future of National Well Being.………….……. 25
Galicia-Haro, Emma-Frida; Coria-Páez, Ana-Lilia and Ortega-Moreno,
Socioeconomic Development: The Steel like a Crucial Key…….. 39
Espinoza-Parada, Lourdes-Fabiola; Cavazos-Salazar, Rosario-Lucero
and Cruz-Álvarez, Jesús-Gerardo
Generation of Employment and Digital Age in the Hotel
Sector of Peru………………………………………………………… 57
Espinoza-Vilca, Sofía; Blanco-Jiménez, Mónica and Terán-Cázares,
María Mayela
Digitization of Economic Activities for Job Creation and Social
Stability and Competitiveness.…………………..………………….. 71
Morales-Alquicira, Andrés; Rendón-Trejo, Araceli and
Guillen-Mondragón, Irene-Juana
Film Industry International for the Future of Work and Social
Inclusion………………………………………………………………. 89
González-Alvarado, Tania-Elena; Kubus, Renata and
Sánchez-Gutiérrez, José!
Impact of Open Data on the Creativity for Innovation……………… 107
Estrada-Zamora, Carlos
The Trust on Social Networks and the Increased Social
Commerce………………………………………………………….….…. 121
Robles-Estrada, Celestino; de la Torre-Enríquez, Diana-Isabel and
Suástegui-Ochoa, Alberto-Alejandro
Adaptability of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses and E-
Commerce……………………………………………………………… 149
Bellon-Álvarez, Luis Alberto
Social Inclusion and the Future of Work
ocial Inclusion and the Future of Work is of interest to those who expect a critical
but positive vision of the times we live. Experts explain the situation of the
organizations, institutions and regions according to resilience, creativity and
digital innovation for the future of work, social inclusion and the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs). SDGs are considered as the essential guidelines that facili-
tate the strategic consideration of the future of work and social inclusion, even more in
times of pandemic.
Eachpartofthisbookwasbasedon empirical real-lifeevidencefromen-
terprises, universities, governments and institutions. All of these studied organizations
are part of the competitive environment. Thewritersbelieveineconomicprogressin
line with innovation,resilience, entrepreneurship and international cooperationbet-
weenregions,countriesand corporations.
The authors are from the United States of América, Greece, Spain, Poland, Peru,
and Mexico. All of them are experts in Economic andBusinessSciences.Theuniversi-
tiesthat participateinthisprojectare the John Jay College, City University of New
York, Universidad Andina del Cusco, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia,
Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-X, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Universidad
Autónoma de Nuevo León and UniversidaddeGuadalajara.
This publication was created following the best practices of scientific
edition.Turnitin was applied to favor the originality. Theeditorial teamcarefully
analyzed the quality   and originality   of the contents.   Every chapter   was
selected,evaluated,andmodifiedwiththesupportof international peers.
Editors and authors hope is that this book will contribute to theadvancementoftheo-
reticalandpractical knowledge
Dr. José Sánchez-Gutiérrez
Sánchez-Gutiérrez, J.
Social Inclusion and the Future of Work
Photo by!Vidar Nordli-Mathisen!on!Unsplash
Chapter 6
Film Industry
International for the
Future of Work and
Social Inclusion
Film Industry International for
the Future of Work and Social
Tania-Elena González-Alvarado
Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico
Renata Kubus
Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Spain
José Sánchez-Gutiérrez
Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico
he global economic environment is progressively making us rise the
question of the importance of value creation to adapt to the new reality.
It also shows that the future of work is increasingly determined by the
climate change and not only by the technological advances. (Burch,
Meanwhile, the covid19 pandemics teaches us that the transcendental
changes in human history do not necessarily lie nor in economy, neither in
technology. In this sense, the future of work is addressed as a great challenge.
While there is huge uncertainty regarding the future that humanity, it is a great
challenge to envisage employment or other meaningful living and fulfilment
ways for people.
This places greater emphasis on learning from more complex and less
competitive economic sectors, as their cases have shown ways in which economic
agents develop their ability to adapt (Amin, & Cohendet, 1999; Berkhout, Hertin,
& Gann, 2006; Dervitsiotis, 2006; Pike, Dawley, & Tomaney, 2010).
Nowadays, it is impossible to address social inclusion and the future of
work (Pearce & Randel, 2004) while ignoring this adaptive capacity. What is
Film Industry International for the Future of Work and Social Inclusion
González-Alvarado, T.; Kubus, R. & Sánchez-Gutiérrez, J.
more, there are sectors which can be considered native of future of work, as the
ways they are operating since their very beginning are subject to the current
conditions assigned to the future of work.
This is very true for artistic and cultural sectors, as well as care or house
services. Furthermore, especially the cinematographic industry, represents an art
which itself was made possible due to the technological advancements of last
centuries. Furthermore, it is deeply affected by recent technological innovations
and the growing globalization.
Cinematography, like all elements of art and culture, has been subjected to
transformation processes, just to mention the evolution from the product towards
the service (e.g. in the sense of transition from DVDs to streaming services
acquisition). Processes that have involved the destruction of considerable part of
jobs and gains for artists and the emergence of new activities (Nichols, 1988;
Benjamin & Jennings, 2010).
The present analysis should convince the reader that cooperation
creation of value to and through sharing it (Sáez & Cabanelas, 1997)— is a
fundamental principle in economic activities in the face of the world crisis, both
due to the great depression and the global pandemic. (Grigoryev, 2020).
Covid-19 has the potential to destroy individual livelihoods, businesses,
industries and entire economies (Grigoryev, 2020; Laing, 2020). The primary
impact on the sector has been a dramatic contraction in demand as industrial
production, and construction (Laing, 2020).
Creating value to share is a strategic principle that companies in difficult
environments have used to maintain their position in the markets, benefiting
local development (González & Martin, 2013; González, Cabanelas & Cabanelas,
Creating value in order to share it, is a strategic principle that companies
in difficult environments have used to maintain their position in the markets,
benefiting also local development (González & Martin, 2013; González,
Cabanelas & Cabanelas, 2016).
In this way, the authors of this chapter consider that the creation of value
to share it (Sáez & Cabanelas, 1997; Vives, 2012), is fundamental for a future of
work that guarantees greater well-being and inclusion for those who have
remained marginalized by the system. The analysis of the film industry and the
results achieved in terms of cooperation are developed and studied through the
lens of this idea.
“People who have the knowledge and skill needed to perform the job well and
who value opportunities for growth and learning will be internally motivated to
perform such jobs, which over time should result in greater overall job satisfaction
and higher quality work outcomes.” (Oldham & Hackman, 2010, p. 465)
Social Inclusion and the Future of Work
Starting from the international trade liberalization, the film industry
struggles between liberalization and protection of culture. On the one hand, the
film industry in the free international trade environment is an industry that sells
and allows profits generation.
On another hand, the film industry as a cultural expression requires
protection against free-of-charge trade or piracy (Fuentes, 2011). Two
contradictory situations. Despite this debate, the internationalization of this
industry has not been hindered.
Formal use of the term Creative Industries is quite recent (1994), marking
the digital era of cultural industries and creativity (Moore, 2014). The film
industry is part of the cultural and creative industries (Beck, 2005; Moore, 2014).
It contributes massively to the world economy. The cinematographic
industry is a key factor in the digital economy. This industry creates millions of
jobs, enhances the attractiveness of cities, and improves the quality of life, both in
high- and low-income countries (Unesco, 2015). For these reasons, there are
several questions that arise. What is the future of work in the film industry?
What about social inclusion in the international business cooperation in the
movie industry?
The subject matter of future of work concerns above all, but not exclusively, the
reconfiguration of socio-ecological dynamics of the labor market (figure 1) that
emerges from current trends such as (Kubus, 2020):
Globalization, understood as the acceleration of exchanges, in terms of
time, but also space. It implies a greater number of interconnections, but
not but not necessarily their higher quality.
Demographic change, i.e. the reversed age pyramid of population, with
a large part of it in advanced age, especially in developed countries. This
demography changes both the vision of the individual's working life, as
well as the demand for jobs and care. It also affects the availability of
pensions, hardly sustainable with the reversed age pyramid and current
tax regimes, especially when related to matters of tax evasion of large
capitals or transnational companies.
Technology is the revolution that has been considered the most, in two
terms. First, because of the employee's own ability to adjust to the new
reality of the labor market. Second, through the automation a large part
of jobs, which implies (supposedly) creative destruction of an important
part of jobs.
Film Industry International for the Future of Work and Social Inclusion
González-Alvarado, T.; Kubus, R. & Sánchez-Gutiérrez, J.
Climate change, which affects the different countries and social strata
unevenly, accelerating migration flows.
Inequality or peripheralization, in terms of means of production with
the predominant role of capital, as compared to labor and land. Lately,
some include data with a relational disposition towards capital because
they provide the energy/learning for artificial intelligence.
Figure 1. Future of Work - Impact Factors
Source: Own elaboration (CID-N).
The conditions of the labor market in the global scenario have the
following characteristics: a structural scarcity of decent work, robotization and
automation, atomization, and many times expected free provision of value, for
instance when contributed collectively, as is the case with open source platforms
(Figure 2).
The world scenario in terms of future of work presents challenges that
require economic agents to have a long-term vision, focused on creating value.
This vision could allow turning threats into opportunities and weaknesses into
Social Inclusion and the Future of Work
Figure 2. Future of Work – Work Conditions
Source: Own elaboration (CID-N).
It is a scenario that fosters international collaboration between companies.
The long-term collaboration between companies from different regions is
conceived as an international business link (Lafer, 1973; Abdenur & de Souza,
2013; Bueno & Saraví, 1997; Tabares et al., 2014; Yoguel & Bercovich, 1994;
González, 2007; Quiñones et al., 2019).
Companies establish international cooperation links in search of greater
competitiveness through market expansion and cost reduction (Liendo and
Martínez, 2001; Donovan et al., 2004; Tkachuk, 2004; Kulfas, 2009; Velásquez,
2004; Galdeano-Gómez, 2016; Yoon et al., 2018; Prashantham, & Birkinshaw,
Cultural, geographic, and legal barriers become almost nil when agents
from different regions interact under the cooperation mechanism (Asia, Europe,
Eastern Europe or Latin America).
This does not mean that these barriers disappear. It rather implies that the
agents who have decided to cooperate strive to overcome them in an attempt to
link up and achieve synergies. So that, these synergies can translate into new
Film Industry International for the Future of Work and Social Inclusion
González-Alvarado, T.; Kubus, R. & Sánchez-Gutiérrez, J.
resources, improved capacities, and, finally, competitive advantages in constant
Synergies that translate into new resources, better capacities, and, finally,
competitive advantages in constant transformation. The cooperation is essential
for the new reality, when would require radical change of widely shared
managerial values. We summarized those constraining values as follows:
“The increasing popularity of self-managing teams, re-engineering, and sundry other
organizational innovations, coupled with the increased flexibility in work
arrangements made possible by advances in information technology, has expanded
considerably the scope, challenge, and autonomy of front-line work. Professional
jobs, on the other hand, appear to be shrinking, which is perverse because
professionals are the people we rely on to make wise decisions in uncertain
circumstances.” (Oldham & Hackman, 2010, p. 467)
The creation of cooperative links fosters the creation of value. Regarding
future of work, remuneration and benefits must be associated with the creation
of value in society. Unfortunately, and when it comes to capital, many times it is
not focused on the contribution to the real economy.
Originally paid work does not have to be linked to value creation. Thus,
work by itself does not guarantee social inclusion. On the other hand, the work
that results from cooperation strategies, creating value to share it, fosters social
Paid work does not have to be necessarily linked to value creation, there
are so called absurd jobs (Kubus, 2020). What is more, work by itself does not
guarantee social inclusion for workers. From another perspective, the work that
results from cooperation strategies, creating value to share it, is more prone to
fosters social inclusion and thereby contributes to building a more humane
future of work.
The logic of the network cooperation system is characterized by the
following points:
1. The cooperation mechanism tends to be the binding factor.
2. Agents have learned to see failure and opportunism as part of learning;
and thus, it does not stop them in the search for new collaborators.
3. The economic agents involved are convinced that cooperation further
increases benefits and offers them new competences.
4. They have in place a permanent negotiation process.
5. They consider the counterparty as partners that help them achieve their
objectives and generate synergies.
These are the characteristics of the international business cooperation
network, the object of this analysis. Together with the international business
cooperation network, social cohesion is articulated around the work that
establishes the network of connections and interrelations. This is an important
Social Inclusion and the Future of Work
question that allows for determination of the status of people in society, in
addition satisfying their basic needs.
It brings along a sense of identity, belonging and purpose, but workplace
can also be a trap, causing exclusion (also due to lack of work), and trap the
person, both physically and emotionally. The work in the context of the business
cooperation network encourages inclusion rather than labor exclusion.
Additionally, international support programs such as Al-Invest, free trade,
and global value chains were factors that triggered these international networks
led by smaller (Liendo & Martínez, 2001; García & Moreno, 2007; Perego &
Marteau, 2007; Luna, 2009; Capó-Vicedo et al., 2009; Ferraro & Stumpo, 2010; Pla-
Barber & Escribá, 2010; Moncayo, 2010; Fernández % Revilla, 2010; Albizu et al.,
2011 ; Fernández-Jardón, 2012).
Companies operating in the film industry have exhibited very specific
behavior in the face of the existence of international business cooperation
networks. Their strategies are different from those of other sectors
(environmental, agro-industrial, automotive, artisanal, and textile). These
strategies focus on a minimum number of opportunities that have had to be
reinforced with public policies and regional agreements.
This leads to questioning. What strategies have been followed by
companies located in the film industry in the face of international business
cooperation ties? What they are looking for in view of the possibility of becoming
a part of an international business cooperation network?
The answers to these questions make it easier to respond the inquiry
stated at the beginning of the document. What is the future of work in the film
industry? Is there social inclusion in the international business cooperation
corresponding to the cinematographic industry?
The film industry emerged in the United States. It started as an industry when
cinema is considered from a business and a product perspective. Production,
distribution, and exhibition are essential for the film industry. What started as
art, soon also became a digital age business (Cousins, 2005; Sadoul, 1977).
Furthermore, it continues to embrace the complex articulation of various forms
of work - artisan, technical, artistic-creative (Bulloni & Del Bono, 2019).
The film industry has a different characteristic for each region. The United
States is the first consumer market of digital content. Europe is number one in
advertising. Latin America and the Caribbean are characterized by their
television consumption. Africa and the Middle East represent fast-growing
Film Industry International for the Future of Work and Social Inclusion
González-Alvarado, T.; Kubus, R. & Sánchez-Gutiérrez, J.
markets. In Asia, the cinema occupies a second place because in the first position
are video games. (UNESCO, 2015).
Table 1 shows the main European states that are co-producers of feature
films for the years 2012 and 2013, along with the United States. France, the
United States and the United Kingdom maintain the highest participation in this
type of business relationship in absolute numbers.
Table 1. Main countries co-producers of feature films, 2012 and 2013
Source: UNESCO (2016).
Graph 1. Percentage of co-production by country with respect to the total
production of feature films in 2013
Source: Own elaboration (UNESCO, 2016).
Nº co-productions
Nº feature films
United Kingdom
Social Inclusion and the Future of Work
However, when comparing the number of co-productions with the total
number of feature films produced, significant changes can be noticed (Graph 1).
The United States produces more than seven hundred feature films a year. Thus,
compared to the total, the percentage of US co-productions is low, barely over 10
percent. On the other hand, the European States such as Belgium, Ireland, and
the Netherlands, which in absolute numbers have few productions, maintain a
high level in what respects to the percentage of their co-productions. There are
states in which the film industry depends more on this type of business ties.
The statistical data presented in 2017 by the European Audiovisual
Observatory refers exclusively to the European States. These data present very
similar results to those of UNESCO in 2016, although they include Spain. In
absolute terms, the States of the European Union with the highest number of co-
productions in the 2007-2016 period are France (556), Spain (460), Germany (411),
and Switzerland (221). (European Audiovisual Observatory, 2017)..
Asian co-productions show strong regionalism, converging in
collaboration between Hong Kong and China (68.5%). This intersection is also
observed between Great Britain and the United States, as well as between Spain
and Argentina. However, in the Asian case, the result is more evident. Regarding
the European States, only Germany registers co-productions with China. In the
same way, in the film industry there are no Latin American companies that have
been linked with China. (Table 2).
Table 2. Co-production of China with other regions (2002-2012)
Source: MPA (2016).
Nº co-productions
Hong Kong, China
Taiwan, China
United Kingdom
Film Industry International for the Future of Work and Social Inclusion
González-Alvarado, T.; Kubus, R. & Sánchez-Gutiérrez, J.
Technological advancement and the internationalization of the media have
led to the globalised film industry. This industry has become fragmented, it is
becoming increasingly more plural and multiculturalist (Lipovetsky, & Serroy,
An inherent characteristic of this industry is diversity, seen from three
perspectives: sources, supply, and the exposure of audiences (UNESCO, 2016).
Sources: diversity of producers and distributors of content, and in the
workforce hired by the acting companies (UNESCO, 2016).
In the featured films: diversity of film genres; demographic diversity - racial,
ethnic and gender characteristics of the people involved in the full-length
movies - and diversity of ideas - points of view of different social, political
and cultural perspectives - presented in the feature films exhibited (UNESCO,
Audience exposure: diversity of horizontal exposure - related to the
distribution of audiences through the available films at any given time - and
diversity of vertical exposure - related to the diversity of content consumed
by a particular individual or social group over time (UNESCO, 2016).
The diversity of this industry hinders its internationalization, even when
there are regional agreements with policies that encourage distribution between
different countries. Such is the case of Mercosur, as well as of the agreement
between the European Union and Mercosur. (Fuentes, 2011; Moguillansky, 2010).
Due to the obstacle of diversity, co-production is the key form of cooperation for
internationalization in the film industry.
While in other sectors the most favorable form of cooperation is
representation/presence and sales abroad, for the film industry these two forms
are unfavorable.
Co-production is how companies in the film industry cooperate for
internationalization. It has spread since the commercial opening of the last
century. It is almost always carried out between companies that share a historical,
cultural, or linguistic background (UNESCO, 2016). For example, the circulation
of Ibero-American cinema both within the region and in the EU is not very
significant, with the exception of the co-production feature film (García, 2010).
Unfortunately, co-production is not one of the decisive links in the value
chain in the film industry. The decisive links in the value chain are both
distribution and exhibition (González, 2019). Hence the importance of subsidy
and financing mechanisms throughout regional or national policies (Amiot-
Guillouet, 2019).
Some governments have promoted co-production with other countries
through international programs. One of them is the Ibermedia Programme, created
in 1996, for the Ibero-American space (UNESCO, 2016). Among the Ibero-
Social Inclusion and the Future of Work
American countries, the three that grant the most funds to the film sector are
Mexico, Brazil and Argentina, with subsidies, tax incentives, promotion plans
and screen quotas being the most widely used mechanisms (García, 2010).
The co-productions are transnational, with narratives aimed at a global
audience. Co-production implies the hiring of workers from different countries,
thus obtaining multinational recognition. Co-production promotes social
inclusion because it encourages job creation for people with different
backgrounds. It also promotes and make available the access to and
understanding of different, in many cases marginalized cultures and subcultures.
In this way, benefits are obtained in all the countries that intervene in
production, increasing fundraising, while ensuring marketing and screen quota
for each of the countries involved in the co-production (González, 2019).
Brazil and Argentina are an example of this. Both countries have decades
of experience in regulating and promoting cinema. These two countries have a
series of co-production and cooperation agreements. The agreements between
Brazil and Argentina multiplied ties and strengthened film integration for both
countries, despite language differences (González, 2019). These agreements
fostered multicultural and inclusive work. Multiculturalism and inclusion are
correct responses to the challenges of the future of the job and collective
intelligence development.
Information was obtained on the events organized by the Nafin
Eurocenter in the period 2002-2009 (16 meetings with a total of 2,724
participating companies). One of these events was for the Film Industry (172
companies from different countries). Companies that had disappeared by 2019
were eliminated. Only companies that maintain links with companies from other
regions were investigated.
When the objective is to obtain as much information as possible about a
certain problem or phenomenon, a representative case or a random sample may
not be the most appropriate strategy (Flyvbjerg, 2006). Studying 172 cases
facilitates the identification of atypical or extreme cases. These types of cases
reveal more information because they activate more actors and more basic
mechanisms in the situation under study.
From an understanding- as well as an action-oriented perspective, it is
often more important to clarify the root causes of a given problem and its
consequences than to describe the symptoms of the problem and how often they
Random samples that emphasize representativeness rarely produce this
kind of knowledge. It is more appropriate to select some cases due to their
Nacional Financiera and European Union Trust created on June 1st, 1995
Film Industry International for the Future of Work and Social Inclusion
González-Alvarado, T.; Kubus, R. & Sánchez-Gutiérrez, J.
validity (Flyvbjerg, 2006: 45). In this study, these are 172 cases. Although it
should be mentioned that this type of research is usually slower and more
Regarding 172 companies that are the object of this study, these
correspond to Spain, France, Germany, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay.
The strategies of these companies have been oriented mostly towards co-
production (83%), with special emphasis on financing (Table 3).
Table 3. Cooperation in the film industry within the framework of Al-Invest
Source: Own elaboration based on the result achieved in the project.
22.67 percent link co-production with the distribution. The rest associate
co-production with financing, omitting the benefit of co-production brought by
the presence in various consumer markets. There are nine percent of companies
that overlook the possibility of establishing cooperation links through co-
production and focus on very different forms of linkage which are shown in the
table below (Table 4).
Table 4. Other interests to link
Source: Own elaboration based on the result achieved in the project.
Author / screenwriter looking to sell original feature film script
Sale or exchange of material is offered. As well as files for use.
Offered the artistic and technical realization of the NANO series of microprograms in
3D animation of 12 chapters, lasting 3 to 5 minutes.
It offers comprehensive soundtrack recording services (music, effects, dubbing, etc.).
Technology transfer.
Co-production linked
to distribution
Social Inclusion and the Future of Work
An important element to deepen the analysis of the future of work and
social inclusion in co-productions is the intermediate demand. Careers in project
networks of the film industry, local networks with international networks (Scott,
1984; Jones, 1996).
“Career patterns are changing. As fewer people attach their long-term fortunes to
the fates of a single organization, more and more people follow a free agent
route. The free agent scrambles, bee-like, from opportunity to opportunity
without regard to boundaries. While this career scramble is new to most
industries, it has been common to the film industry.” (Jones & DeFillippi, 1996).
The film industry operates with subcontracting. The production model
was changed to the flexible independent system with cross-border co-production
(Szeto & Chen, 2013). This subcontracting is defined as intermediate demand.
Intermediate demand is the link for a better understanding of business
cooperation and the future of work (Graph 2).
In many case, there is an asymmetry of decision-making powers between
the buyer (s) and the subcontractors (De Propris & Hypponen, 2008). In other
cases, the situation shows more details. The social networks of the industry in
Hong Kong and relationships at multiple scales across national boundaries,
within local settings, and on production sets were examined, revealing their
critical role in contributing to the health of the film industry (Kong, 2005).
Graph 2. Intermediate demand for services in the film industry
Source: Own elaboration.
Film Industry International for the Future of Work and Social Inclusion
González-Alvarado, T.; Kubus, R. & Sánchez-Gutiérrez, J.
The risks faced at various steps of the production, marketing, and
distribution process are ameliorated by trust relations, built up through time
between social actors in spontaneous ways (Kong, 2005).
What strategies have companies in the film industry followed in face of
international business cooperation links? Co-production. What are they looking
for in view of taking part in an international business cooperation network?
Based on the 172 cases presented, they search for financing and distribution.
Companies in the film industry show a very specific behaviour facing the
existence of international business cooperation networks. Their strategies focus
on a minimum of opportunities that have had to be reinforced with public
policies and regional agreements. Since co-production is not part of the decisive
links in the value chain, a high percentage of participating companies directly
associate the need for financing with co-production.
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Social Inclusion and the Future of Work
Social Inclusion and the
Future of Work is for interest
to those who expect a critical
but positive vision of the
times we attend. Experts
explain the situation of the
organization, institutions and
regions according to resilience,
creativity and digital
innovation for the future of
work, social inclusion, and the
Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs). SDGs are
considered as the essential
guidelines that facilitate the
strategic consideration of the
future of work and social
inclusion in pandemic times
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