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Abstract

Electric vehicles (EV) diffusion depends on many factors among which policies, people options, and economic factors. Their noise-related performance could appear favourable. This notwithstanding, despite partisan opinions, the analyses carried out suggest that research and industry will have to minimise the collateral issues posed by a quite probable EV diffusion. The objective of the study presented in this paper is to analyse the acoustic impact of electric vehicles (EV) and to set up an overall framework for an effective management of their diffusion. After the objectives, EV overall characteristics are analysed. EV acoustic performance are then analysed. In the final discussion, the main characteristics of the required holistic approach are highlighted. This can benefit both researchers and practitioners.

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... The outcomes of the main initiatives are summarized in Table II: they range from proposals of sounds for EVs, to approaches aimed at minimising the noise pollution while preserving safety of pedestrians, to the design of a car acoustic identity looking at both interior and exterior sounds and their effects on user-vehicle interaction. Additional references to research projects dealing with EVs sound are available in [25]. ...
... Comune di Firenze, Continental, iPOOL, Université Gustave Eiffel, Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Vie en.ro.se Ingegneria -Project Life E-VIA [25] In the framework of vehicle sounds and related issues, the E-VIA project has several aims: to tackle acoustic pollution from road traffic noise, assuming that in the future EHV's will contribute the most part of traffic flow; to support combined optimization of road and tyre design, to come up with a solution able to reduce noise in urban areas and life-cycle costs. Additionally, researchers involved in the project aim to support the effective adoption of the EU regulation, by providing rolling noise coefficients determined by using the Common Noise Assessment Method (CNOSSOS-EU) specifically tuned for EVs. ...
... The current trend to emobility further contributes to the importance of acoustic design. Noise arising from auxiliary aggregates can become unpleasant due to the absence of combustion engine noise [5][6][7][8][9]. Ideally, acoustic aspects are already considered during the design phase by means of CAA. ...
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The hybrid aeroacoustic approach is an efficient way to address the issue of the disparity of scales in Computational AeroAcoustics (CAA) at low Mach numbers. In the present paper, three wave equations governing propagation of flow-induced sound of low Mach number flows, namely the Perturbed Convective Wave Equation (PCWE), Ribner’s Dilatation (RIB) equation, and Lighthill’s wave equation, are applied using the Finite Element Method (FEM). An airflow through a circular pipe with a half-moon-shaped orifice at three operating flow speeds is considered, where validation data from measurements on a dedicated test rig is available. An extensive analysis of the flow field is provided based on the results of the incompressible flow simulation. The resulting acoustic source terms are investigated, and the relevant source term contributions are determined. The results of the acoustic propagation simulations revealed that the PCWE and RIB are best suited for the present task. The overall deviation of the predicted pressure spectra from the measured mean values amounted to 2.26 and 2.13 times the standard deviation of the measurement compared to 3.55 for Lighthill’s wave equation. Besides reliably predicting the flow-induced sound, the numerical procedure of source term computation is straightforward for PCWE and RIB, where the source term contributions, shown to be relevant, solely consist of time derivatives of the incompressible pressure. In contrast, the Lighthill source term involves spatial derivatives and, thus, is strongly dependent on the spatial resolution and the numerical method actually used for approximating these terms.
... Tire-road noise for EVs is the main topic of the ongoing LIFE project "E-VIA" (2019-2023) [19][20][21][22][23][24]. In more detail, the E-VIA project aims at 1) Considering the contribution (i.e., both the noise and air pollution mitigation efficiency) of EVs and hybrid vehicles with respect to the current scenarios. ...
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Electric vehicles (EVs) are progressively entering into the current noisy urban ecosystem. Even though EVs are apparently quieter than traditional Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs), they have an impact on noise maps and road pavement designers should take this into consideration when designing future low-noise road pavements. Consequently, the main objective of this study is to define what are the most important aspects that road pavement designers should take into account. For this reason, in this paper, the noise emitted by EVs was analysed, considering parameters ( e.g. , speed and frequency) and comparisons, in order to identify crucial characteristics. Results show that EV noise could call for the improvement of pavement acoustic design due to the Acoustic Vehicle Alerting System (AVAS), high-frequency peaks, and noise vibration harshness.
... The framework of the study carried out to optimize the low-noise asphalt concrete mixtures, which are the main outputs of the LIFE E-VIA Project, are described in the following. In particular, the study consisted of 3 main tasks (see Figure 1) that were organized as follows: TASK 1.1: A comprehensive literature analysis [9][10][11], which allowed finding 150 asphalt concrete mixtures, was carried out (Actor: University MEDITERRANEA of Reggio Calabria, UNIRC; Project Action: A2). TASK 1.2: From the 150 asphalt concrete mixtures above, nine mixtures were selected based on many characteristics, including: 1) Acoustic response. ...
Conference Paper
The paper deals with the acoustical characterization of low-noise asphalt concretes developed for noise reduction in urban areas within the LIFE E-VIA project (LIFE18 ENV/IT/000201). With the perspective of an increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) in urban area, the asphalt concrete mixes have been optimized considering Life Cycle Cost with respect to actual best practices. Two very thin asphalt concretes (VTAC) of 6 mm maximum aggregate size have been implemented on a reference test track in France. Both are based on the same formulation, but one mix contains 1.9% crumb rubber by weight. The noise performance of these prototype test sections has been evaluated by means of close-proximity (CPX) tests and controlled pass-by (CPB) noise measurements for two EV models. CPX results have shown a noise reduction of about 3 dB(A) by comparison with a reference dense asphalt concrete 0/10, while an average pass-by noise reduction of about 4 dB(A) has been observed for the sample of EVs tested.
... In highly populated areas, where overexposure is observed, the main source of environmental noise is vehicular traffic [6][7][8], and the relationship between environmental noise and specific health effects least 5 dBA compared to traditional pavements and 2 dBA compared to the other traditional porous asphalt pavements, using more sustainable low-noise surfaces composed by recycled asphalt pavements and crumb rubber from scrap tires mixed with binders at warm temperatures. Finally, the LIFE project E-VIA [34,35], which is based on data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Environment Agency (EEA), aims at reducing the future noise pollution from road traffic noise for electric vehicles (EVs): (1) considering the contribution of EVs and hybrid vehicles with respect to the current scenarios; (2) optimizing both road pavements and tires (durability and sustainability for EVs (which, in turn, reduce the life cycle cost with respect to actual best practices); (3) contributing to EU legislation effective implementation (EU Directives 2002/49/EC, and 2015/996/EC, and CNOSSOS-EU); (4) raising people's awareness of noise pollution and health effects. Finally, it is important to mention bituminous mixtures containing expanded clay. ...
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There is no doubt that electrified vehicles are superseding internal combustion engine vehicles for road transportation. Among them, electric vehicles (EVs) have been identified as the greenest road transportation while hybrid EVs have been tagged as the super ultra-low emission vehicles. In this paper, the definition, classification, merits and demerits of electric and hybrid vehicles are first introduced. Then, after revealing their multidisciplinary technologies and development trends, the state-of-the-art electromagnetics research in electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed, with emphasis on electric motors for electric propulsion, electric machine systems for hybrid propulsion, wireless power transfer technologies for park-and-charge a well as move-and-charge, electromagnetic interference and compatibility issues in EVs, electromechanical flywheels for energy storage and magnetic sensors for EV operation. Meanwhile, the development trend of these research areas is revealed.
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The increasingly stringent statutory requirements for reducing CO2 emissions and pollutants from vehicles, is increasing the necessity for hybridization and electrification of the powertrain.
Article
This paper presents certain considerations related to noise, vibration and harshness issues on modern motor vehicles. The first, practical aspect was used toward structuring of the acquired knowledge and relationships, required for proper problem diagnosis. On the other hand, advanced signal analyses are considered. The influence on human body is processed and certain noise and vibration analyzers are presented. This synergy of scientific and applicative approach represents a basis for further research related to this important automotive branch. © Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade. All rights reserved.
Article
The CNOSSOS-EU method is recommended in Europe for environmental noise prediction. In regards to road traffic, it includes vehicle noise emission models implicitly referring to internal combustion vehicles. The development of electrically driven vehicles calls for the future consideration of these vehicles in prediction models. On the basis of experimental data, the study reported in this paper proposes a noise emission model for extending CNOSSOS-EU to light electric vehicles. Correction terms to be applied to the propulsion noise component are determined. Investigations on a sample of tyres with good rolling resistance performance, which is a main tyre selection criterion on these vehicles, indicated that no correction is required for the rolling noise component. Differences between the noise emission from conventional vehicles and electric vehicles are discussed for several road surfaces. Owing to the limited vehicle sample as well as transitional statements, this new model for electric vehicles running at constant speed over 20 km/h should be considered as a first step towards the definition of this vehicle technology in CNOSSOS-EU.
Article
The objective of this paper is to study the variability of on-site acoustic measurements in non-normal conditions, as a function of the angle. A porous European mix was investigated. In order to reject the hypothesis that the cause of the variations in the acoustic properties is the surface inhomogeneity, texture properties were investigated according to the standard ISO 13473-1 and ISO/CD TS 13473-4. The acoustic absorption coefficient was measured according to ISO 13472-1. Results were compared and analysed in terms of averages and standard deviations. Result analyses may allow us to derive how absorption properties may vary as a function of the angle of incidence (under the hypothesis of homogeneous surface texture of the friction course). A tentative theoretical framework for explaining the dependence of acoustic absorption on incidence angle was formulated. The outcomes of this study are expected to benefit both practitioners and researchers. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Article
Acoustic-based mix design is still far from achieving a clear and accepted rationale. The three main dominions (generation, absorption, propagation) which affect pavement acoustic performance involve a number of acoustic parameters. Their relationship with pavement properties is scarcely or insufficiently known. In more detail, the parameters that define the acoustic coupling between the two phases that comprise a porous material are: porosity, resistivity, tortuosity, and viscous and thermal factors. Consequently, the spectrum of a pavement absorption coefficient depends, in particular, on tortuosity, whose relationship with HMA (hot mix asphalt) bulk properties is still an issue.
Article
The transition to electric vehicles (EV) faces two major barriers. On one hand, EV batteries are still expensive and limited by range, owing to the lack of technology breakthrough. On the other hand, the underdeveloped supporting infrastructure, particularly the lack of fast refueling facilities, makes EVs unsuitable for medium and long distance travel. The primary purpose of this study is to better understand these hurdles and to develop strategies to overcome them. To this end, a conceptual optimization model is proposed to analyze travel by EVs along a long corridor. The objective of the model is to select the battery size and charging capacity (in terms of both the charging power at each station and the number of stations needed along the corridor) to meet a given level of service in such a way that the total social cost is minimized. Two extensions of the base model are also considered. The first relaxes the assumption that the charging power at the stations is a continuous variable. The second variant considers battery swapping as an alternative to charging. Our analysis suggests that (1) the current paradigm of charging facility development that focuses on level 2 charging delivers poor level of service for long distance travel; (2) the level 3 charging method is necessary not only to achieve a reasonable level of service, but also to minimize the social cost; (3) investing on battery technology to reduce battery cost is likely to have larger impacts on reducing the charging cost; and (4) battery swapping promises high level of service, but it may not be socially optimal for a modest level of service, especially when the costs of constructing swapping and charging stations are close.
Article
Wear at the interface between flexible pavements and tires influences pavement life, pavement cycle costs, and tire consumption, and is a source of environmental harm. Wear-related processes evolve over time and are affected by a number of boundary conditions, such as interface fluids, water and fuels. We develop a model explaining and predicting mass losses in flexible pavements under carefully controlled conditions, and with estimation of the related environmental costs. We also employed an accelerated loading test. Under normal conditions, the environmental impact of pavement wear is not greatly influenced by mix type or volumetrics. Indeed, the presence of hazmat materials, traditional, dense mixes have an environmental impact that is appreciably lower than that of porous European mixes.
Battery Electric Vehicles vs. Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles. A United States-Based Comprehensive Assessment
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J. W. Brennan and B. Timothy E., "Battery Electric Vehicles vs. Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles. A United States-Based Comprehensive Assessment.," 2016.
The concept of adaptive AVAS - results from a small test program
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T. Berge and F. Haukland, "The concept of adaptive AVAS -results from a small test program," INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID -48th Int. Congr. Exhib. Noise Control Eng., no. 2, 2019.
Life Cycle Analysis of the Climate Impact of Electric Vehicles
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Noise emission of electric and hybrid electric vehicles?: deliverable FOREVER ( n ° Forever WP2 _ D2-1-V4 ) To cite this version?: HAL Id?: hal-02177735 Noise emission of electric and hybrid electric vehicles
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M. Pallas et al., "Noise emission of electric and hybrid electric vehicles : deliverable FOREVER ( n ° Forever WP2 _ D2-1-V4 ) To cite this version : HAL Id : hal-02177735 Noise emission of electric and hybrid electric vehicles," 2015.
City Hush DELIVERABLE 3.4.2 Developing quiet tyre designs for quiet road surfaces Low noise DualQ tyre combined with electric vehicle
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Le emissioni di CO2 delle auto elettriche e delle auto con motore a combustione interna. Un confronto per l’Italia tramite l’analisi del ciclo di vita
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R. Danielis, "Le emissioni di CO2 delle auto elettriche e delle auto con motore a combustione interna. Un confronto per l'Italia tramite l'analisi del ciclo di vita," Work. Pap. SIET, pp. 1-13, 2016.
NVH analysis techniques for design and optimization of hybrid and electric vehicles
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N. Campillo-Davo and A. Rassili, "NVH analysis techniques for design and optimization of hybrid and electric vehicles," 2016.
Qcity Project Deliverable 5.16 An analytical model for calculating the vibration response and sound radiation from an in-service tyre/road system: The analytical model and calculated results
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A. Dowling, "Qcity Project Deliverable 5.16 An analytical model for calculating the vibration response and sound radiation from an inservice tyre/road system: The analytical model and calculated results," 2008.
Grid Electrified Vehicles: Performance, Design and Environmental Impacts
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J. Martins et al., "Grid Electrified Vehicles: Performance, Design and Environmental Impacts," pp. 209-232, 2013.
Comparison of dynamic characteristics of electric and conventional road vehicles
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Semir Beganović and Suada Dacić, "Comparison of dynamic characteristics of electric and conventional road vehicles," First Int. Green Des. Conf., pp. 149-155, 2012.
A Comparison of Electric Vehicles and Conventional Automobiles?: Costs and Quality Perspective
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M. Palinski, "A Comparison of Electric Vehicles and Conventional Automobiles : Costs and Quality Perspective," Novia, p. 60, 2017.
Simulation-based design of a steerable acoustic warning device to increase (H) EV detectability while reducing urban noise pollution
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B. Van Genechten and A. P. Berkhoff, "Simulation-based design of a steerable acoustic warning device to increase (H) EV detectability while reducing urban noise pollution," Transp. Res. Arena, 2014.
Qcity Project Deliverable 5.8 part 2 Validation Site Stockholm – Quiet Vehicles Quantification of driveline and tyre/road noise from a hybrid electric passenger car (Toyota Prius)
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F. Stenlund and N.-Å. Nilsson, "Qcity Project Deliverable 5.8 part 2 Validation Site Stockholm -Quiet Vehicles Quantification of driveline and tyre/road noise from a hybrid electric passenger car (Toyota Prius)," 2008.
Measurement of noise from electrical vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles under urban driving conditions
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L. M. Iversen, "Measurement of noise from electrical vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles under urban driving conditions," Compett, pp. 2129-2134, 2012.
Electric vehicles from life cycle and circular economy perspectives
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European Environmental Agency, "Electric vehicles from life cycle and circular economy perspectives TERM 2018: Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) report," 2018.
Analysis of Various NHV Sources of a Combustion Engine
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