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Young characters in television fiction: Youth identities, models and portrayals in the digital age

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This report paper presents the study “Young characters on television fiction: identities, models and portrayals in the digital age”, which was carried out within the CAS research group at the Department of Communication, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, in the framework of the Postdoctoral Grant Alianza 4 Universidades. The analysis of fiction programmes specifically targeted at teenagers (i.e. teen series) is a key research field still in the digital age, from both production and reception perspectives. On the one hand, teen series are key media products around youth culture, and often pioneer in the complex technological and cultural crossroads of the digital era. On the other hand, a significant body of literature has stressed young people’s preference for fiction programmes and especially for teen series, and the very influence of television fiction in teenagers’ socialisation processes. Also, previous studies pointed out the perpetuation of traditional and stereotyped models in the portrayals of female and male characters of fiction programmes. The main aims of the study were to analyse the teen series format, as well as the portrayals of ten and young characters and their storylines. The study consisted of a content analysis (through both quantitative and qualitative techniques) of the American, British and Spanish teen series available in Spain in the period 2008-2012, and its leading characters. A content analysis of 40 teen series and 130 young protagonists was carried out, with the help of SPSS and Atlas.ti. Among the main results about the teen series format, a common convergence on the dramatic and the fantastic genres has to be pointed out, as well as a complex cross-media strategy. Nevertheless, several differences in the length, the format and the scheduling strategy of American/British and Spanish programmes must be emphasised. As for the teen characters, the perpetuation of patriarchal and heteronormative gender stereotypes has to be emphasised, especially related to physical and sociodemographic characteristics. Nevertheless, while a more equal gender portrayal can be found in the psychological characteristics, as well as in the analysis of storylines and plots.
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Young!characters!in!television!fiction:!!
Youth!identities,!models!and!portrayals!in!the!
digital!age!
RESEARCH!REPORT!
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Alianza'4'Universidades'Postdoctoral!Grant!
!
Department!of!Communication!
Universitat!Pompeu!Fabra'
PhD.'Maddalena'Fedele'
CAS'(Communication,'Advertising'&'Society)'Research'Group!
www.cas.upf.edu''
September'2014!
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Aquest!document!està!subjecte!a!una!llicència!Creative!Commons!-!Reconeixement-NoComercial!4.0!
Internacional!!
Doi:!10.31009/informesdcom.2020.02!! !
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Abstract!
This!report!paper!presents!the!study!“Young!characters!on!television!fiction:!identities,!models!
and!portrayals!in!the!digital!age”,!which!was!carried!out!within!the!CAS!research!group!at!the!
Department! of! Communication,! Universitat! Pompeu! Fabra,! in! the! framework! of! the!
Postdoctoral!Grant!*572(B2'+',(74"%17A2A"1.!!
The!analysis!of!fiction!programmes!specifically!targeted!at!teenagers!(i.e.!teen!series)!is!a!key!
research!field!still!in!the!digital!age,!from!both!production!and!reception!perspectives.!
On!the!one!hand,!teen!series!are!key!media!products!around!youth!culture,!and!often!pioneer!
in!the! complex! technological! and! cultural!crossroads! of!the! digital! era.'On!the!other!hand,!a!
significant!body! of!literature! has!stressed!young! people’s! preference!for! fiction!programmes!
and! especially! for! teen! series,!and! the! very! influence! of! television! fiction! in! teenagers’!
socialisation!processes.! Also,!previous!studies!pointed!out!the!perpetuation!of!traditional!and!
stereotyped!models!in!the!portrayals!of!female!and!male!characters!of!fiction!programmes.!
The!main!aims!of!the!study!were!to!analyse!the!teen!series!format,!as!well!as!the!portrayals!of!
ten!and!young!characters!and!their!storylines.!
The! study! consisted!of! a! content! analysis! (through! both! quantitative! and! qualitative!
techniques)! of! the! American,!British! and! Spanish!teen! series! available!in! Spain! in!the! period!
2008-2012,! and! its! leading! characters.! A! content! analysis! of! 40! teen! series!and! 130! young!
protagonists!was!carried!out,!with!the!help!of!SPSS!and!Atlas.ti.!!
Among!the!main!results!about!the!teen!series!format,!a!common!convergence!on!the!dramatic!
and!the!fantastic!genres!has!to!be!pointed!out,!as!well!as!a!complex!cross-media!strategy.!
Nevertheless,! several! differences! in! the! length,! the! format! and! the! scheduling! strategy! of!
American/British!and!Spanish!programmes!must!be!emphasised.!!
As! for! the! teen! characters,! the! perpetuation! of! patriarchal! and! heteronormative! gender!
stereotypes! has! to! be! emphasised,! especially! related! to! physical! and! sociodemographic!
characteristics.! Nevertheless,! while! a! more! equal! gender! portrayal! can! be! found! in! the!
psychological!characteristics,!as!well!as!in!the!analysis!of!storylines!and!plots.!!
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Key-words!!
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INDEX!
1. Introduction:!Adolescents!and!teen!series! ! ! ! ! 7!
2. Presenting!the!project!! ! ! ! ! ! ! 9!
3. Literature!Review! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 10!
4. Objectives!and!methodology! ! ! ! ! ! 12!
5. Results! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 19!
5.1. Analysis!of!the!teen!series!format' ' ' ' ' 19!
5.2. Analysis!of!the!teen!characters! ! ! ! ! 23!
5.3. Analysis!of!the!storylines! ! ! ! ! ! 27!
6. Works!cited! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 29!
7. Annexes! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 33!
7.1. Annex!1:!List!of!the!teen!series!analysed!in!phase!3! ! 33!
7.2. Annex!2:!List!of!teen!series!analysed!in!phases!4!and!6! ! 34!
7.3. Annex!3:!List!of!teen!series!characters!analysed! ! ! 35!
7.4. Annex!4:!Coding!system!for!teen!series! ! ! ! 38!!
7.5. Annex!5:!Coding!system!for!space!variables! ! ! 39!
7.6. Annex!6:!Coding!system!for!teen!characters! ! ! 40!
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1. Introduction:!Adolescents!and!Teen!series!
Adolescence! is! a! key! stage! in! the! development! and! construction! of! values! and!
identities,! both! individual! and! collective.! Throughout! this! delicate,! complex! process,!
individuals! frequently! turn! to! models! and! representations! provided! by! significant!
others! in! their! environment,! known! as! socialising! agents.! These! agents! include!
communications!media.!!
Alongside! new! digital! media,! television! continues! to! exert! considerable! influence! in!
adolescent! socialisation! processes! in! the! Digital! Age.! This! is! most! apparent! when! it!
comes!to! fiction!programmes,! which,!indeed,! are!at! the!top! of!young! people's!list! of!
preferences,!as!many! studies!have! demonstrated!(Fedele,!2011;! Garitaonandia!et! al.,!
1998;! Livingstone,! 1998;! Medrano-Samaniego,! Palacios-Navarro! and! Aierbe-
Barandiarán,! 2007;! Pindado,! 2006;! Ramírez! de! la! Piscina! et! al.,! 2006;! von! Feilitzen,!
2004).!!
It!is!also!important!to!bear!in!mind!that!television!fiction!programmes!are!increasingly!
available! at! a! global! level! through! various! technological! platforms,! which! today's!
youth,!digital!natives,!habitually!use!in!their!consumption,!which!is!multimedia,!multi-
screen,!and!multitasking.!!Online!fiction!consumption,!in!particular,!grants!them!access!
to!foreign!television!shows!that!are!not!broadcast!on!Spanish!DTT!channels,!including!
many!US!titles,!for!example.!!
As!a!result!of!this,!content!analysis!of!audio-visual!fiction,!both!domestic!and!foreign,!is!
a!key!instrument!to!monitor!the!representations! that!are!being!offered!to!audiences.!
More! specifically,! the! need! is! increasingly! making! itself! felt! for! analysis! of! television!
shows! being! directed! at,! and! consumed! by,! a! teenage! audience:! the! models! and!
stereotypes!of!adolescence!which!are!consumed!by!teenagers!need!to!be!understood.!
Since!the!prototype!of!television!fiction!programme!favoured!by!adolescents!is!the!so-
called! “teen! series”! (Davis! and! Dickinson,! 2004;! Fedele,! 2011;! García-Muñoz! and!
Fedele,!2011a!and!2011b;!Mosely,!2011;!Ross!and!Stein,!2008),!those!serialised!fiction!
programmes! that! tell! the! stories! of! teenage! characters! and! are! addressed! at! a! teen!
audience,!deeper!study! is!needed! of!the! representations!of!adolescence! which!these!
programmes!contain.!!
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On!the!one!hand,!teen!series!are!key!media!products!around!youth!culture,!and!often!
pioneer!in!the! complex!technological! and!cultural! crossroads!of!the! digital!era,! being!
able! of! taking! the! advantage! of! phenomena! and! processes! such! as! digitisation! and!
convergence,! distribution! and! global! circulation! of! media! products,! hybridisation! of!
media!genres,!commercialisation!of! commodity!and!leisure! (Caldwell,!2004;!Carlsson,!
2006;!Spigel! and! Olsson,! 2004).! This! “post-broadcast! era”! context! provides! the! ideal!
scenario! for! new! typologies! of! television! programmes! and! television! consumption!
coexisting!with!more!traditional!ones,!as!in!the!case!of!teen!series.'On!the!other!hand,!
a! significant! body! of! literature! has! stressed! young! people’s! preference! for! fiction!
programmes!and!especially!for!teen!series,!and!the!very!influence!of!television!fiction!
in!teenagers’!socialisation!processes! (e.g.:!Arnett,!Larson!and! Offer,!1995;!Gerbner!et!
al.,!2002;!Maira!and!Soep,!2004).!!
The! research! proposed! here! takes! the! postdoctoral! candidate's! prior! work! as! its!
starting!point:!an!analysis!of!serialised!fiction!consumption!by! adolescents!and!a!case!
study!of!the!US!teen!series!H2I1$(J1'G%""K>'Firstly,!this!study!is!based!on!her!doctoral!
thesis,!L5'.$(1;E'2A$5"1."(&'A"'52'67..73'1"%72A2'&"5"471742,'[Adolescent!consumption!of!
serialised! television! fiction],! defended! in! 2011! in! the! Department! of! Audio-visual!
Communication! and! Advertising! at! the! Autonomous! University! of! Barcelona! (Fedele,!
2011).!Secondly,! her!project! incorporates!various! studies!preceding! the!thesis,! which!
focused!on!television!programming!targeting!youth!audiences.!One!of!these!is!a!2004!
analysis! of! programming! on! MTV! Italia,! carried! out! in! collaboration! with! the!
Department!of! Communication!Sciences! at!the! University!of! Salerno!(Fedele,! 2009a).!
Another!is!the!exploratory!study!on!teen!series!carried!out!in!the!GRISS!research!group!
at!the!Autonomous!University! of!Barcelona!during! the!first!phase! of!her!pre-doctoral!
grant! (Beca! FI,! Generalitat! de! Catalunya)! (Fedele! 2009b;! Fedele! and! García-Muñoz,!
2010),! which! culminated! in! the! case! study! of! the! US! series! H2I1$(J1' G%""K' (García-
Muñoz!and!Fedele,!2011a,!2011b!and!2011c)>!
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2. Presenting!the!project!
The!project!titled!“Los!personajes!jóvenes!en!la!ficción!televisiva:!identidades,!modelos!
y!representaciones! juveniles! en! la! era!digital”! [Young! characters! in! television!fiction:!
youth!identities,!models!and!representations!in!the!digital!age]!consisted!of!a!content!
analysis! (combining! quantitative! and! qualitative! techniques)! of! media! portrayals! of!
young! people! in! television! fiction! programmes! targeted! to! teens,! that! is! the! teen!
series.!!A!representative!sample!of!the!most!recent!Spanish!and!foreign!teen!series!has!
been! analysed,! taken! from! those! available! to! Spanish! teens! both! by! broadcast!
television!and!online!in!the!period!2008-2012.!Models!and!stereotypes!of!the!teenage!
characters! depicted! have! been! analysed! so! as! to! describe! the! teenage! identity!
transmitted!to!adolescents.!Above!all,!attention!has!been!given!to!whether!gender!and!
age!stereotypes! continue!to! be! propagated,!as! previous! studies!have! shown!(García-
Muñoz!and!Fedele,!2011c),!or!if!more!recent!shows!offer!new!social!models.!!
The!project! was! carried! out! by! the! candidate! at!the! Department! of! Communication,!
Universitat! Pompeu! Fabra,! within! the! CAS! (Communication,! Advertising! &! Society)!
research! group! (https://www.upf.edu/web/cas).! Of! great! relevance! was! the!
incorporation!in!the!analysis!of!categories!previously!used!and!confirmed!by!research!
done! by! other! group! members! (Luzón-Fernández! et! al.,! 2009),! as! well! as! the!
supervision! of! youth! and! media! expert! Dr.! Mònica! Figueras! Maz,! and! the! meetings!
with!Dr!Pilar!Medina!and!Dr!Lluís!Mas!to!discuss!the!methodological!approach!and!the!
analysis!categories.!!
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3. Literature!Review!
The!study!of!how! youth!are!represented! in!television!fiction!can! be!undertaken!from!
the!perspective!of!research!that!studies!fiction!programmes!alongside!other!television!
shows! in! terms! of! their! depiction! of! youth! and/or! adolescents.! Another! approach! is!
that!of!research!into!specific!fiction!programmes.!!
For! the! first! approach,! studies! of! the! depiction! of! youth! in! primetime! programming!
predominate!(Heintz-Knowles,!2000;!Signorielli,!1987).!The!study!of!young!characters'!
sexual! behaviour! has! been! of! significant! interest,! not! only! social,! but! also! academic!
(Aubrey,! 2004;! Meyer,! 2003;! Ward,! 1995).! The! study! of! characters! from! a! gender!
perspective! is! also! of! high! interest! in! much! research,! especially! regarding! specific!
aspects! like! the! depiction! of! bodies! (Barriga,! Shapiro! and! Jhaveri,! 2009;! Fouts! and!
Burggraf,!2000;! Fouts!and! Vaughan,!2002;! Robinson,!Callister! and!Jankoski,! 2008),!as!
well! as! general! aspects! (Glascock,! 2001;! Lauzen,! Dozier! and! Horan,! 2008;! Signorielli!
and!Bacue,!1999).!!
The! contributions! of! fiction! studies! and! youth! studies! have! come,! albeit! to! a! lesser!
degree,! from! the! analysis! of! specific! case! studies! of! television! shows.! Some!
noteworthy!studies!include!those!by!Davis!and!Dickinson!(2004)!concerning!teen'series'
from!the!1990s!and!those!by!Ross!and!Stein!(2008)!also!concerning!teen!series,!as!well!
as!other!studies!focused!on!specific!titles.!!
In!Spain,! some!outstanding! studies!include! the!analysis! of!gender! stereotypes!in! two!
Spanish!series!by! Galán-Fajardo!(2007),! the!study! by!Belmonte!and! Guillamón!(2008)!
about!gender!stereotypes!in!the!series!most! frequently!viewed!by!Spanish!youth,!the!
study! by! Ramajo! et! al.! (2008)! on! teen! representations! on! primetime! television! in!
Spain,! the! study! by! Guarinos! (2009)! about! prototypical! representations! of! teens! in!
fiction!products!broadcast!in!Spain!and!targeted! at!a!young!audience,!and!the!sitcom!
study!carried!out!by!Grandío-Pérez!and!Pedro-González!(2009).!!
The!majority!of!studies!of!the!representation!of!adolescence!on!television,!which!have!
focused! especially! on! fiction! programmes,! have! emphasised! the! propagation! of!
traditional!and!stereotypical!roles!(Aubrey,!2004;!Belmonte!and!Guillamón!2008;!Davis!
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and! Dickinson,! 2004;! Heintz-Knowles;! 2000;! Galán-Fajardo,! 2007;! García-Muñoz! and!
Fedele,!2011c;!Meyer;!2003;!Ramajo!et!al.,!2008;!Guarinos,!2009;!Rodrigo!and!Medina,!
2009;!Signorielli,!1987).!!
A!relevant!fact!emerges! regarding,!specifically,!the! variable!gender”.!Social! roles!are!
significantly!different:!female!characters!are!primarily!depicted!in!terms!of!their!family!
responsibilities!and!most!often!involved! in!situations!involving!love,!family! or!friends;!
while! male! characters! are! more! frequently! identified! with! their! professional! roles!
(Lauzen,!Dozier!and!Horan,!2008;!Signorielli!and!Bacue,!1999,!among!others).!
Female! characters! are! often! less! frequently! seen,! or! fewer! in! number,! than! male!
characters!(Signorielli!and!Bacue!1999).!Furthermore,!the!women!portrayed!tend!to!be!
younger! than! the! men! (Signorielli! and! Bacue! 1999),! thin! and! provocatively! dressed!
(Fouts!and!Burggraf,!2000;!Barriga,!Shapiro!and!Jhaveri,!2009),!and!occupying!positions!
or!showing!attitudes!which! are!weaker!or!submissive,! while!men!tend!to! be!stronger!
and!more!powerful! (Mastro!and! Ortiz,!2008).! Other!studies! have!shown! that! women!
tend!to!be!depicted!more!often!as!victims!of!male!violent! episodes,!and!men!tend!to!
be!shown!as!aggressors!(Fernández-Villanueva!et!al.,!2009)!or!as!individuals!with!more!
propensities!towards!aggression!(Scharrer,!2001).!!!
It! has! been! demonstrated! that,! in! recent! decades,! the! representation! of! female!
characters! in! television! programs! has! improved,! and! that! the! presence! of! women!
“behind! the! camera”! is! contributing! to! this! improvement,! at! least! as! regards! fiction!
programmes! (Lauzen,! Dozier! and! Cleveland,! 2006).! Furthermore,! the! case! study!
carried!out!by!Dr!Fedele,!focusing!on!characters!in!the!US!teen!series!H2I1$(J1'G%""K,'
demonstrated! that! new! youth! models! and! identities,! which! are! more! complex!
(especially! psychologically)! and! more! egalitarian! in! terms! of! gender,! have! made!
headway!on!occasion!(García-Muñoz!and!Fedele,!2011c).!!
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4. Objectives!and!Methodology!
The!main! project!objective! has! been! to! identify!models! and!stereotypes! surrounding!
teen! characters! depicted! in! the! most! current! teen! series,! in! order! to! describe! the!
youth!identities!they!transmit!to!their!young! viewers,!through!programmes!produced!
specially! for! them.! Above! all,! the! question! addressed! was! whether! the!
abovementioned! gender! and! age! stereotypes! continued! to! be! perpetuated,! or! if!
recent!products!are!offering!new!social!models.!!
Specifically,!the!project!involved!a!series!of!sub-objectives:!!
- Survey!the!principle!teen!series!available!to!Spanish!audiences,!both!on!traditional!
broadcast!television!and!on!digital!platforms!(computers!and!mobile!phones);!
- Conceptualise! the! main! characteristics! of! current! teen! series! by! analysing!
characters!and!plots;!
- Contribute!to! the! theoretical! definition! and!analysis! of! the! teen!series! television!
format;!
- Identify!similarities!and!differences!between!teen!series!from!different!countries;!
- Identify!similarities!and!differences!between!characters!in!teen!series!produced!in!
different!countries;!
- Identify! physical,! sociodemographic! and! psychological! characteristics! of!
youth/adolescent! characters! depicted! in! the! teen! series! available! to! Spanish!
audiences;!
- Identify!principal!themes!in!series!storylines!and!plots!and!in!the!conflicts!in!which!
characters!are!involved;!
- Analyse!the!attitude!and!role!of!characters!within!the!plots!and!conflicts!depicted;!
- Analyse!youth!archetypes!present!in!the!diversity!of!teen!series!analysed;!
- Analyse!the!locations!in!which!these!characters!tend!to!be!shown.!
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The! methodological! design! of! the! study! included! the! following! phases,! developed!
throughout!the!two-year!postdoctoral!fellowship!(Table!1.!Calendar):!
1) Phase!1.!State!of!the!art!and!sample!selection,!involving!four!sub-phases:!
1.1. H"4"5$#E"(&'$6'&)"'&)"$%"&7.25' 6%2E"I$%K'$6'&)"'1&;AM.!This! sub-phase!
was! carried! out! during! the! first! few! months! of! the! fellowship! (October-
December!2012),!with!a!focus!on!the!presentation!of!teen!characters!in!the!
television!fiction! products.!Existing! Spanish!and! international!studies! were!
analysed!which!had!been!published!in!prestigious!journals,!available!on!the!
databases! ISI! Web! of! Knowledge,! Sage! Journals! Online,! EBSCO! Journals,!
Scopus!SciVerse,!In-Recs,!Dice! and!Carhus!Plus.! The!main!search!keywords!
were!the!following:!2A$5"1."(&1,!&""(2<"%1,!&""('1"%7"1,!.)2%2.&"%,'.)2%2.&"%'
#$%&%2M25,!.)2%2.&"%' %"#%"1"(&2&7$(,!2A$5"1."(&"1,! -34"("1,!1"%7"1' -;4"(75"1,!
#"%1$(2-",! %"#%"1"(&2.73(' A"' #"%1$(2-",! 7E2<"(' A"' #"%1$(2-",! among!
others.! Additionally,! previous! studies! done! by! members! of! the! host!
research! group! were! analysed,! and! the! researchers! were! personally!
consulted!(Carrillo,!Jiménez-Morales!and!Sánchez,!2011;!Carrillo,!Hernández!
and! Jiménez-Morales,! 2011;! Figueras-Maz,! Mauri-De! Los! Ríos! and!
Rodríquez-Martínez,! 2013;! Gómez-Puertas,! 2011;! Masanet,! Medina-Bravo!
and!Ferrés,!2012;!Mauri-De!Los!Ríos!and!Figueras-Maz,!2012;!Medina-Bravo!
and!Rodrigo,!2009;!Ramajo!et!al.,!2008).!!
1.2. LN#5$%2&7$('$6'O#2(71)'2(A',O'&"5"4717$('1.)"A;5"1'6$%'&)"'.)$1"('12E#5"'
#"%7$A'PQRRSTQRUQV,!in!order!to!identify!the!most!relevant!titles!belonging!to!
the! teen! series! format.! This! sub-phase! was! carried! out! in! January! and!
February!2013,!in!parallel!with!the!one!described!in!point!1.3.!In!the!case!of!
Spanish! television! networks,! both! generalist! and! youth! not-for-pay!
channels!were!considered!(i.e.,!DTT!channels).!
1.3. LN#5$%2&7$('$6' $(57("'%"W%$2A.21&7(<' 1"%47."1' 242752W5"'7(' O#27(!(official!
sites!of!TV!channels!and!streaming!or!downloading!sites)!in!order!to!identify!
the!most!relevant!titles!in!the!teen!series!format.!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
14!
1.4. O"5".&7$(' $6' 2' %"#%"1"(&2&74"' 12E#5"' $6' &""(' 1"%7"1' 2(A' "#71$A"1! to! be!
analysed!from!the!50+!titles!identified!in!sub-phases!1.2! and!1.3.!This!sub-
phase! was! implemented! in! March! 2013.! The! 40! teen! series! analysed! in!
point!3!were!selected!in!this!phase.!In!the!end,!it!was!decided!to!include!a!
few!British!series,!given!their!presence!in!schedules!and!impact!on!Spanish!
audiences.! Annex! 1! lists! the! forty! titles! selected! in! this! sub-phase! and!
analysed! in! Phase! 3! (analysis! of! the! teen! series! format).! Additionally,!
following!the!analysis!of!the! teen!series!format!(point! 3),!the!twenty!most!
representative! teen! series! for! the! analysis! of! characters! and! storylines!
(points!4/5!and!6)!were!selected:!five!were!Spanish,!ten!were!from!the!US,!
and!five!were!British.!For!each!of!these!series,!three!episodes!were!chosen!
from! their! first! season.! Characters! were! analysed! based! on! their!
development!throughout!the!selected!episodes!(mixed-methods!analysis!of!
the! characters! and! the! storylines,! respectively! in! points! 4/5! and! 6).!
Storylines!and!plots!were!analysed!based!on!the!conflicts!present!in!one!of!
the!three!selected!episodes.!Annex!2!lists!the!twenty!teen!series!analysed!in!
phases!4,!5!and!6.!!
2) Phase!2.! Preparation!and!piloting!of!the! instruments!of!analysis.!Databases!were!
prepared!in!SPSS,!including!descriptions!and!definitions!related!to!the!variables!to!
be!analysed.!Three!coding!books!for!quantitative!analysis!were!prepared!(Annexes!
4,! 5! and! 6),! and! an! analysis! notebook! was! kept! for! the! qualitative! analysis! of!
protagonists’!development!in!the!analysed!teen! series.!In!April!2013,!pilot!studies!
were! performed! on! the! US! teen! series! X"M$(A' &)"' X%"2K' (known! as! O;%6' <7%51' in!
Spain),!available!in!streaming,!but!it! was! removed!from!the!sample!in!phases! 4,!5!
and! 6! because! it! had! not! been! broadcast! in! its! entirety! on! publicly! available!
Spanish!channels!during!the!2008-2012!period.!!!
3) Phase!3.!Mixed-methods! analysis!of!the! teen! series!format! available! in!Spain! on!
broadcast!television! and! the! Internet! between!2008-2012,! according! to!elements!
like! genre,! format,! themes,! characters,! programming! strategy! and! transmedia!
strategy.!As!mentioned!in!point!1.4,!40!teen!series!(Spain,!US!and!UK)!were!chosen!
for!analysis! according! to! variables! like! channel! and! programming! slot,! genre! and!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
15!
microgenre! (following! the! Euromonitor! classification! as! described! by! Prado! and!
Delgado!2010),!number,!sex!and!ages!of!protagonists!(tweens,!adolescents,!youth,!
young! adults),! individual! or! group! protagonism,! locations! most! often! depicted,!
transmedia/multi-screen/crossmedia! strategy! (DVD,! streaming! availability! on!
official!website,!social!network!presence,!merchandising,!among!other!things).!This!
phase!was!implemented!in!May!and!June!2013,!partially!overlapping!with!point!4.!!!
4) Phase! 4.! Quantitative! content! analysis! for! the! first! of! the! two! project! analysis!
units! (characters):! analysis! of! the! protagonists! of! the! 20! teen! series! selected,! in!
order!to!measure!different!variables,!among!which!the!most!important!were:!
Physical! characteristics! of! the! characters! (based! on! García-Muñoz! and!
Fedele,!2011b!and!2011c;!Madrigal-Fritsch!et!al.,!1999);!
Sociodemographic!characteristics!of!the!characters!(based!on!García-Muñoz!
and!Fedele,!2011b!and!2011c);!
Psychological! characteristics! of! the! characters! (based! on! the! “big! five”!
model! by! McCrae! and! Costa,! 1999)! and! youth! archetypes! (own! proposal!
based!on!film!and!television!industry!categories)!
As!mentioned! above,! the! analysis! of!characters! was! based! on! a!viewing! of! three!
episodes!from!the!first!season!of!the!20!most!representative!teen!series!from!the!
sample,! which! were! chosen!beginning! in! phase! 3.! The! study! focused! on! the!
protagonists!of!each!teen!series,!which!belonged!to!an!age!range!representative!of!
the!teen!and! young!population:!tweens! (10-13!years!old),! teens!(14-19!years!old)!
and!youth!(20-25! years! old),!a!category! which!is!currently! quite!present!in! recent!
titles,!as!was!shown!in!phase!3.!Phase!4!was!implemented!in!June,!July!and!August!
2013.!!Annex!3!includes!the!list!of!characters!analysed!in!phases!4!and!6.!
5) Phase! 5.! Qualitative! analysis! of! teen! series! characters'! development! over! a!
season.!For!this! phase,!two!case! studies! were!chosen,!one! Spanish!(L5'X2%.$)! and!
one!from!the!US! (C)"'Y2E#7%"'H72%7"1).! This! choice!was!made! in!accordance!with!
the!following!aspects,!analysed!in!phase!3:!!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
16!
Very!recent!programmes!(L5'X2%.$!ended!in!2013,!while!the!fifth!season!of!
C)"'Y2E#7%"'H72%7"1!will!be!broadcast!in!2015);!!
Diversity!of!genres!(the!first!is!a!series!and!the!second!is!a!serial,!at!least!in!
the! first! season);! diversity! of! microgenres! (Thriller/Suspense! and!
Fantasy/Science!Fiction,!respectively);!
High!number!of!main!characters!in!the!study's!target!age!range,!teens!and!
youth!(7!for!the!former!and!9!for!the!latter);!!!
Group! protagonism,! strong! protagonism! of! the! teen! group! and! dramatic!
importance!given!to!young!characters;!
Relevant!transmedia!strategy.!!
All! episodes! of! the! first! season! of! these! programs! were! viewed! between!
September! and! December! 2013,! in! order! to! analyse! in-depth! the! personalities,!
values!and!behaviours!of!their!protagonists.!! A!file!was!kept!on!each!character! in!
the!analysis!notebook!in!order!to!track!each!character's!development.!!
6) Phase! 6.! Qualitative! content! analysis! for! the! second! of! the! two! analysis! units!
mentioned!above,!storylines!and!plots!shown!in!teen!series,! in!order!to!measure!
various!variables!(based!on!García-Muñoz!and!Fedele,!2011a),!including:!
Themes!of!the!storylines!shown,!
Types!of!conflicts!shown,!!
Types!of!conflict!resolution,!
Character!narrative!role! in!resolving! the!conflict! (based!on!Greimas,! 1966;!
Luzón-Fernández!et!al.,!2009).!!
This!phase!was!implemented!in!January!and!February!2014.!
7) Phase! 7.! Triangulation.! Analysis! and! cross-checking! of! data! obtained.! This! phase!
consisted! of! quantitative! analysis! carried! out! with! SPSS! as! with! the! qualitative!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
17!
analysis!of!the!list!of! characters,!which!was!done!with!the!program!Atlas.ti.!It!was!
carried!out!between!March!and!July!2014,!ending!with!results!cross-checking.!
8) Phase! 8.!Writing! of! the! final! report.! This! final! report! was! written! in! August! and!
September!2014.!
9) Phase! 9.!Dissemination.! In! parallel! with! the! various! abovementioned! phases,!
project! results! were! shared! in! two! international! conferences! (Fedele,! 2014a! and!
2014b):!one!in!January!2014!(IV!Congreso!Internacional!de!la!Sociedad!Española!de!
Investigación! en! Comunicación! [4th! International! Conference! of! the! Spanish!
Society!of!Communications!Research])!and!another!in!November!2014!(5th!ECREA!
European!Communication!Conference!Lisboa!20141.!!
Table'1.'Calendar'
!!!!!!!!!!!!!Month!
PHASE!1!
PHASE!2!
PHASE!3!
PHASE!4!
PHASE!5!
PHASE!6!
PHASE!7!
PHASE!8!
PHASE!9!
1.1.!Theoretical!
framework!
1.2.!Exploration!
schedules!
1.3.!Exploration!
streaming!
Pilot!
Analysis!teen!series!
format!
Quantitative!analysis!
Characters!
Qualitative!analysis!
Characters!
Quantitative!analysis!
Storylines!
Triangulation!
Report!
Dissemination!
10/12!
X!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
11/12!
X!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
12/12!
X!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
01/13!
!
X!
X!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
02/13!
!
X!
X!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
03/13!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1!Part!of!the!Project!results!have!been!spread!and!published!after!the!two-years-grant:!!
- Fedele,!M.!(2015).!Slim!and!curvy!girls,!slim!and!muscular! boys:!adolescents’!portrayals!in! current!teen!series!
broadcast!in!Spain.!ECREA!Gender!&!Communication!Symposium!2015.!Tarragona,!Spain.!!!
- Fedele,! M.,! and! Jiménez-Morales,! M.! (2016).! Delgadas,! a! la! moda! y! responsables:! representación! de! las!
adolescentes!en!las!series!juveniles!emitidas!en!España.!V!Congreso!Internacional!AE-IC!Madrid!2016.!Madrid,!
Spain.!!
- Masanet,! M-J,! and! Fedele,! M.! (2019).! El! ‘chico! malote’! y! la! ‘chica! responsable’.! Adolescencia,! modelos!
aspiracionales!y!teen!series!españolas.!Z252W%2'G524",!22(2),!1-27!!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
18!
04/13!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
05/13!
!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
!
!
!
!
06/13!
!
!
!
!
X!
X!
!
!
!
!
!
07/13!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
!
!
!
08/13!
!
!
!
!
!
X!!!
!
!
!
!
!
09/13!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
!
!
10/13!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
!
!
11/13!
!
!
!
!
!
!!
X!
!
!
!
!
12/13!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
!
!
01/14!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
X!
02/14!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
!
03/14!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
04/14!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
!!
!
05/14!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
06/14!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
07/14!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
!
!
08/14!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
X!
09/14!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
X!
X!
!
!
! !
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
19!
5. RESULTS!
5.1.!Analysis!of!the!teen!series!format!
The! 40! titles! chosen! throughout! the! first! phase! of! the! methodological! design! are!
distributed!as!follows,!by!country!of!origin:!
- 10! Spanish! programmes! (25%):! L5' [(&"%(2A$' (Antena3,! 2007-2010),! US!HG'
(*(&"(2\,!2008-2009),!@]17.2'$'^;]E7.2'(*(&"(2\,!2008-2011),!_RT`RT_R'(*(&"(2\,!
2009),!L5'#2.&$'(C"5".7(.$,!2010),!a$'1$M'.$E$'&b'(*(&"(2\,!2010),!0$1'Z%$&"<7A$1'
(*(&"(2\,! 2010-2012),! c(<"5' $' A"E$(7$' (C"5".7(.$,! 2011),! L5' W2%.$' (*(&"(2\,!
2011-2013),!Z$51"%21'Y"%E"55"1'(CY\,!2011-2013).!
- 24! US! programmes! (60%):! C)"' F75E$%"' F7%51' (dX,! 2000-2007),! OE2554755"' (dX,!
2001-2011),!C)"'e>G>!(@$N,!2003-2007),!e("' C%""'f755'(dX,!2003-2012),!076"'21' I"'
K($I' 7&' (*XG,! 2004-2005),! Y"%$(7.2' ?2%1' (,Za,! 2004-2007),! O$;&)' $6' a$I)"%"'
(C""(a7.K,!2005-2008),!X"M$(A'&)"'W%"2K'(C)"'a,!2006-2009),!gM5"'h:'(*XG'@2E75M,!
2006-2009),! @%7A2M' a7<)&' 07<)&1' (aXG,! 2006-2011),! F$117#' <7%5' (C)"' Gd,! 2007-
2012),!C"%E7(2&$%i'&)"'O2%2)'G$(($%'.)%$(7.5"1'(@$N,!2008-2009),!_RQUR!(C)"'Gd,!
2008-2013),!C)"'1".%"&'576"'$6'&)"'*E"%7.2('&""(2<"%'(*XG'@2E75M,!2008-2013),!UR'
&)7(<1'[')2&"'2W$;&'M$;'(*XG'@2E75M,!2009-2010),!?2K"'7&'$%'W%"2K'7&!(*XG'@2E75M,!
2009-2012),! F5""' (@$N,! 2009-),! C)"' 42E#7%"' A72%7"1' (C)"' Gd,! 2009-),! Z%"&&M' 57&&5"'
572%1'(*XG'@2E75M,!2010-),!OK7(1',O'(?CY,!2011),'C)"!a7("' 574"1'$6'G)5$"'g7(<'(*XG'
@2E75M,!2011),! C)"' 1".%"&'.7%.5"' (C)"' Gd,! 2011),! *KI2%A' (?CY,!2011-),! C""('I$56'
(?CY,!2011-).!!!!!
- 6! British! programmes! (15%):! OK7(1' (L+,! 2007-2013),! X%7&2((72' f7<)' ([CY,! 2008),!
?"%57(' (XXG' e(",! 2008-2012),! H"E$(1' (ITV,! 2009),! ?7167&1! (L+,! 2009-),! Z%"E62."'
(XXG'C)%"",!2012-2013).!
Of!these,!10%!(four!programmes)!were!not!broadcast!on!Spanish!channels!during!the!
five-year!period! analysed,! but! were! readily! available! to! audiences! on! streaming! and!
downloading!websites.!!
The!original! broadcast!of! the!teen! series!analysed! occurred!between! the!years! 2000!
and!2013;! the! oldest! was!C)"' F75E$%"' F7%51! (US)! and! the! most!recent! was! Z%"E62."'
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
20!
(UK).!Both!the!number!of!seasons!and!the!number!of!episodes!vary!widely!depending!
on!genre!and! country!of! production.!For!example,! the!Spanish! fantasy!miniseries!a$'
1$M'.$E$'&b!only!contained!two!episodes,!while!the!US!science!fiction!series!OE2554755"!
contained!218!episodes!over!10!seasons.!!
Episode! duration! also! varies! enormously,! especially! between! countries,! from! 20!
minutes!for!comedy!series!like!*IKI2%A'to!115!minutes!for!the!Spanish!drama!_RT`RT
_R.!!!
As! regards! production,! the! US! companies! d2%("%' X%$1!(8! titles),! *XG! (6! titles)! and!
?CY'Z%$A;.&7$(1!(4! titles)!lead!the! list!in!teen! series!production.! Broadcast!channels!
showed! more! variety,! since! each! production! company! possesses! various! television!
channels!to!reach!a! teen! audience.!For!example,!d2%("%' X%$1!broadcasts!teen!series!
on! C)"' dX,! C)"' Gd! and! ,Za;! *XG! broadcasts! theirs! on! *XG! and! (especially)! *XG'
@2E75M;!and!?CY'Z%$A;.&7$(1!broadcasts!on!?CY,!C""(a7.K!and!C)"'a.!!
The!situation!is!more!balanced!in!the!UK:!two!of!the!six!titles!analysed!were!broadcast!
on! public! television! (XXG' e("! and! XXG' C)%""),! two! were! broadcast! on! the! private!
channel! [CY,! and! two! were! broadcast! on! L+,! a! private! channel! of! the! G)2(("5' @$;%'
C"5"4717$('G$%#$%2&7$(.!The!production!companies!vary!in!each!case.!!
In!Spain,!on!the!other!hand,!the!channel!*(&"(2\!broadcasts!the!majority!of!local!teen!
series! (7! of! 10).! However,! this! production! is! outsourced! to! various! Spanish! audio-
visual!production!companies,!including!F5$W$E"A72!and![A2'M'4;"5&2.!If!we!also!include!
US! and! UK! series! broadcast! in! Spain,! the! *&%"1E"A72!group! (*(&"(2\! and! a"$N)!
broadcasts! 22.5%! of! the! teen! series! in! the! sample,! followed! by! the! group!?"A721"&'
L1#2j2!(C"5".7(.$!and!G;2&%$)!and!?CY'L1#2j2,!with!17.5%!each,!and!!CYL!(02Q!and!
G52(CY)!at!12.5%.!Regional!channels!(CY\!in!Catalonia,!G2(25'O;%!in!Andalusia!and!LCX!
in!the!Basque! Country)!each! broadcast!4! of!the!titles! analysed!(10%),! as!did! the!for-
pay!channels!mentioned!above.!It!is!also!worth!emphasizing!that!part!of!the!weight!of!
the! *&%"1E"A72! group! is! due! to! the! fact! that! a"$N! has! broadcast! titles! which! were!
already! premiered! on! other! channels,! as! with! their! own! 0$1' Z%$&"<7A$1! (*(&"(2\,!
2010-2012),!CY\'s!Z$51"%"1'Y"%E"55"1,!C)"'e>G>!(US),!which!premiered!in!Spain!on!G52('
CY,!and!e("'C%""'f755!(C)"'dX,!2003-2012,!which!premiered!in!Spain!on!02Q).!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
21!
Regarding!the!programming!slot!in!which!they!were!originally!broadcast,!the!majority!
of!the!teen!series!analysed!(65%)!appeared!during!prime!time,!22.5%!were!broadcast!
in!the!late!fringe,!and!7.5%!were!broadcast!in!the!early!fringe.!The!remaining!5%!were!
broadcast!in!a!variety!of!programming!slots.!!
Regarding! genre,! series! predominate! (62.5%),! especially! for! US! (70.8%)! and! UK!
(83.3%)! products,! followed! by! serials! (30%),! the! format! used! by! half! of! the! Spanish!
products!(50%),! and,! in!last! place,! miniseries! (7.5%),!in! the! case!of! two! Spanish! and!
one!British!production.!!
The!most!frequent!microgenres!are!drama!(40%)!and!fantasy/science! fiction!(32.5%),!
which!illustrates!two!typical!tendencies!in!teen!series!formats,!the!use!of!both!realism!
and!fantasy!metaphors!to!narrate!adolescence.!!!!!
Regarding!the!type!of!protagonism!of!the!40!series!analysed,!one!fourth!of!them!have!
only! one! protagonist,! while! the! rest! feature! a! group! of! protagonists.! On! the! other!
hand,!the!number!of!main!characters,!378!in!total,!varies!from!6!to!18!per!series;!188!
are!male!and!190!are!female! (although!there!are!up!to!10! male!main!characters!in!a!
single!series!against!8!female).!!!
Regarding! the! age! ranges! of! main! characters,! as! expected,! teenagers! predominate!
(59.8%).!
Indeed,! narrative! protagonism! for! teenagers! is! prevalent! in! 85%! of! the! teen! series!
studied,!especially! in! products!from! the! US!(only! in! one!do! teens! share!protagonism!
with!other!age!groups).!On!the!other!hand,!in!37.4%!of!cases!other!young!age!groups!
(youth!proper!as!well!as!young!adults)!also!have!significant!narrative!importance!in!the!
stories!narrated,!although!this!does!not!mean!teens!lose!their!protagonism.!!
Regarding!locations,!they!were!analysed!according!to!the!screen!minutes!of!a!random!
episode! from! each! series.! The! most! frequent! ones! are! domestic! (almost! 40%)! and!
educational! (schools! and! various! other! educational! centres)! (30.5%),! even! if! public!
spaces!(streets,!squares,!forests)!are!quite!present!too!(14.3%).!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
22!
Lastly,! it! bears! mentioning! that! various! cross-media! distribution! and! 360º! marketing!
strategies!have!been! implemented!for! most!of! the! titles!analysed,! increasingly!so! for!
more!recent!productions:!!!!
- Official!DVDs!(95%);!
- Official!websites!(70%);!
- Streaming!availability!on!the!official!website!(50%);!
- Social!network!presence!(Facebook,!Twitter,!etc.)!(47.5%);!
- Official!merchandising!(52.5%);!
- Smartphone!apps!(20%);!
- Official!videogames!(15%);!!
- Official!newsletter!(10%);!
- Other!(board! games,! books,! spinoffs,!blogs,! comics,! webisodes,! TV!specials,! CDs,!
among!others).!!!
!
!
! !
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
23!
5.2. Analysis!of!teen!characters!
A!total!of!130!protagonists!were!analysed!from!the!20!teen!series!selected!for!phases!4!
and! 6.! Three! variable! types! were! measured! for! these! characters:! physical,!
sociodemographic!and!psychological!characteristics.!
Regarding!physical! characteristics,! a! small! difference! in! gender! was! observed:!53.1%!
were! male! and! 46.9%! female.! As! in! previous! studies,! female! characters! were!
underrepresented! in! comparison! to! male! characters.! Regarding! age,! given! that! the!
only! ranges! considered! were! tween! (10-13),! teen! (14-19)! and! youth! (20-25),! the!
characters!analysed!were!distributed!as!followed:!0.8%!tweens,!88.5%!teen!and!10.8%!
youth.! As! for! race,! there! is! a! clear! predominance! of! Caucasian! (84.6%),! followed!
distantly!by!black!(6.9%),!Latino!(3.1%)!and!Asian!(5.4%).!As!in!previous!studies,!white!
people!are!overrepresented!in!television!shows.!
As! for! physical! build,! thin! figures! abound! (39.2%),! especially! for! female! characters!
(p<0.001):! more! than! half! of! female! characters! are! thin.! Although! 36.9%! of! the!
characters! analysed! have! average! builds,! heavyset! (2.3%)! and! very! heavyset! (0.8%)!
builds!are! underrepresented.! Remaining! characters! match!two! categories! created!2A'
)$.'for!this!analysis:!muscular!(16.9%),!nearly!exclusively!male,!and!“thin!with!curves”!
(3.8%),! a! category! associated! to! female! characters,! often! Latinas.! The! majority! of!
characters! (43.8%)! dress! casually! (jeans! or! slacks! with! informal! t-shirts)! or! trendily!
(following! fashion)! (24.6%),! the! latter! category! associated! largely! with! female!
characters! (p=0,017).! Also! of! note! is! that! one! fifth! of! characters! wore! some! type! of!
uniform!(usually! for! school),! although,! qualitatively,! it! seemed! that! most! adapt! their!
uniform!to!their!personal!style!(more!classic,!more!trendy,!more!casual,!etc.).!
Regarding! sociological! traits,! upper! and! upper-middle! class! characters! were!
overrepresented! (36.2%),! with! 41.5%! middle! class.! What! is! more,! hardly! 10%! of!
characters! seemed! to! have! financial! problems.! Regarding! family! configurations,!
traditional!nuclear!families!(parents!with!one!or!more!children)!remain!predominant!at!
43.8%.!One! fifth! of! the! characters,! on! the!other! hand,! live! with! one! parent! (with!or!
without! siblings),! while! 6.2%! live! with! other! family! members.! 18.5%! live! in! a! hall! of!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
24!
residence/boarding! school/dormitory! or! similar! lodging,! while! the! rest! live! in! other!
situations!(for!example,!in!an!apartment!shared!with!peers,!or!alone).!
Only! 3.8%! of! the! sample! is! homosexual;! the! majority! is! heterosexual.! Of! the!
homosexual!minority,!only! one!character! is!a!girl.! Regarding!free!time! pursuits!(what!
characters!do!when!not!working!or!studying),!a!large!majority!pursues!social!relations!
(68.5%):!in! other! words,! going! out!with! friends! or! girl/boyfriends! and! spending!time!
with!family.!!
Lastly,!regarding!psychological!characteristics,!the!“big!five”!model!(McCrae!and!Costa,!
1999)! was! used! to! assign! a! dominant! trait! to! each! character,! followed! by! numerical!
values!(1=very!strongly!disagree,!5=very!strongly!agree)!for!each!remaining!personality!
dimension.!Results!show!a!greater!presence!of!characters!with!agreeableness!(28.5%)!
as! their! dominant! trait,! followed! by! neuroticism! (26.9%),! extroversion! (21.5%),!
openness! to! experience! (17.7%)! and! conscientiousness! (5.4%).! Statistical! analysis! of!
the!scales!of! secondary!traits!paints! a!much!more! nuanced! picture!of!the! characters,!
who!often!seem!to!possess!high!degrees!of!apparently!contradictory!personality!traits.!
Means!(x)!and!modes!(M)!for!the!five!traits!are!shown!in!Table!2.!!
Table'2.'Personality'Traits'Means'and'Modes'
Personality!Trait!
Mean!(x)!
Mode!(M)!
Agreeableness!
3.45!
4!
Extroversion!
3.12!
4!
Neuroticism!
3.01!
1!
Openness!to!experience!
2.98!
1!
Conscientiousness!
2.72!
1!
!
Surprisingly,!there!are!no!significant! gender!differences!regarding!these!psychological!
variables,! except! for! conscientiousness,! where! female! characters! scored! higher!
(p=0,001),!that!means,!they!tend!to!be!more!responsible!than!male!characters.!!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
25!
Lastly,! based! on! typical! categories! from! the! English-speaking! film! and! TV! industry,!
various!youth! archetypes! were! attributed!to! the! characters! in! the! sample,! and! were!
distributed!as!follows:!
a) Male!archetypes:!
- The!good!guy!(13.8%);!
- The!rebel!(12.3%)!
- The!jock!(10.8%)!
- The!funny!guy!(6.2%)!
b) Female!archetypes:!
- The!beauty!(13.1%)!
- The!popular!girl!(11.5%)!
- The!independent!girl!(6.9%)!
- The!basket!case!(5.4%)!
- The!honours!student!(4.6%)!
- The!best!friend!(2.3%)!
c) Gender-neutral!archetypes:!
- The!geek!(11.5%)!
- The!manipulator!(1.5%)!
The!qualitative!phase!of!the!study!helped!nuance!these!results,!especially!in!the!case!
of! the! US! series! analysed'(C)"' Y2E#7%"' H72%7"1),! since,! within! the! span! of! a! season,!
most! characters! develop! and! show! rather! complex! personalities,! which! often!
contradict! the! youth! archetypes! set! by! the! audio-visual! industry.! Nonetheless,! the!
complexity! of! characters! from! C)"' Y2E#7%"' H72%7"1! was! greater! than! that! of! those!
from! L5' X2%.$,! who! were! both! flatter! and! often! less! inclined! to! develop! in! complex!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
26!
ways.! A! clear! example! is! the! character! Caroline! Forbes! (C)"' Y2E#7%"' H72%7"1),! who!
initially!matches!the!popular!girl!archetypes,!but!turns!out!to!be!deep,!responsible!and!
very!kind!to!her!friends!and!others,!showing!concern!and!responsibility!for!them,!and!
who!is!often!the!one!to!solve!their!problems.!Another!example!is!Matt!Donovan,!the!
jock!of!the!series,!who!breaks!the!typical!archetype!of!the!athlete,!for!being!a!caring,!
loving!and!sensitive!boy.!!
Those! that! do! not! develop! much! are! female! characters! matching! the! beauty! type.!
Both! Ainhoa! (L5' X2%.$)! and! Elena! (C)"' Y2E#7%"' H72%7"1)! are! shown! as! pretty,!
responsible,!concerned!for!others,!highly!loyal!and!generous,!and!they!do!not!change.!
They! are! always! the! “good! characters”! and! often! have! to! deal! with! problematic!
boyfriends!(rebels!with!a!high!dose!of!neuroticism),!whom!they!attempt!to!guide!and!
change,! following! their! ethics! and! values.! Also,! these! two! female! heroines! can! be!
considered!a! mixing!between! the! beauty!and! the!honours! student! archetypes,!since!
they!also!are!very!good!students.!The!new!archetype!is!one!of!a!super-princess,!since!
she!is!both!pretty!an!intelligent.!!
On! the! other! hand,! the! mal! heroes! do! not! match! completely! with! the! “good! guy”!
archetype.!Even!if!Stefan!from!C)"'Y2E#7%"'H72%7"1'is!sort!of!a!good!guy,!but!he!is!also!
tormented,!especially!by! his!hunger!for!blood! (he!is!a! “good”!vampire!who! does!not!
want!to!feed!on!humans)!and!by!his!evil!brother!Demon!(a!mixing!of!rebel!and!funny!
guy).! Instead,! Ulises! from! L5' W2%.$' is! a! clear! example! of! rebel! and! troubled! boy,!
impulsive!and!violent,!but!with!a!good!heart!for!the!people!he!loves.!!
Both!series!perpetuate!the!romantic! ideal!of!love,!as! well!as!the!narrative!pattern! of!
the! redemptive! love,! based! in! the! tale! of! the! Beauty! and! the! beats! (Balló! y! Pérez,!
1997).!
In! conclusion,! even! if! new! models! and! stereotypes! appear! both! for! girls! and! boys!
especially!for!their!psychological!traits,! traditional!stereotypes!are!still! present!in!the!
teen!series! analysed! for! the! physical!characteristics.! The! portrayal! of! thin! and!curvy!
girls!and!of!muscular!boys!is!particularly!worrying.!
!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
27!
5.3. !Analysis!of!the!storylines!
Firstly,! regarding! storyline! themes,! interpersonal! relationships! predominate,!
particularly! love!(33.8%),! followed! by! friendship! (8.5%).! In! second! place! come!
intrigue/mystery! storylines! (15.4%),! especially! related! to! certain! microgenres! like!
mystery.! Storylines! related! to! acceptance! come! in! third! place! (12.3%),! and! are!
developed!through!interior!conflict!(p<0,001).!Next!come!family!problems!(10.8%),!sex!
(6.2%),!while!other!themes!add!up!to!under!4%.!!
Secondly,!different! origins! can! be! identified! for! the! conflicts! shown.! A!social! origin! -!
one! connected! to! interpersonal! relationships! -! is! the! most! frequent! (37.7%).! Next!
come!romantic!(19.2%)!and!personal!(19.2%).!Family!can! also!be!a!source!of!conflicts!
(9.2%),!as!can!enemies!(7.7%),!a!category!encompassing!unknown!enemies!which!the!
protagonists!must!struggle!against,!also!a!typical!element!of!mystery!series.!!
As!for!conflict!type,!exterior!conflicts!(56.2%)!predominate,!in!other!words,!those!that!
develop!through!interaction!with!other!characters.!!
Regarding!conflict!resolution,!most!protagonists!tend!to!play!an!active!part!(54.6%):!in!
other! words,! they! are! proactive! and! struggle! to! resolve! conflicts,! even! if! they! make!
mistakes.! Only! 16.2%! are! passive;! the! rest! are! neutral,! a! category! frequently!
associated!with!characters!experiencing!“contextual”!conflicts,!storylines!protagonised!
by!other!characters.!!!
Lastly,!the!narrative!role!of!most!characters!is!that!of!subject!of!action!(57.7%),!which!
corroborates!the!proactivity!of!most!characters!in!conflict!resolution.!!
It!is! interesting! to! note!that! no! significant! genre!differences! were! found! in!narrative!
roles!or!in!the!types!of!conflict!portrayed,!offering!a!more!equal!gender!representation!
in!this!sense.!!
!
! !
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
28!
! !
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
29!
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Working!Behind!the!Scenes!and!On-screen!Portrayals!in!Reality!and!Scripted!Prime-Time!Programming.!
O"N'!$5"1D'55,!445-455.!
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preferencias!televisivas!en!jóvenes!y!adolescentes:!Un!estudio!realizado!en!el!País!Vasco.!!"471&2'02&7(2'
A"'G$E;(7.2.73('O$.725,!62,!53.!
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Maira,!S.,!and!Soep,! E.! (2004).! United!States!of!Adolescence?!Reconsidering!US!Youth!Culture!Studies.!
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publicidad.!O#)"%2'Z;W57.2,!8,!191-212.!!
Ramírez! de! la! Piscina,! T.,! Zarandona,! E.,! Basterretxea,! J.I.,! and! Idoiaga,! P.! (2006).! Estudio! sobre! la!
alfabetización!audiovisual!de!los!adolescentes!vascos:!Recopilatorio!de!actitudes!críticas!y!acríticas.!o"%,!
21,!177-202.!
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sitcoms:!A!content!analysis.!X$AM'[E2<",!5,!141-151.!!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
32!
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NC:!McFarland.!
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Signorielli,! N.! (1987).! Children! and! adolescents! on! television:! A! consistent! pattern! of! devaluation.!
k$;%(25'$6'"2%5M'2A$5"1."(.",!7(3),!255-268.!
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Spigel,!L.,!Olsson,!J.!(2004).!C"5"4717$('26&"%'CYi'"112M1'$('2'E"A7;E'7('&%2(17&7$(.!Duke!University!Press.!!
Von! Feilitzen,! C.! (Ed.)! (2004),! :$;(<' Z"$#5"D' O$2#' e#"%21' 2(A' !"257&M' CY.! Göteborg:! Nordicom,!
Götenborg!University.!!
Ward,! L.!M.! (1995).! Talking! about! sex:! Common! themes! about! sexuality! in! the! prime-time! television!
programs!children!and!adolescents!view!most.!k$;%(25'$6':$;&)'2(A'*A$5"1."(."D!24!(5),!595.!
! !
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
33!
7. Annexes!
7.1. Annex!1.!List!of!the!teen!series!analysed!in!phase!3.!
SPAIN:!
1. Física!o!Química!
2. El!Internado!!
3. Los!Protegidos!
4. El!Barco!
5. Polseres!Vermelles!
6. No!soy!como!tú!
7. 18!
8. 90-60-90!
9. Ángel!o!demonio!
10. El!pacto!
US:!
11. The!Gilmore!girls!
12. The!O.C.!
13. Veronica!Mars!
14. Smallville!
15. KyleXY!
16. Gossip!Girl!
17. 90210!
18. The!secret!life!of!the!American!
teenager!
19. Terminator,!Sarah!Connor’s!
chronicles!
20. Glee!
21. The!vampire!diaries!
22. Teen!wolf!
23. Pretty!Little!Liars!
24. Awkward!
25. One!tree!hill!
26. 10!things!I!hate!about!you!
27. Skins!USLife!as!we!know!it!
28. Life!as!we!know!it!
29. Beyond!the!break!
30. Friday!Night!Lights!
31. Make!it!or!break!it!
32. The!nine!lives!of!Chloe!King!
33. South!of!Nowhere!
34. The!secret!circle'
'
UK:!
35. Skins!
36. Pramface!
37. Britannia!High!
38. Merlin!
39. Misfits!
40. Demons!'
!
!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
34!
7.2. !Annex!2.!List!of!teen!series!analysed!in!phases!4!and!6.!
SPAIN:!
1. Física!o!Química!
2. El!Internado!!
3. Los!Protegidos!
4. El!Barco!
5. Polseres!Vermelles!
US:!
6. Smallville!
7. KyleXY!
8. Gossip!Girl!
9. 90210!
10. The!secret!life!of!the!American!
teenager!
11. Glee!
12. The!vampire!diaries!
13. Teen!wolf!
14. Pretty!Little!Liars!
15. Awkward'
'
UK:!
16. Skins!
17. Pramface!
18. Britannia!High!
19. Merlin!
20. Misfits'
!
!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
35!
7.3. !Annex!3.!List!of!teen!series!characters!analysed.!
Country'
Teen'series!
Character!
Spain!
Física!o!Química!
Yoli!
Fer!
Paula!
Gorka!
Julio!
Ruth!
César!
Cova!
Isaac!
Jan!
El!Internado!
Marcos!
Vicky!
Iván!
Carolina!
Roque!
Los!protegidos!
Culebra!
Sandra!
Lucas!
Claudia!
Leo!
El!Barco!
Ainhoa!
Ulises!
Vilma!
Palomares!
Piti!
Ramiro!
Estela!
Polseres!vermelles!
Lleó!
Jordi!
Ignasi!
Cristina!
Toni!
US!
Smallville!
Clark!
Lana!
Whitney!
Pete!
Chloe!
Lex!
Kyle!XY!
Kyle!
Lory!
Josh!
Declan!
Amanda!
Charlie!
Gossip!girl!
Serena!!
Blair!
Dan!
Nate!
Chuck!
Jenny!
90120!
Annie!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
36!
Dixon!
Navid!
Ethan!
Erin!
Naomi!
Adrianna!
The! secret! life! of! the! American!
teenager!
Amy!
Ashley!
Ben!
Ricky!
Grace!
Jack!
Adrian!
Awkward!
Jenna!
Ming!
Tamara!
Matty!
Jake!
Sadie!
Glee!
Rachel!
Finn!
Quin!
Kurt!
Mercedes!
Puck!
Tina!
Artie!
Santana!
The!Vampire!Diaries!
Elena!
Stefan!
Jeremy!
Bonnie!
Caroline!
Matt!
Tyler!
Vicky!
Damon!!
Anna!
Teen!wolf!
Scott!
Allison!
Stiles!
Lydia!
Jackson!
Derek!!
Pretty!Little!Liars!
Aria!
Spencer!
Anna!
Emily!
Jenna!
Ezra!
Toby!
UK!
Misfits!
Simon!
Nathan!
Curtis!
Kelly!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
37!
Alicia!
Skins!!
Tony!
Sid!
Chris!
Maxxie!
Anwar!
Michelle!
Cassie!
Jal!
Britannia!High!
Lola!
Lauren!
Claudine!
Danny!
Jez!
BB!
Merlin!!
Merlin!
Arthur!!!
Morgana!
Gwen!
Pramface!
Jamie!
Laura!
Mike!
Beth!
Danielle!!
!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
38!
7.4. Annex!4.!Coding!system!for!teen!series!
1) Title!of!the!programme!in!its!original!language!
2) Country!of!origin!(1=Spain;!2=US;!3=UK)!!
3) Years!=!years!of!original!broadcast!YYYY-YYYY)!
4) Production!=!name!of!the!production!company/network!
5) NetworkOR!=!name!of!network!of!the!original!broadcasting!
6) SLOT!of!broadcasting,!according!to!Euromonitor!
!
Spain!
US!
UK!
1.!Early!morning!/!Morning!
7:00-13:30!
7:00-12:00!
6:00-11:30!
2.!Midday!
13:30-15:30!
12:00-16:00!
11:30-14:00!
3.!After!lunch!
15:30-18:00!
14:00-18:30!
4.!Afternoon!/!Early!Fringe!
18:00-20:30!
16:00-20:00!
18:30-20:00!
5.!Prime!time!
20:30-22:30!
20:00-23:00!
20:00-22:30!
6.!Late!night!
22:30-1:00!
23:00-1:00!
22:30-1:00!
7.!Overlap!Prime!time!and!Late!night!!
8.!Overlap!After!lunch!and!Afternoon!
9.!Different!slots!
10.!Overlap!Afternoon!and!Prime!Time!
!
7) ESP!=!broadcast!in!Spain!(1=yes,!2=no)!
8) NetworkESP!=!name!of!the!Spanish!network!of!broadcast!(for!UK!and!US!programmes)!
9) NetworkESPcompany!=!name!of!the!media!company!to!which!the!NetworkESP!belongs!
10) SlotESP!=!slot!of!broadcast!in!Spain!(for!UK!and!US!programmes)!
11) Genre!=!Euromonitor’s!categories!(1=series;!2=serial;!3=sitcom;!4=miniseries)!
12) Microgenre!=!Euromonitor’s!categories!(1=drama;!2=comedy;!3=fantasy/Sci-fi;!4=adventure/action;!
5=musical!comedy;!6=thriller/suspense;!7=horror)!
13) Target!(1=Tweens;!2=!teens;!3=young!adults;!4=!Tweens+teens;!5=teens+young!adults;!6=!
tweens+teens+young!adults;!7=familiar;!8=tweens+teens+adults)!
14) Seasons!=!number!of!seasons!broadcast!until!2012!
15) Episodes!=!number!of!episodes!broadcast!until!2012!
16) Average!duration!of!each!episode!(in!minutes)!
17) NProts!=!number!of!protagonists!
18) NameProts!=names!of!protagonists,!separated!by!comas!
19) NMainCharacters!=!number!of!protagonists!+!main!characters!
20) MenMain!=!number!of!male!main!characters!
21) WomenMain!=!number!of!female!main!characters!
22) TweensMain!=!number!of!tween!main!characters!(10/13!years!old)!
23) TeensPrinc!=!number!of!teen!main!characters!(14/19!years!old)!
24) YoungMain!=!number!of!young!main!characters!(20/25!years!old)!
25) YoungAdultMain!=!number!of!young!adult!main!characters!(25/35!years!old)!
26) OtheragesMain!=!number!of!main!characters!of!other!ages!(adults,!old!people,!children)!
27) TypeProtagonism!(1=Individual;!2=Group/Choral)!
28) WeightYoungAdult!=!narrative!weight!of!young!and!young-adult!characters!(1=yes,!2=no)!
29) ProtagonismTeens!=!narrative!weight!of!teens!compared!to!young!and!young-adult!characters!(1=greater;!
2=equal;!3=lower)!
30) Strategy360DVD!(1=yes,!2=no)!
31) Strategy360WEB!(1=yes,!2=no)!
32) Strategy360SocialNetworks(1=yes,!2=no)!
33) Strategy360Merchandising!(1=yes,!2=no)!
34) Strategy360MobileAPP!(1=yes,!2=no)!
35) Strategy360Magazine!(1=yes,!2=no)!
36) Strategy360Videogame!(1=yes,!2=no)!
37) Strategy360Streaming!(1=yes,!2=no)!
38) Strategy360Other!(1=yes,!2=no)!
39) SpacePUB!=!Outside/Exterior!public!spaces!(urban!and/or!not!urban)!in!minutes!!!!
40) SpaceHOME!=!Domestic!spaces!in!minutes!!!!
41) SpaceSCHOOL!=!Educative!centres!in!minutes!!!!
42) SpaceWORK!=!Work!places!in!minutes!!!!
43) SpaceRECRE!=!Recreational!centres!in!minutes!!!!
44) SpaceOTHER!=!Other!spaces!(medical!centres,!malls,!police!stations,!etc.)!in!minutes!!!!
!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
39!
7.5. Annex!5.!Coding!system!for!space!variables!
OUTSIDE!PUBLIC!SPACES!
(URBAN!OR!NOT)!
Exterior!spaces!of!cities,!towns,!etc.!
Public!gardens!
Cemetery!
Streets,!squares!
Forest!
Roofs!
Car!
Beach!
Public!transport!
Port,!dock!
Other!
DOMESTIC!SPACES!
Kitchen!
Bedroom!
Dining!room!
Laundry!
Living!room!
Garden,!porch!
Hall,!aisles!
Terrace,!balcony!
Bathroom!
Other!
Basement,!Garage!
Several!domestic!spaces!at!once!
EDUCATIONAL!CENTRES!
School!(general!shot)!
Outside!spaces!(parking,!playground,!
gardens,!etc.)!
Classroom!
Bathroom!
Aisles!
Auditorium,!Theatre,!Art!area!
Office!
Library!
Cafeteria,!Dining!room!
Gym/sport!zone!
Locker!room!
Other!
WORK!PLACES!
Stores,!cafeterias,!bookshops,!
etc.!!
Office!
Company!
Other!
RECREATIONAL!CENTRES!
Restaurant,!cafeteria,!pub,!etc.!
Cinema,!Theatre,!Art!gallery!!
Disco,!club!
Other!
OTHER!SPACES!
Medical!centres,!malls,!stores,!shops,!police!station,!church,!etc.!
!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
40!
7.6. Annex!6.!Coding!system!for!teen!characters!
!
IDENTIFYING!THE!CHARACTER!
!
1) Name!of!the!character!
2) Title!the!programme!in!its!original!language!
3) Country!of!origin!(1=Spain;!2=US;!3=UK)!!
4) Genre!=!Euromonitor’s!categories!(1=series;!2=serial;!3=sitcom;!4=miniseries)!
5) Microgenre!=!Euromonitor’s!categories!(1=drama;!2=comedy;!3=fantasy/Sci-fi;!
4=adventure/action;!5=musical!comedy;!6=thriller/suspense;!7=horror)!
!
PHYSICAL!CHARACTERISTICS!!
!
6) Sex!(1=man;!2=!woman;!3=!other)!
7) Age!(1=tween,!8-13!years!old;!2=teen,!14-19!years!old;!3=young,!20-25!years!old)!!
8) Race!(1=!Caucasian;!2=Afro-American;!3=Hispanic/Latin;!4=!Asian;!5=!Other)!
9) Physical! constitution! (1=Thin/underweight! BMG<19,99! à!F1,M1-F3,M3;! 2=Normal! /! normal!
weight!20<!BMG<24,99!à!F4,M4-F5,M5);!3=Heavyset!/!overweight!!25<!BMG<29,99!à!F6,M6!
–! F7,M7;! 4=Very! heavyset/! obesity! BMG>30=! F8,M8! –! F9,M9);! 5=Muscular! /only! for! boys:!
normal!weight!+!muscles;!6=Curvy!/!only!for!girls:!thin!and!with!curves)!
10) Clothing! (1=! Casual!/jeans,! t-shirts,! etc.;! 2=! Classical! /! formal! and! conventional! clothes;!
3=Sports!dress;!4=Trendy!/!in!fashion;! !5=!Alternative!fashion! /e.g.:!hippie,!metal,!gothic,!etc.;!
6=Uniforms).!
11) Do!they!usually!dress! provocatively,!that!is! girls! showing! curves! and! boys! showing! muscles?!
(1=yes,!2=no;!9=N.I.)!!
!
SOCIOLOGICAL!CHARACTERISTICS!
!
12) Social!class!(1=!Upper,!they!belong! to! a!rich!family!who! can! afford!luxuries;!2=Upper-Middle,!
they!belong!to!a!family!with!no!financial!troubles!and!with!a!big!house;!3=Middle,!they!do!not!
need!to!work,!since!they!belong!to!a!family!with!no!financial!issues,!with!their!own!house;!4=!
Working,!they!belong!to!a!family!with!some!economic!difficulties;!5=!Low,!they!have!to!work!to!
subsist!or!helping!their!families,!who!have!several!financial!troubles;!9=N.I.)!!
13) Do!they!have!financial!troubles?!(1=yes,!2=no;!9=N.I.)!!
14) Type!of!family!unity!=!the!character!lives!with!(1=parents;!2=parents+siblings;!3=single!parent;!
4=other!relatives;!5=school!residence!/!boarding!school/!similar;!6=!other!situation;!9=!N.I.)!
15) Sexual!orientation!(1=heterosexual;!2=homosexual;!3=bisexual;!4=other)!!
16) Leisure!activities!(1=Social!relationships,!that!is!hanging!out!with!friends,!dates,!spending!spare!
time! with! the! family;! 2=Diversion,! that! is! parties,! games,! drinking,! dancing,! etc.;!
3=Playing/listening! to! music;! 4=Culture,! e.g.! books,! arts,! theatre,! etc.;! 5=Sports;!
6=Politics/associations;!7=Personal!care;!8=Media;!9=Inactivity/resting;!10=Other;!99=!N.I.)!!
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!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
41!
PSYCHOLOGICAL!CHARACTERISTICS!
17) Personality! =! pick! the! prominent! factor! (1=Neuroticism! à!sensitive/nervous! vs.!
secure/confident;! 2=Extraversion! à!outgoing/energetic! vs.! solitary/reserved;! 3=Openness!to!
experience!à!Inventive/curious! vs.!consistent/cautious;! 4=Agreeableness! à!
friendly/compassionate!vs.!analytical/detached;!5=Conscientiousness!à!efficient/organized!vs.!
easy-going/careless!
18) Personality! neuroticism! =! mark! the! degree! of! agreement! of! this! factor! with! character! (1=!
strongly!disagree;!2=!disagree;!3=!neither!agree!or!disagree;!4=agree;!5=strongly!agree)!
19) Personality! extraversion! =! mark! the! degree! of! agreement! of! this! factor! with! character! (1=!
strongly!disagree;!2=!disagree;!3=!neither!agree!or!disagree;!4=agree;!5=strongly!agree)!
20) Personality!openness!to! experience! =! mark! the! degree! of! agreement! of! this! factor! with!
character!(1=!strongly!disagree;!2=!disagree;!3=!neither!agree!or!disagree;!4=agree;!5=strongly!
agree)!
21) Personality! agreeableness! =! mark!the! degree!of! agreement!of! this!factor! with! character! (1=!
strongly!disagree;!2=!disagree;!3=!neither!agree!or!disagree;!4=agree;!5=strongly!agree)!
22) Personality!conscientiousness! =! ! mark! the! degree! of!agreement! of!this! factor! with! character!
(1=!strongly!disagree;!2=!disagree;!3=!neither!agree!or!disagree;!4=agree;!5=strongly!agree)!
23) Teen!archetype!(1=The!“good!guy”,!normally!the!protagonist,!loyal,!idealistic,!honest,!forgiving,!
who!cares!about! others! and! always!does!the!right!thing,!etc.;!2=The!Rebel/The!criminal!/The!
Troubled,!usually!the! antagonist,! the! one! who!by! his! will! or! his!incapacity!always! messes! up.!
There!are!different!variants:!the!criminal,!more!violent!and!oriented!to!commit!crimes!(even!if!
they! are! only! ideal)! against! authority;! the! troubled/tormented,! who! needs! to! be! saved! from!
himself!and!his!dark!inner!side;!sometimes!even!the!funny!one!works!like!a!rebel;!3=The!Funny!
one,!the!one!who!messes!it!up!but!in!a!fun!way,!the!life!of!the!party,!the!one!who!always!thinks!
of!having!a!good!time!and!taking!advantage!of!the!moment,!also!the!silly!one.!He!does!not!have!
to!be! rebellious,! but! normally! he!occupies!that!role,!in!a! funny!version.!Often,!in! fact,!he!uses!
humour!as!a! way! of!defending! his! fears!and! his! inner!world;! 4=The! Jock/The!athlete,!usually!
plays!on!the!high!school!team!or!any!other!sports,!is!muscular!and!is!the!most!popular!boy!in!
high! school.! The! most! common! version! is! the! silly,! popular,!smug! and! pushy! athlete;!5=The!
Geek! ! (includes! The! Nerd/The! Brain),! they! are! nerds! or! geeks,! they! usually! stand! out! in!
something!(studies,!music,!technology,! media,...).! Normally! they!do!not!belong!to!the!popular!
group!but!may!end!up!being!part!of!it.! They! are! also! often! best!friends!with!the!protagonists;!
6=The!Princess/The!Beauty,!usually!the! female! protagonist! or! the! beloved! of! the! protagonist,!
the! beautiful! and! almost! always! good! girl! (although! she! does! not! seem!so),! with! which! to!
crown!his!dream.!She!is!often!more!an!object!than!a!subject!of!actions;!7=The!popular!girl,!the!
most! popular! girl! in! the! institute,! the! one! who! leads! the! group! of!the! popular! ones,! trend-
setter,! often! rich! and! flawed! and! even! silly,! only! cares! about! fashion! and! the! like,! often! the!
girlfriend!of!the!high!school!team!captain!(the!jock).!8=The!straight!“A”/!Honours!student,!the!
first!of!her!class,!she!often!needs!a!scholarship!to!continue!her!studies,!intelligent!and!brilliant,!
responsible,!she! usually! helps! the! protagonist! to! study.! 9=The! basket! case,!/1$E"$("' $%'
1$E"&)7(<'&)2&'71'7(.2#2W5"'$6'6;(.&7$(7(<'($%E255M8,!they!are!not!properly!a!rebel,!although!it!
may!seem!so,!because!they!are!usually!more!introverted!and!self-destructive!(although!from!a!
lighter!and!self-ironic!point!of!view);!10=The!independent!girl,!a!more!feminist!girl!model,!a!girl!
who!takes!responsibility!for!a!lot,!or!who!decides!to!go!against!fashion!but!intelligently!(not!in!a!
rebellious!way).!Unlike!the!other!female!stereotypes,!she!is!not!(as)!hanging!on!or!as!in!need!of!
a!male!counterpart!to!realize!her!deep!goals!as!a!character.!
!
!
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!
!
!"#$%&'$('&)"'*+,'#%$-".&'/0$1'#"%1$(2-"1'-34"("1'"('52'67..73('&"5"4717428'9:$;(<'.)2%2.&"%1'7('&"5"4717$('67.&7$(=>'?>'@"A"5"!
42!
STORYLINES!/!PLOTS!
24) Storyline! theme! (1=Friendship;! 2=! Love;! 3=Family! problems;! 4=Sex;! 5=Self-acceptance;!
6=Professional! goals/expectations;! 7=! Drugs;! 8=Discrimination;! 9=Violence;! 10=Health;!
11=Suspense/Mystery;!99=The!character!cannot!be!associated!to!any!plot)!!
25) Origin! of! the!plot/conflict! (1=! Love;! 2=Other! social! relationship;! 3=Fa mily;! 4=Personal/inner;!
5=Financial;!6=Antagonists;!99=The!character!cannot!be!associated!to!any!plot)!
26) Type!of!conflict!(1=!Interior/Inner;! 2=External/Social;! 3=Contextual/of! others,! that! means!the!
characters!is!not!the!protagonist!of!the!storyline;!99=The!character!cannot!be!associated!to!any!
plot)!
27) Role! of!the! character! in! the! conflict! resolution! (1=Active;! 2=Neutral;! 3=Passive;! 99=The!
character!cannot!be!associated!to!any!plot)!
28) Narrative!role!(1=Subject!of!action!and!of!state;!2=Subject!of!action!but!not!of!state;!3=Subject!
of! state! of! another! subject! of! action;! 4=Sender;! 5=Object;! 6=Helper;! 7=Opponent;!
8=Receiver/Sanctioner)!
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... Generally, female characters are nice, pretty and thin (Barriga et al. 2009;Mastro and Ortiz 2008) and are mainly concerned with love and friendship relationships (Lauzen et al. 2008). They are responsible and patient and are in a lower socio-economic condition than the male characters (Fedele 2014). Male characters are presented as handsome, strong, athletic (Mastro and Ortiz 2008) and concerned about their physique, but their talent also stands out. ...
... As for the emotional and attitudinal characteristics, all three girls are intelligent and, in the case of Marina and Maeve, applied and concerned about their studies (Marina ends up winning the award for best student in the course, and Maeve earns money by doing class work for her schoolmates); however, they do not respond to the stereotype of the responsible and patient protagonist identified in other teen series (Fedele 2014). In addition, all three are characterized as being girls with initiative and who are daring and even rebellious (especially Marina), or outsiders or loners (especially Maeve, who also declares herself a feminist). ...
... The three male protagonists -Clay, Samuel and Otis -are physically characterized as boys who are not particularly handsome or muscular, and almost invisible in the social sphere of the high school, unlike what has been found in previous studies (Fedele 2014;Mastro and Ortiz 2008). They dress casually -except when Samuel wears the school uniform -and do not participate in notable sports activities such as those that usually define the adolescent stereotype of the 'athlete'. ...
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