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The objective of this article is to analyze the process of building instruments in favor of agroecology and organic production in the Federal District of Brazil, particularly the creation of a district policy. The study associates the sociology of public action and policy networks analysis. The methodology combines the analysis of documents and interviews of 17 key actors of this process. The results show how three interest groups, originated by an elite of few pioneer militants organized since the 1980s, have been constituted in a public action network that promoted several initiatives, events, institutions and instruments, the most recent being the creation of the District Policy for Agroecology and Organic Production - PDAPO-DF, in 2017. Keywords: Agroecology. Organic Agriculture. Public Policy Network. Brazil.
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The objective of this article is to analyze the process of building instruments in favor of agroecology and organic production in the Federal District of Brazil, particularly the creation of a district policy. The study associates the sociology of public action and policy networks analysis. The methodology combines the analysis of documents and interviews of 17 key actors of this process. The results show how three interest groups, originated by an elite of few pioneer militants organized since the 1980s, have been constituted in a public action network that promoted several initiatives, events, institutions and instruments, the most recent being the creation of the District Policy for Agroecology and Organic Production - PDAPO-DF, in 2017. Keywords: Agroecology. Organic Agriculture. Public Policy Network. Brazil.
Article
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The objective of this article is to analyze the process of building instruments in favor of agroecology and organic production in the Federal District of Brazil, particularly the creation of a district policy. The study associates the sociology of public action and policy networks analysis. The methodology combines the analysis of documents and interviews of 17 key actors of this process. The results show how three interest groups, originated by an elite of few pioneer militants organized since the 1980s, have been constituted in a public action network that promoted several initiatives, events, institutions and instruments, the most recent being the creation of the District Policy for Agroecology and Organic Production-PDAPO-DF, in 2017. RESUMO O objetivo desse artigo é analisar o processo de construção de instrumentos a favor da agroecologia e da produção orgânica no Distrito Federal do Brasil, em particular, a criação de uma política distrital. O estudo associa a sociologia da ação pública e a análise de redes de ação pública. A metodologia combina a análise de documentos e arquivos com entrevistas de 17 atores chaves desse processo. Os resultados mostram como três grupos de interesse, originados por uma elite de poucos militantes pioneiros organizados desde os anos 1980, têm se constituído em uma rede de ação pública, que promoveu várias iniciativas, eventos, instituições e instrumentos, sendo a mais recente a criação
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This paper presents elements of a transversal and comparative synthesis of a research focusing on the processes of construction of State Policies for Agroecology and Organic Production (PEAPOs) in 11 Brazilian federated states. Based on information originated from documentary analysis and semi-directive interviews of actors and managers, we designed a common frame to analyze public action. The results show a mobilization of the pro-agroecology social movements, allied with other actors in the public sphere, parallel to the dismantling of several public policies, such as the National Policy of Agroecology and Organic Production (PNAPO), and the growing uncertainties following the last presidential elections.
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As relações capitalistas no campo são geradoras de territórios com lógicas distintas e contraditórias. A partir da produção agrícola desses territórios é possível diferencia-los e relaciona-los com as questões sociais que se plasmam no campo. Nesse artigo, temos como locus o estado do Maranhão, onde discutimos dados da produção agrícola (lavouras, produtos da extração vegetal e da silvicultura) e relacionamos com o aumento da violência, compreendendo que a expansão do agronegócio maranhense é um dos principais responsáveis pelo aumento da violência contra camponeses e trabalhadores rurais.
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Nas últimas décadas ocorreu uma expansão da luta agrária no meio rural brasileiro. Ciente de seus direitos, a classe trabalhadora rural passou a se organizar e a reivindicar ações e políticas públicas junto aos governantes e ao Estado nacional. Particularmente nos governos Lula e Dilma (2003-2015) foi elaborado e implementado o II Plano Nacional de Reforma Agrária (PRNA), enquanto estratégia para a execução da política agrária, cujos objetivos centrais, além de democratizar o acesso a terra, buscavam superar o dramático quadro de concentração da terra no país. Em função disso, nota-se que durante esse período ocorreu o maior número de assentamento de trabalhadores rurais. Esse cenário começou a mudar negativamente a partir da posse do governo Temer, originário de um golpe de Estado. O presente texto analisa as ações agrárias que estão sendo implementadas pelo atual governo, procurando mostrar o retrocesso político nesta área dramática no Brasil.
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Resumo Este artigo analisa a construção de políticas públicas para a agroecologia no Brasil focalizando: (a) o contexto econômico, político e institucional e os processos de organização social que possibilitaram a emergência dessa agenda pública; (b) a constituição de redes de promoção da agroecologia e sua capacidade de influenciar a ação pública; (c) a incorporação do enfoque agroecológico nas políticas públicas considerando a coexistência de distintas concepções de agroecologia. Os resultados são provenientes de uma pesquisa interinstitucional que envolveu diversos pesquisadores e organizações vinculadas à Rede Políticas Públicas e Desenvolvimento Rural na América Latina (PP-AL). Os mesmos apontam que a construção de políticas a favor da agroecologia ganhou espaço a partir de 2002, quando a eleição do presidente Lula levou para dentro da estrutura do Estado atores com interface direta com movimentos sociais e sindicais. Na ampla coalizão política que se formou no novo governo e, sobretudo, no Ministério do Desenvolvimento Agrário (MDA), predominaram movimentos agrários com suas tradicionais pautas em torno do crédito rural e da reforma agrária. No entanto, eles passaram a conviver com um movimento agroecológico cada vez mais expressivo e organizado, o que levou à incorporação gradual
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Latin American agroecology proposes a transformation of conventional agri-food systems. It is driven by social movements that have succeeded in forming coalitions that have promoted its integration into public policies. These policies involve a range of instruments that are often embedded in programmes that also support organic agriculture and sustainable agriculture. However, while these two types of agriculture propose more ecological practices, they do not question the basis of the conventional agri-food system. The implementation of instruments to support agroecology therefore depends on the power relations established within each country. This Perspective analyses these policies and their influence on the development of agroecology in eight countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Mexico, and Nicaragua. These policies remain fragile while the support for large-scale conventional agriculture still dominate. Their challenge is therefore to convince more broadly farmers, consumers and policymakers about the importance of issues such as public health and food security.
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The National Policy for Agroecology and Organic Production (Pnapo) was created in 2012 to integrate, articulate and adjust the existing public policies concerning sustainable production of chemical-contaminant-free products. The referred policy combines rural development, conservation of natural resources and valorization of traditional communities’ knowledge. This article presents part of the results of an ongoing study about Pnapo. It analyses the constructive process of the program according to representatives of social and governmental institutions that manage this policy. In order to collect the historical background of Pnapo, main participants of the policy building were interviewed. The results of this research show that agroecology and organic production programs were slowly structured inside the government through pressure of organized groups in society. Another relevant factor to this development was the growth in social involvement in councils and commissions. Regarding Pnapo’s conception, it was observed that dialogue spaces provided by the National Commission for Agroecology and Organic Production (Cnapo) (composed by representatives from the government and from civil society) and the Interministerial Chamber of Agroecology and Organic Production (Ciapo) (composed by representatives from the ministries that participates in the policy), have provided participative construction between government and society and stimulated an interministerial approach inside government. The main challenges are to improve the intersectional management of the program and to enforce the importance of Pnapo inside the government. It is concluded that the continuance of this policy will depend heavily on the society’s acknowledgement of its importance, demanding from the government its maintenance and the enlargement of already acquired spaces.