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A Review of the Usable Food Delivery Apps

Authors:
A Review of the Usable Food Delivery Apps
2Mahmood Ashraf
Department of computer science
Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science &Technology,
Islamabad, Pakistan
1Hafiz U R Rahman
Department of computer science
Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science &Technology,
Islamabad, Pakistan
3Muhammad Abrar
Bacha Khan University Charsadda
Pakistan
4 Abid Mehmood
Department of Management Information Systems
King Faisal University Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Abstract:- Objective: This paper presents the overall
background of food delivery applications and procedure of
ordering of food through food delivery applications. Today
period is assumed, the world of information technology. Now a
day, people are familiar to use computers, mobiles and mobile
applications.
Methods/ statistical Analysis: This study focused on all
the available food ordering systems whether manual or, digital
and grouped into 14 different categories. Then every category
was explained in detail. Later some commonly used applications
were evaluated. Then the technology used for these applications
are highlighted.
Findings The study concluded that the use of digital
application in the food ordering systems are increasing and
become more popular in the customers.
Application/ Improvements However but there are still
some usability issues in the current available food delivery
applications. There is need to developed the mobile applications
that purely applied the usability rules and guidelines.
Keywords:- Online food ordering system, mobile apps, food
delivery apps Introduction
I. INTRODUCTION
Online food ordering and delivery is the process in which
order for the food is placed through internet and delivered to
the customer to the specified place. Food delivery Apps,
online food ordering systems is basically designed for those
People that don’t have time to go to restaurant. As the say,
money is not money but time is money [1].
These systems impressively simplify the ordering
process for both customers and restaurants owner, this is the
main advantage of online food ordering or delivery system. In
past manual food ordering system will be used. In this system
customers have to go to the restaurant and waiter takes order
from the customer and writes down in the paper [2].
In this system each and every type of record is
stored on the paper. Then the waiter sends the order to the
kitchen for the further processing [1] [2]. Then Personal
Digital Assistant technology was used. Personal digital
assistant is a portable device like smartphone every waiter
should have the PDA and take order form customers. To
cover the limitation of PDA multi touch technology come to
market, where the user has the authority to perform and
control different type of operations at a time on multi touch
screen. To cover the limitation of all the previous food
ordering systems, mobile food ordering system been
developed. This system automates all food ordering process.
In the recent time of information technology people are
familiarized to use computer, mobile and mobile Apps. On
the other hand the use of mobile application and their
development is also growing fast area of information
technology. Mobile Application has not only impact the
Smart phone users but also play a vital role in our daily
business life [3]. The first mobile which is come to market is
so simple, that just have, clock, alarm, and simple calculator.
Basically, mobile Apps consists a set of instruction
that runs on Smart phones and perform a specific task.
Developer built mobile application for different purposes [2].
Mobile applications are Easy to use, User friendly,
Inexpensive, Convenient to carry, Powerful development
framework, simply downloadable, run on most of the mobile
phone. There are a number of Apps which are pre-installed in
Smart phones and others Apps users can easily download,
installed in smartphone [2].
In the past, people used mobile phone just for
receiving call, messaging and doing simple calculations etc.
Now a day, Mobile Phones are Used Commonly due to
different functionalities i.e. user can used for calling, used
for messaging, used for browsing, used for chatting, used
for social network communication, and users can also use for
audio, video, games etc. Mobile food ordering and food
delivery is one of most popular area of mobile application
development [3].
The online food delivery application is impressively
good for those people that don’t have time to go the
restaurant. Anyone who have smart phone they can easily
order for the food from anywhere and they can receive food
at her/her home. Payment can be either on delivery or by
credit card [3].
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Previous And Some Existing Food Order system
A. Conventional Paper Based System
Paper based system is one of the most widely used
food ordering system in the past. In this system customers
have to go to the restaurant and waiter takes order from the
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customer and writes down in the paper. In this system each
and every type of record is stored on the paper. Then the
waiter sends the order to the kitchen for the further
processing. The main drawback of this system is wastage of
time and money [4] [5].
B. Self -Service Restaurant
To cover the limitation of manual restaurant system
self-service restaurant system introduced. There are a lot of
drawback of manual system like, wastage of money and time.
In manual system a lot of effort required for small amount of
change [2].
In the proposed system every customer goes to the
restaurant and place order in the service counter. customer
have to take decision in advance, and customer either select
item form the catalog which is presented in the form of poster
and placing normally behind the order counter [2] [4].
C. Self-Serviced Food Ordering
The proposed system is the integration of web
technology with hotel management system. The integrated
system is applicable to any size of the hotel chain
environment. This system increases the efficiency of the hotel
which saves the customer time. It provides real time feedback
to the customers [6].
K means and apriori algorithm are used in the
proposed system. The prosed system has the usable interface.
This system provides real time customer feedback and
provides a user friendly ordering environment. The system
will to reduce the cost of labor and also simplify the order
process [6].
Fig. 1 Architecture Diagram
D. Personal Digital Assistant
Personal digital assistant is a portable device like
smartphone every waiter should have the PDA and take order
form customers. According author, the personal digital
assistant and smartphones are used by the limited number of
people in the past. Still due to potential, sales and the user of
smartphones are increasing day by day [7].. The modern
market of smartphone, mobile offers a variety of choice and
lifestyle. Some of the phones are small and silky; many
people like and use them, due to ease of carrying. The PDA
are used by number of people, therefor if a customer with
infected disease uses a PDA other customer may be affected
by the same type of disease [7].
E. Multi Touch Technology
Multi touch technology is the advance version of the
existing technology, where the user has the authority to
perform and control different type of operations at a time on
the multi touch screen. And multiple users can interact to the
display at a time. But there are some limitations of this
technology, the touch screen which is available in the market
are capacitive and resistive type which is much costly.
Limitation of capacitive screen that is more costly
and have short life time. It may be affected in the dusty and
dirty environment. The main aim of the proposed system is to
increase the efficiency of the food ordering system, and
minimize the human error and provide satisfactory service to
the customers [8].
F. Food Ordering System with Zigbee Technology
The proposed system is based on the ZigBee
technology. It is special kind of technology which has many
features like secure transmission of the data, reliability, low
cost, long battery life etc. According to the network
functionality the zigbee is divided into two categories. Full
Function Device (FFD) and Reduced Function Device (RFD).
Full function detection device which act as a network
coordinator that communicates with other devices [9].
The Reduced Function Device is used for the
communication with the Full Function Device. In the Entire
network of the zigbee technology there is only one Full
Function device used. It receives data from the RFD and then
stores it in database. At the end the network system server
will send the order to kitchen for further processing. In the
proposed system there is no need of waiter to take order from
the customers. The menu will be displayed automatically on
the system attached to the table where customer can touch the
screen and view the detail about the food item and can
directly order for the food without intervening [9][14].
Fig. 3 Architecture of ordering system
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G. Customizable Wireless Food Ordering System
Customizable wireless food ordering systems consist
of three main areas which are, serving area, restaurant
manager working desk and the kitchen [10]. There are four
main components of CWFOS.
Apps on the smart phone which is used for customer
order
The web based App on the laptop for the manager of
the restaurants.
The database in which manager store over all
information.
The wireless infrastructure which support network
communication.
Fig. 4 System Architecture
CWFOS is the updated system where the system
over all environments set wirelessly and restaurant manage
the overall system easily. In this system smart phone have
been integrated, due to real time communication, between
restaurant owner, and different type user of the system
[9][10].
H. Wireless Food Ordering System Using K Mean and
Apriori Algorithm
In this paper the author proposed a new system for
food ordering which is based on k- means and apriori
algorithm. By using proposed system the customers place
order for the food by using android touch pad. This system
covers main three areas which are, serving area, cashier table
and the kitchen. There will be android touch based screen on
each table. The customer can see the menu list of food item
and can easily place order just by clicking the item [11].
Then menu of the proposed system is prearranged an
eye-catching way. And restaurants owner or manger can add,
update and delete the menu items. The text messages are sent
time to time to the customer about the discounts and suitable
deals. The proposed system has two modules which is,
Customer module and admin module. The admin module will
be used a number of mining methods like apriori and k mean
algorithms, for exploration purpose [11].
I. Mobile Food Ordering System
Mobile food ordering system is a tool which
provides food Ordering facilities by installing it in Smart
Phones. It provide many useful feature to the users like map
location of the nearest available hotel, detailed menus and the
previous look of the order. It also provides the call facility to
restaurants. The proposed system consist of two part one for
admin and second for the customer. The feature which is
needed for the customer is profile, order, menu, and courier.
The feature which is needed for the admin section is Resto,
order, menu and customer [12].
When customer book and confirmed the flight all the related
information will be save in database. After booking the flight
a confirmation message will be showed to the customer and
to tell him that your order is placed successfully. The
proposed Application was developed using Android Studio
software design. The user friendly layout was designed in
XML. PHP and MySQL were used in backend to process
request, store and manage data. [13].
L. Pizza Hut Digital Order system main aim is to provide
following features
User friendly food ordering system
Convenient system that manager easily manages the
overall system
Smart delivery system providing helping facility to
improve the quality of the delivery services
customer can simply doing registration and place order to
book the ticket for watching cricket in then Amman
international cricket stadium [15].
The proposed system consists of two part one web
Application computer and also mobile Application. The
mobile Application is developed for both android and ios
platform. The working procedure is like customer downloads
the app and selects the food item and place order [15].
Then the order will send to forward, the manager of the
restaurant is able to manage the information details
and status of the order. The customer will receive the hot
meal or food item for which place the order. This Application
is designed for both the customer and restaurant owners. For
user area they can view and menu and select different type if
dishes. [15].
Fig. 5 Login Form Fig. 6 Menu List
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Fig. 7 Deals list Fig. 8 Price list
M. Mobile Bus ticketing System
Mobile Bus Reservation system is most widely used
system in the current era of information technology. The
proposed system will reduce the ticket process for the
customers. This system will make the life style of the
customer easy, any form anywhere who have smartphone and
reserve his seats. The mobile ticking system consists of four
actors who communicate with the system [16].
Firstly, passenger will book the ticket, this system
will allow the customer to check and search the availability of
the system. This system will be available 24 hour a days and
7 days a week. Second one is the Admin who will manage the
whole system. Admin can add, edit, delete, and bus route and
also the whole information about destination [16].
Fig. 1 booking page
N. Digital Table Booking & Food Ordering System Using
Android Application
The proposed Application simplifies the food
ordering process for both customers and restaurant manager.
The Application consist of many parts like Ordering menu,
billing menu, restaurant table, Home deliver, advertisement
etc. The App consists of two parts one for customer and one
restaurant owner. On the customer side Application allow
user to search the food specified food item with price,
category of items. By just click on the food item, it will be
added to the bosket list .The customers are allowed to change
or delete the food items [17].
The detail of Available Apps and the feature that should be
available in mobile Apps is given below.
A. Swiggy Food
Swiggy food is an effective and efficient food
delivery application it provide various information about the
food items and dishes. Through this App anyone who has
smartphone or internet facility can buy food from more than
thousand Restaurants across the word.
www.swiggyfood.com. It offers user friendly service to the
users.
B. EatOye
EatOye is free available food delivery Application. it
is available. Through this App anyone who has smartphone or
internet facility can buy food from more than thousand
Restaurants across the word. It provides a number of the
food items for customers. Www.EatOye.com. It offers user
friendly Service to the users.
C. Super meal
Super meal is online food delivery service and
market place particularly designed for provide online food
services. It Provide efficient service. It provides information
about the availability of the food, its ratting and also delivery
time of the food. It also provide great role for upgrading food
choices for the Customers. www.supermeal.pk.
M. Food Panda
Food panda is a best global mobile food delivery
application which headquartered in Berlin Germany it
operates in 43 countries and has 4000 partnered Restaurants.
Anyone who wants to place orders then first they did
registration then they can view the available restaurants
details. Customer can select the food items and place the
order for the food.
Food panda send confirmation message to customer
for the confirmation of the order if he/she replies then order
send for the further processing. Customer can received the
food with in limited time and specified location
(www.foodpanda.com). Below is the several screens short
food panda application.
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Fig. 1 Main page
According to Ricky feature which should be in food delivery
application are given in the table.
A. Profile restaurant
Profile restaurant is the feature which is used to
show the restaurant profiles. The admin can edit, delete,
modify the
Restaurant data including the state of restaurant are Active or
inactive.
B. Order
Order is the main feature that will be used to place
the order for the food.
C. Order History
Order history feature is used to show customers
order histories, which include first order and last order.
D. Menu
Menu is the feature that will be used to show the list
of food items and its prices.
E. Courier
Courier is the feature which is used to show the
available courier list of restaurants.
E. Order status
Order status is the feature which is used to show the
Status of order. Means that order has been received by
restaurant, or under the processing.
F. Profile setting
Profile setting is the feature that will be used to
change the Customer name, address and phone number.
G. Exit
Exit is the feature that will be used to logout from the
application.
III. DEVELOPMENT TOOLS AND USED RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
The following are the tools which were used in the
development of previous proposed systems.
1. JAVA
Java is high level programming language, which
developed by sun microsystem. It was originally designed to
develop the web Application. The syntax of java language is
just like c++ programming language. But it is purely object
oriented programming language. Java program consist of
classes and methods. The java program are interpreted by
java virtual machine which almost the entire platform. The
java program developments require a java software
development kit, which typically include complier,
interpreters, and documentation generator etc. which is used
to produce a complete code [18].
2. MYSQL
MYSQL is Open source freely available relational
database management system, which uses structure query
language. SQL is structure query language which is used to
add, remove, update and access the content of database. It is
widely used due to its processing speed, high reliability and
flexibility of use [18] [19].
3. PHP
PHP stand for peripheral Hypertext preprocessor, it
is widely use journal purpose scripting language. It was
originally developed for the development of web base
application. The code of PHP is embedded with HTML
hypertext markup language to create and produce dynamic
webpages. It is free available programing language and run
on different platform including Linux, Unix, and window
operating system etc. PHP is easy to learn and easy to
understand [19].
4. USED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In the above overall discussed system normally both
qualitative and quantitative research methodology. User
based testing is the type of qualitative research method in
which users are directly participate. In this method users are
requested to perform the task on the App or product, or in
other way to explore it freely [20].
While using the product there behavior are observed
and recorded for the purpose to identify the flaw, the error
and difficulties. When user perform the tasks these things to
be noted, time required to perform the task, task-completion
rates and the number and type of errors, are recorded. If the
flaws in the product are identified then design
recommendation are proposed to improve the usability of the
App [20].
User based testing is the type of qualitative research
method in which user are directly participate. In this method
user are requested to perform the task on the App or software
product. When user perform the tasks these things to be
noted, time required to perform the task, task-completion
rates and the number and type of errors, are recorded. [21].
Heuristic evaluation is the type of research method,
in which a small group of evaluator are presented to interface
and asked to judge the product or the App follows usability
principles. It is most commonly used usability evaluation
method, in which both expert and non-expert user participate.
Then main advantage of usability evaluation is the ability to
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don a lot of work with short period of time with limited
resources [20][21].
5. Usability Heuristics:
A. Visibility of the system status:
The system always informed the user through
feedback.
B. Match between system and real world:
The used language and pictures etc. should be
familiar to user.
C. User control and freedom:
User should be exit from the system and provide the
facility of redo and undo.4
D. Consistency and standard:
Follow the platform convention and user should be
easily performed their task.
E. Error prevention
Try to eliminate error if error come a proper
guidance message should be should to user
F. Recognition rather than recall:
Reduce the user memory capacity by making
objects, action and option noticeable to user.
G Flexibility and efficiency of use:
Design the system in such a way the novice and
expert user can easily performed their task.
F. Aesthetic and minimalist design:
The design of the system should be simple and
beautiful.
G. Help users recognize, diagnose and recover from error:
The error message should be in simple language and
clearly indicate the error and also suggest the solution.
H. Help and documentation:
It is better that system can be used without
documentation. If need the provide appropriate
documentation to the users [22].
TABLE I. USABILITY HEURISTICS
In the above table 1 we have shown the Nielsen’s ten
usability guideline which mostly applicable to any web or
desktop application. We have checked all the guidelines in
the above listed Apps those Apps which have guideline are
shown by yes and rests of them are shown by no.
TABLE II. USABILITY HEURISTICS
In the above table II we have shown the ten usability
Guidelines which mostly applicable to any web or mobile
Application. To check these usability guidelines in the above
listed application we have performed a user study. Total 12
participants take parts in this user study. Both male and
female took part in this user study. Majority of participant are
Smartphone users, among these participants, 5 participants
are mobile Application developer and remaining are normal
Smartphone users. We have set some tasks, participants
performed the tasks and fill the consent form in which we
have asked question about the availability of the above
features .Those Apps which have the above listed feature are
shown by yes and the remaining is shown by no. We take the
five most used food delivery application to perform the tasks,
and to check the availability of these guidelines.
TABLE III. USABILITY HEURISTICS
Nielson’s Usability Heuristics
Apps Name
1
2
4
5
Food panda
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Swiggy food
No
Yes
Yes
No
Toss town
Yes
Yes
No
No
Eatoye
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Super Meal
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Food panda
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Nielson’s Usability Heuristics
Apps Name 6 7 8 9 10
Food panda Yes No Yes No No
Swiggy food Yes No No No Yes
Toss town Yes No Yes No No
Eatoye No Yes Yes No No
Super Meal No No No No No
Apps name Profile
restaurant Order Order
History Menu Order status Profile setting Exit
Food panda Yes Yes No Yes No No No
EatOye Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Super meal Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
Toss down Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Swiggy food Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
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In Table III we have used the five famous food delivery
Application Apps. According to the Rickey some feature
should be in food delivery Apps. To check feature in the
above listed application we have performed a user study.
Total 12 participant’s parts in this user study. Both male and
female took part in this user study. Majority of participant are
software developer, among these participant 5 participants
and Mobile Application developer.
We have set some tasks, participants performed the
tasks and fill the consent form in which we have asked
question about the availability of the above features.
Those Apps which have the above listed feature are shown by
yes and the remaining is shown by no.
III. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
This paper presents, all the proposed systems related
to the food delivery, food ordering and food delivery
applications. But in all these proposed system there are a lot
of drawbacks. In conventional system waiter take order from
customers and write down on the paper then send to the
kitchen for further processing. To cover the limitation of
conventional paper based system, personal digital assistant
system, multi touch screen technology system has introduced
which enabled users to use that touch screen for ordering
food. Then wireless food ordering system come which also
enabled, the customer to get a real-time feedback. This
system changed to mobile food ordering and delivery process
but there are still some limitation and usability issues. Now
we are going to develop a Usable food delivery application
according to the current customer needs and also to fulfill all
the available usability issues in these systems.
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... Based on the sentiment, whether positive or negative, the users judge the factors for selection. Rahman et al. (2019) presented the broad background of food delivery applications and procedure of ordering of food through food delivery applications. He provides some overview but did not perform analysis based on factors of the service. ...
... Based on the sentiment, whether positive or negative, the judge the factors for selection. Rahman et al. (2019) presented the broad background of delivery applications and procedure of ordering of food through food delivery applications. ovides some overview but did not perform analysis based on factors of the service. ...
... However, some consumers provided a large number of negative feedback to the quality of service because Swiggy increases the bill amount by adding delivery and packing charges to the customer (Bhasin, 2020). (Rahman et al., 2019). Some consumers are just satisfied concerning the choice of restaurants as it allows the consumers to order food from nearby restaurants only, and some fake restaurants areon their list (Kaew, 2020). ...
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  • P Jadhav
  • S Korade
  • P Teli
Chavan, V., Jadhav, P., Korade, S., & Teli, P. (2015). Implementing Customizable Online Food Ordering System Using Web Based Application. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, 2(4).
Design and Implementation of Digital dining in Restaurants using Android
  • R Shinde
  • P Thakare
  • N Dhomne
  • S Sarkar
Shinde, R., Thakare, P., Dhomne, N., & Sarkar, S. (2014). Design and Implementation of Digital dining in Restaurants using Android. International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Management Studies, 2(1).