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Mindfulness in education for sustainable development to nurture socioemotional competencies: A systematic review and Meta-analysis

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Mindfulness in education for sustainable development to nurture socioemotional competencies: A systematic review and Meta-analysis

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Abstract

Adhering to the basic principles of transformative learning in education for sustainable development, socioemotional competencies are fundamental for the promotion of sustainability; however, they are difficult to nurture. There is initial evidence that mindfulness practice may promote the enhancement of such competencies, but a comprehensive analysis of how mindfulness practices could be nurtured and a measurement of its effectiveness in developing this set of competencies are missing. This paper aims to fill this gap by synthesizing the findings of current research on the effectiveness of mindfulness programs for the promotion of socioemotional competencies. By performing a systematic review and a meta-analysis, this paper shows that mindfulness practices, although they have a weak effect, could be an effective method to positively influence three outcomes of socioemotional competencies: emotional regulation, empathy and social connectedness, and resilience with differential effects. Guidance is also offered to implement mindfulness practices to successfully enhance ESD.

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... Böhme et al., 2018;Rimanoczy, 2014;Wamsler et al., 2020b), psychological/ cognitive flexibility and resilience (e.g. Anushka et al., 2018;Gómez-Olmedo et al., 2020), metacognition, emotional processing and regulation (e.g. Barbaro and Pickett, 2016;Gómez-Olmedo et al., 2020;Rimanoczy, 2014). ...
... Anushka et al., 2018;Gómez-Olmedo et al., 2020), metacognition, emotional processing and regulation (e.g. Barbaro and Pickett, 2016;Gómez-Olmedo et al., 2020;Rimanoczy, 2014). These are, in turn, related to qualities such as equanimity, discernment (e.g. ...
... Pfattheicher et al., 2016), with close linkages to the concepts of social and human-nature connection, and related caring and ethical qualities (e.g. Gómez-Olmedo et al., 2020;Ives et al., 2018;Leiserowitz et al., 2006;Thiermann and Sheate, 2020a;Ting and Cheng, 2017). Such qualities include, for instance, love, humility, solidarity, respect (e.g. ...
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Chapter
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Research on the effects of mindfulness- and compassion-based interventions is flourishing along with self-report scales to assess facets of these broad concepts. However, debates remain as to which mental practices are most appropriate to develop the attentional, cognitive, and socio-affective facets of mindfulness and compassion. One crucial question is whether present-moment, attention-focused mindfulness practices are sufficient to induce a cascade of changes across the different proposed facets of mindfulness, including nonjudgmental acceptance, as well as compassion or whether explicit socio-affective training is required. Here, we address these questions in the context of a 9-month longitudinal study (the ReSource Project) by examining the differential effects of three different 3-month mental training modules on subscales of mindfulness and compassion questionnaires. The “Presence” module, which aimed at cultivating present-moment-focused attention and body awareness, led to increases in the observing, nonreacting, and presence subscales, but not to increases in acceptance or nonjudging. These latter facets benefitted from specific cultivation through the socio-cognitive “Perspective” module and socio-affective, compassion-based “Affect” module, respectively. These modules also led to further increases in scores on the subscales affected by the Presence module. Moreover, scores on the compassion scales were uniquely influenced by the Affect module. Thus, whereas a present-moment attention-focused training, as implemented in many mindfulness-based programs, was indeed able to increase attentional facets of mindfulness, only socio-cognitive and compassion-based practices led to broad changes in ethical-motivational qualities like a nonjudgmental attitude, compassion, and self-compassion. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12671-017-0716-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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This paper explores the current role of mindfulness in sustainability science, practice, and teaching. Based on a qualitative literature review that is complemented by an experimental learning lab, we sketch the patterns and core conceptual trajectories of the mindfulness–sustainability relationship. In addition, we assess this relationship within the field of climate change adaptation and risk reduction. The results highlight that notions such as ‘sustainability from within’, ‘ecological mindfulness’, ‘organizational mindfulness’, and ‘contemplative practices’ have been neglected in sustainability science and teaching. Whilst little sustainability research addresses mindfulness, there is scientific support for its positive influence on: (1) subjective well-being; (2) the activation of (intrinsic/ non-materialistic) core values; (3) consumption and sustainable behavior; (4) the human–nature connection; (5) equity issues; (6) social activism; and (7) deliberate, flexible, and adaptive responses to climate change. Most research relates to post-disaster risk reduction, although it is limited to the analysis of mindfulness-related interventions on psychological resilience. Broader analyses and foci are missing. In contrast, mindfulness is gaining widespread recognition in practice (e.g., by the United Nations, governmental and non-governmental organizations). It is concluded that mindfulness can contribute to understanding and facilitating sustainability, not only at the individual level, but sustainability at all scales, and should, thus, become a core concept in sustainability science, practice, and teaching. More research that acknowledges positive emotional connections, spirituality, and mindfulness in particular is called for, acknowledging that (1) the micro and macro are mirrored and interrelated, and (2) non-material causation is part of sustainability. This paper provides the first comprehensive framework for contemplative scientific inquiry, practice, and education in sustainability.
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Clarification of personal values and meditation practice has been associated in most meditation traditions and in academic texts. Both values-related behavior and meditation practice increases well-being, but their relationship has not been well studied. It has been suggested that values, together with self-regulation, psychological flexibility, and exposure, are key mechanisms of action in mindfulness. The aims of this study were to explore the association between meditation and values and to examine the processes involved in this relation. A sample of 235 meditation-naïve participants and 274 subjects with varying levels of experience in meditation practice completed an online assessment protocol composed of Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Decentering Questionnaire (EQ), Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ), and Engagement with Life Scale (ELS). Results revealed that daily meditators were more consistent, aware, and life-fulfilled about their values; moreover, these measures correlated with the mindfulness process and decentering. The relation between meditation practice and values-related behavior (assessed by the VLQ) was mediated by decentering. The association between meditation practice and Valued Living and Life Fulfillment (measured by the ELS) was mediated by the decentering, describing, and non-judging dimensions of mindfulness. The findings in this study support the relation between meditation and personal values, mediated by the decentering, describing, and non-judging facets of mindfulness.
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Successful careers in sustainability are determined by positive real-world change towards sustainability. This success depends heavily on professional skills in effective and compassionate communication, collaborative teamwork, or impactful stakeholder engagement, among others. These professional skills extend beyond content knowledge and methodical expertise. Current sustainability programs do not sufficiently facilitate students’ acquisition of such skills. This article presents a brief summary of professional skills, synthesized from the literature, and why they are relevant for sustainability professionals. Second, it presents how these skills have been taught in an undergraduate course in sustainability at Arizona State University, USA. Third, it critically discusses the effectiveness and challenges of that exemplary course. Finally, the article concludes with outlining the lessons learned that should be incorporated into future course offerings.
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There has been an explosion of interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy. This is demonstrated in increased research, implementation of MBPs in healthcare, educational, criminal justice and workplace settings, and in mainstream interest. For the sustainable development of the field there is a need to articulate a definition of what an MBP is and what it is not. This paper provides a framework to define the essential characteristics of the family of MBPs originating from the parent program MBSR, and the processes which inform adaptations of MBPs for different populations or contexts. The framework addresses the essential characteristics of the program and of teacher. MBPs: are informed by theories and practices that draw from a confluence of contemplative traditions, science, and the major disciplines of medicine, psychology and education; underpinned by a model of human experience which addresses the causes of human distress and the pathways to relieving it; develop a new relationship with experience characterized by present moment focus, decentering and an approach orientation; catalyze the development of qualities such as joy, compassion, wisdom, equanimity and greater attentional, emotional and behavioral self-regulation, and engage participants in a sustained intensive training in mindfulness meditation practice, in an experiential inquiry-based learning process and in exercises to develop understanding. The paper's aim is to support clarity, which will in turn support the systematic development of MBP research, and the integrity of the field during the process of implementation in the mainstream.
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Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA) curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1) improve personal health and well-being; (2) decrease energy use; (3) reduce automobile use; (4) increase active transport; (5) shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6) reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of regular mindfulness meditation practice on five personal qualities that an extensive literature review deems critical for successful leadership in an age of rapid organizational change and uncertainty. Design/methodology/approach In this eight-week study, the authors investigated whether a weekly, 45-minute mindfulness practice routine (n=20) would significantly improve five leadership qualities when compared with a weekly, three hour graduate level leadership course (n=21), which in contrast incorporated theoretical instruction, skills practice, and experiential learning. Both samples included organizational leaders throughout the Minneapolis/St Paul area. Findings Results of a pre-post survey confirmed that when compared with participants in the leadership course condition, participants in the mindfulness practice condition demonstrated a significant increase in promotional regulatory focus and a significant reduction in trait anxiety and stress. No significant changes were seen for resilience or tolerance for ambiguity. This study also uncovered significant inter-correlations between scores on trait anxiety and a number of variables, most notably promotional regulatory focus. Implications exist for numerous bodies of research concerning leadership, well-being and the leadership development programs they influence, which include leadership psychology, organization development, and mindfulness-based stress reduction. Originality/value This is the first study of its kind (to date) to investigate the impact of mindfulness practice on leadership qualities, which according to research, are critical to leadership performance.
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Recently, mindfulness-based social-emotional learning (SEL) approaches have been taught to children in some schools. Due to deficient methodological consistency observed in most studies, their results should be interpreted with caution. Moreover, research on how mindfulness-based SEL approaches benefit teachers is scarce, and the majority of these studies have been conducted in English-speaking countries; therefore, it is uncertain whether these approaches are suited to other cultural backgrounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the MindUp curriculum, an SEL program through mindfulness practice for Portuguese students and teachers. Participants included 454 3rd and 4th grade students and 20 teachers from state schools. A quasi-experimental (pre- and post-test) study compared outcomes for an experimental group with a waitlist control group. Data were collected from teachers and children through self-report measures. Results showed that over 50 % of the children who participated in the MindUp program scored above the control group mean in their ability to regulate emotions, to experience more positive affect, and to be more self-compassionate, and over 50 % scored lower in negative affect. In the group of teachers, over 80 % scored above the control group mean in observing, in personal accomplishment, and in self-kindness. Our results contribute to the recent research on the potential added value of mindfulness practices to a SEL program and strengthen the importance for teachers and students of adding to the academic curriculum a SEL program through mindfulness practices.
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Compassion is an essential component of medical practice but is difficult to sustain over time. This problem is increasingly recognized in medical curricula. Mindfulness-based interventions have the potential to enhance compassion in medicine but this has not yet been tested. This study evaluated whether a brief mindfulness induction increased compassionate responding to difficult patients among medical students and assessed whether trait self-compassion moderated the impact of this experimental manipulation. A sample of 83 medical students completed baseline questionnaires including trait self-compassion prior to a laboratory session. In the laboratory, participants were gender block-randomized to mindfulness or control conditions before completing tasks assessing compassionate behaviour and decision-making in difficult patient vignettes. Finally, a covert behavioural measure allowed direct observation of responses to a request for help. The induction elicited mindfulness as intended and equivalently at both high and low levels of self-compassion. ANCOVAs showed that mindfulness predicted greater patient “liking” and “caring” but only among persons lower in self-compassion. The mindfulness intervention predicted greater helping behaviour, but primarily among those with higher self-compassion. A brief mindfulness induction showed some promise in enhancing compassionate responses and behaviour among medical students. Mindfulness training may offer a means of sustaining and enhancing compassion among some medical professionals but further research is needed.
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Burnout is a frequent and well-documented consequence of social work practice. The literature suggests that mindfulness-based interventions might help develop the mental states and emotional skills that are indicators of resilience. This mixed-methods, non-randomised controlled, exploratory study with 14 social workers in Canada investigated differences in social workers’ levels of stress, resilience, and burnout after a mindfulness-based intervention, compared to a waitlist group. The intervention group was also interviewed about changes in their relationships within the workplace, their perceived sense of mental health, and wellbeing. Results suggested that the mindfulness-based intervention significantly decreased the treatment group’s perceived stress compared to those on the waitlist and continued to decline for 26 weeks post-intervention. Intervention participants reported positive changes in attitudes, perspectives, behaviours, and energy in relation to their workplace relationships with peers and supervisors. Mindfulness-based interventions for reducing stress and building resilience to burnout in social workers and other helping professionals hold promise, and invite further research.
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Previous research has shown that mindfulness and spending time in nature are both related to perceived self-nature interconnectedness, with implications for environmental and psychological well-being. More research is needed to better understand the relative influence of mindful meditation and nature exposure on self-nature interconnectedness. In study 1, we replicated evidence for a relationship between mindfulness and self-nature interconnectedness in a sample of Buddhist meditators attending a nature and meditation retreat. In study 2, undergraduate students participated in 3-day nature trips that were randomly assigned to either a meditation condition (which included formal meditation in the mornings) or a non-meditation condition (which did not include formal meditation practices). The results from pre- and post-trip surveys showed that the combined influence of mindful meditation in nature on self-nature interconnectedness is greater than nature exposure that does not include mindful meditation. One focus of the present research was to examine cognitive dimensions of nature connectedness, given that mindfulness meditation is based on cognitive processes such as selective attention. Study 2 revealed three types of concepts underlying self-nature interconnectedness: (1) mental models for behaviors in nature, (2) self-nature categorization, and (3) self-nature associations. In addition, participants who meditated in nature were more likely to foreground nature in their memories of the trip by emphasizing nature rather than other aspects (such as social interactions). Together, the results from the present research suggest that mindful meditation in nature can be used to reestablish or strengthen concepts of self-nature interconnectedness nature for urban adults.
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With an interest in the role of emotions and values in students’ meaning-making in Environmental and Sustainability Education a case study was carried out in a Swedish school-class with students, 12 years of age. During a six-week thematic group-work focusing environmental and sustainability issues related to food, the students were observed and interviewed in their daily school practice. The results are presented here through narrative reporting, and analysed with the use of Dewey’s theoretical perspectives on experience, distinguishing three phases in a process: a start, an activity phase and a closure. Martha Nussbaum’s theory of emotions is used to assist in the understanding of emotions and values. The study reports on active and independent meaning-making processes in students’ group work. The results provide examples of students’ meaning-making experiences and the role of emotions and values in them, indicating that more of values are formed and expressed in the concluding phase. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
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Research studies looking into the effects of positive psychology interventions (PPIs) implemented in classrooms have yielded promising results, not only in terms of student well-being but also in terms of academic outcomes, school climate, and teacher well-being. However, a number of PPIs require relatively high levels of commitment from school administrators and teachers to put into place. This may result in many teachers dismissing PPIs across the board as too complicated to implement. The goal of the present article is thus to present a review of brief PPIs (BPPIs) based on positive psychology research in order to encourage involvement in such interventions at school. The BPPIs presented here have been categorized into four sections according to established areas of research in positive psychology, mindfulness, gratitude, strengths, and positive relationships, with precise examples of practices which have been successfully implemented and have demonstrated diverse benefits on student learning and well-being. The potential limitations of such interventions are also highlighted in order to foster best practices and cross-cultural adaptations of such projects.
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Attention is critical for successful performance in demanding real-world situations. Yet, protracted periods of high demand may compromise attention and increase off-task thinking. Herein, we investigate if mindfulness training (MT) may promote cognitive resilience by curbing attentional lapses in high-stress cohorts. Two military cohorts were recruited during their high-stress predeployment interval. Mindfulness-based Mind Fitness Training (MMFT)® was provided to one group (MT, N = 31) but not the other group (military control group, MC, N = 24). The MT group attended an 8-week MMFT® course and logged the amount of out-of-class time spent practicing formal MT exercises. The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) was used to index objective attentional performance and subjective ratings of mind wandering before (T1) and after (T2) the MT course. In the MT group, changes in SART measures correlated with the amount of time spent engaging in MT homework practice, with greater objective performance benefits (indexed by A′, a sensitivity measure), and reduced subjective reports of mind wandering over time in those who engaged in high practice vs. low practice. Performance measures in the low practice and MC groups significantly declined from T1 to T2. In contrast, the high practice group remained stable over time. These results suggest that engaging in sufficient MT practice may protect against attentional lapses over high-demand intervals. Based on these results, we argue that MT programs emphasizing greater engagement in mindfulness practice should be further investigated as a route by which to build cognitive resilience in high-stress cohorts.
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School personnel encounter numerous occupational stressors unique to their profession, and these stressors place educators at risk of job-related stress and burnout. Given the prevalence of stress and burnout among school personnel, concrete interventions designed to address the unique demands and enhance coping resources of school personnel are necessary. One promising mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) for school personnel, Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE), is introduced and explored. Using semi-structured interviews, the current study investigated how participants applied mindfulness strategies learned through the mindfulness-based intervention CARE. Participants reported shifting their emotional reactivity and approach to students by applying mindfulness through (1) present-centered awareness of emotions, (2) emotional reappraisal of situations, and (3) use of metaphors introduced through the CARE program. Results suggest that the CARE program is a promising approach to support school personnel experiencing stress and burnout.
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Both basic science and clinical research on mindfulness, meditation, and related constructs have dramatically increased in recent years. However, interpretation of these research results has been challenging. The present article addresses unique conceptual and methodological problems posed by research in this area. Included among the key topics is the role of first-person experience and how it can be best studied, the challenges posed by intervention research designs in which true double-blinding is not possible, the nature of control and comparison conditions for research that includes mindfulness or other meditation-based interventions, issues in the adequate description of mindfulness and related trainings and interventions, the question of how mindfulness can be measured, questions regarding what can and cannot be inferred from self-report measures, and considerations regarding the structure of study design and data analyses. Most of these topics are germane to both basic and clinical research studies and have important bearing on the future scientific understanding of mindfulness and meditation. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Systematic reviews are generally considered to provide the most reliable form of evidence to guide decision makers. Here we describe ROBIS, a new tool for assessing the risk of bias in systematic reviews (rather than in primary studies). ROBIS has been developed using rigorous methodology and is currently aimed at four broad categories of reviews mainly within healthcare settings: interventions, diagnosis, prognosis and aetiology. The target audience of ROBIS is primarily guideline developers, authors of overviews of systematic reviews ("reviews of reviews") and review authors who might want to assess or avoid risk of bias in their reviews. The tool is completed in 3 phases: (1) assess relevance (optional), (2) identify concerns with the review process and (3) judge risk of bias. Phase 2 covers four domains through which bias may be introduced into a systematic review: study eligibility criteria; identification and selection of studies; data collection and study appraisal; and synthesis and findings. Phase 3 assesses the overall risk of bias in the interpretation of review findings and whether this considered limitations identified in any of the Phase 2 domains. Signalling questions are included to help judge concerns with the review process (Phase 2) and the overall risk of bias in the review (Phase 3); these questions flag aspects of review design related to the potential for bias and aim to help assessors judge risk of bias in the review process, results and conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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I begin with a review of our research on meditation, mindfulness, expressed emotions, and physiological variability while teaching. Then, through the theoretical lenses of polyvagal theory, I examine an event from our ongoing research in which a teacher had very low levels of blood oxygenation. Apparently, her body switched from parasympathetic to sympathetic functioning. As well as changes in prosody and facial expression of emotion being consistent with her body operating in a fight/flight mode, the teacher also was breathing through her mouth. This led to an intensive review of studies on breathing and the production of nitric oxide in humans, its benefits, and the desirability of breathing in and out through the nose. Based on what I learned from our empirical work and a review of literature, I designed two interventions – a breathing heuristic and a meditation activity that incorporates nasal breathing and humming during the outbreath.
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This study builds upon ongoing research of ecological mindedness by exploring how teachers appraise and incorporate ecological care, interconnectedness, and ecological integrity into lesson planning, as well as how teachers reconcile these qualities with their current professional responsibilities. These topics are explored through educational connoisseurship and criticism, using think alouds to learn from teachers as they plan lessons with the qualities of ecological mindedness as a framework. Findings indicate that teachers view ecological mindedness as relevant for schools in terms of content, engagement, and students’ lives; as compatible with standards and other external mandates; and as a form of character education.
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Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have received large empirical support for their efficacy. In comparison, few studies have explored the underlying mechanisms and processes through which MBIs impact outcomes. This study aimed to explore the potential role of trait mindfulness, self-compassion and psychological inflexibility as mediators of the effects of a MBI on burnout, compassion fatigue, psychological symptoms and satisfaction with life.
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An experiment involving 115 undergraduate students (74.8% females; mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 4.3) was conducted to explore effects of meditation on social connectedness, nature connectedness, and affect. Participants listened to one of three brief guided meditation Mp3 recordings via the internet, which involved mindfulness meditation (MM), loving-kindness meditation (LKM), or progressive muscle relaxation (active control group). Participants in the MM and LKM groups reported greater social and nature connectedness at post-test than those in the control group. There were no significant differences in connectedness between the MM and LKM groups, suggesting they are both effective for enhancing connectedness. There were no significant changes in negative or positive affect at post-test due to the interventions. Recommendations for future research are provided.
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Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing: (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 68 is January 03, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Book
This handbook addresses the educational uses of mindfulness in schools. It summarizes the state of the science and describes current and emerging applications and challenges throughout the field. It explores mindfulness concepts in scientific, theoretical, and practical terms and examines training opportunities both as an aspect of teachers’ professional development and a means to enhance students’ social-emotional and academic skills. Chapters discuss mindfulness and contemplative pedagogy programs that have produced positive student outcomes, including stress relief, self-care, and improved classroom and institutional engagement. Featured topics include: A comprehensive view of mindfulness in the modern era. Contemplative education and the roots of resilience. Mindfulness practice and its effect on students’ social-emotional learning. A cognitive neuroscience perspective on mindfulness in education that addresses students’ academic and social skills development. Mindfulness training for teachers and administrators. Two universal mindfulness education programs for elementary and middle school students. The Handbook of Mindfulness in Education is a must-have resource for researchers, graduate students, clinicians, and practitioners in psychology, psychiatry, education, and medicine, as well as counseling, social work, and rehabilitation therapy.
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In recent decades there has been an increase in opportunities for people to view wildlife in tourism settings such as wildlife tours, national parks and captive environments such as zoos. This in turn has provided increasing opportunities to educate people of all ages about the value of wildlife and their habitats. One concept useful for enhancing learning is that of mindfulness. This concept suggests characteristics of interpretation that attract and sustain the focused attention of visitors. Using open-ended descriptions of best wildlife experiences from 790 respondents, this study found that 84% of descriptions contained at least one element consistent with the mindfulness concept. This paper argues that a mindfulness model can be used to understand visitor responses to wildlife tourism and direct the design of experiences that enhance learning and enjoyment.
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This article is reporting the effectiveness of a yoga and mindfulness program to decrease compassion fatigue and to increase compassion satisfaction in currently employed social workers by using a quasi-experimental design. Additionally, the qualitative arm of this study evaluated the social workers’ perception of their professional relationship with their clients. Eleven social workers participated in the study, with six in the control group and five in the experiment group. Quantitative results were gained by utilizing the ProQOL Version 5 that measures the levels of compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress. These results suggest that participation in a brief yoga and mindfulness program may halt the decrease of compassion satisfaction. The qualitative results provide a rich insight into the perceptions of the professional relationship that the social workers have with clients that they identified as being difficult to work with. These results suggest that participation in a yoga and mindfulness program will improve these perceptions.
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Past research has shown that higher stress is associated with increased burnout symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test whether mental toughness protects against symptoms of burnout and whether mental toughness moderates the relationship between perceived stress and burnout over time. Fifty-four vocational students (M age = 18.1 yr., SD = 1.2; 27 men, 27 women) completed self-report questionnaires twice, 10 mo. apart. Perceived stress, mental toughness, and burnout were measured using the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ), and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM). Students who perceived higher stress and lower mental toughness scores reported higher burnout symptoms. Although no significant interaction effects were found between stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout, the graphical inspection of the interactions indicated that among students with high stress levels, those with high mental toughness remained below the cutoff for mild burnout, whereas an increase in burnout symptoms was observable among peers with low mental toughness levels.