ArticlePDF Available

Urban Solid Waste Management in Dili Community

Authors:
Urban Solid Waste Management in Dili
Community
Zulmira Ximenes Da Costa
Researcher in Water Environment and Lecturer in
the Department of Informatics Engineering, Faculty
Engineering Science and Technology
Universidade Nacional Timor Lorosa’e- UNTL Dili,
Timor Leste
Bia Ble Hitu Carvalho De Jesus
Researcher and Lecturer in the Department of Economics,
Faculty of Economy
Universidade Nacional Timor Lorosa’e- UNTL
Dili, Timor Leste
AbstractUrban solid waste is one of the big issues in Dili
community, such as poor management performed by state and
lack of understanding by communities on solid waste deposits.
Therefore, this study aims to gather and describe the relations
between the existed waste management system and communities
understanding and satisfaction with adopted system by the
Ministry of State Administration. Furthermore, to raise public’s
awareness on solid waste impacts for urban communities. To
mitigate, we introduce an adequate, integrated and sustainable
system to reduce solid waste problems in urban communities. In
our methodology, we distributed questionnaires for 431
respondents of four administrative posts within Dili
municipality, resulting 72% of communities are agreed and
satisfied with the current government system on solid waste
management in Dili community.
The generalized way to manage solid waste is transported to
public open dump and burning. Related to the waste impacts,
health and environment are urgently needed to solve in Dili
community. The most of communities are with irresponsible
behavior and lack of participation in solid waste management,
recycling and reutilization. 49% of communities didn’t
understood the separation or recycling of solid waste and 89.8%
were agree and available to pay the 3R’s applied system to
change communities’ behavior on solid waste management.
Further technical solution, we propose Artificial Neural
Network (ANN) technique to predict solid waste generation in
urban areas in our future works.
Keywords: Urban, solid waste management, artificial neural
network.
I. INTRODUCTION
Solid waste is one of the largest and often most visible
problems in the Dili community and since Timor-Leste’s
independence until today solid waste was continuing spread
in Dili capital due to lack of communities understanding on
solid waste treatment in adequate places.
Solid waste or wastes are unused materials that are
encounter in solid state, or are solid objects that have already
lost value at the time where their contents were consumed by
consumers. Solid waste is generated by human activities and
natures. Those wastes that generated by human activities are
from domestics, hospitals, commercials, agricultures,
industries and sweeping services. However, as long as there
is no process of recovery of these wastes, they are capable of
constituting health, environment, economic and aesthetic
problems.
According to the Decree Law No. 5/2011 by the
government of Timor-Leste has stated the definition of waste.
“Waste as any solid, liquid, gas or radioactive matters that
cause transformations when unloaded in environment, and are
results of individuals or private and publics institutions
activities”. Related to this definition, the waste classification
according to its origin such as a domestic or hospital or
another type of waste because they are different, as well the
dangerousness is depending on its origin. Solid waste is all
the daily waste which derived from the human or un-human
activities. Monteiro et al (2001) has presented that solid
waste can be classified according to its origin and they are
grouped into five classes, such as domestic, commercial,
public, special domestic (construction of waste, batteries,
lamps, tires), special sources (industrial, radioactive,
harbours, airports and road terminals, agriculture and health
service centres).
In the era of globalization with the rise of technology
innovation, the waste problem has become a global issue,
because it happens in all countries including in Timor-Leste.
Finally, after independence until today, the accumulation of
solid waste in capital shows as a problem that there is no
solution to solve. In reality, the accumulation of these wastes
determined by various factors, such as rural emigration to
Dili capital indicated that there is an increase in population
number[4](Timor-Leste Population Census Data, 2010) and
economic composition which is one of the most important
factors, given the model of adopted development, the
consumption pattern and contemporary lifestyle popularized
by increased industry.
In case of Timor-Leste, the worsening of this waste due to
community attitude and the system adopted by the
government is still in a conventional or traditional way. The
community is not yet aware of the importance and impacts of
solid waste. As a result, you always find people who dispose
of waste anywhere and noted that mostly along the road sides
and the solid waste circuit has very similar characteristics.
The waste is scattered in the common public areas, on the
roads and collected by scavengers and animals. Timor-Leste
as a young country, in the process of development is still
caused by the limitations of qualified human resources,
limited knowledge of government agencies and limited of
public service infrastructures. Basically, the solid waste
treatment process is most treated with traditional ways and it
has not yet adopted an integrated management system to
manage solid waste in Dili community.
Therefore, this study with the aims to gather and describe
International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
http://www.ijert.org
IJERTV7IS050040 (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)
Published by :
www.ijert.org
Vol. 7 Issue 05, May-2018
48
the existing solid waste management systems in Dili
communities and to measure community understanding and
satisfaction with the adopted solid waste management system
by the Ministry of State Administration of the government of
Timor-Leste. And also to know the impacts caused by solid
waste and the introduction of a more appropriate, integrated
and sustainable system to reduce solid waste problems in Dili
community.
II. METHODOLOGY
This is a qualitative study of exploratory analysis which
held in Dili Community, with a sample of 431 individuals. It
was used questionnaire and interview for data and
information collection. Several variables were considered and
measured in different scales, namely:
a. Demographic characteristics, such as
municipality, neighborhood, gender, age, income, length
of time the dwelling, marital status, household number.
b. Waste management situation in neighborhood or
in house, such as waste removal, waste recollection
process, responsibility for collecting waste, type of waste
and waste treatment.
c. Impacts caused by waste, such as for
environmental (pollution, water contamination, enormous
volumes of waste, bad smell), health (high number of
patients, several diseases).
d. Presentation of an integrated and adequate
system to manage solid waste in each neighborhood: The
municipality applies the system in the neighborhood, study
the availability of people to pay for the service and the
amount they could pay for service.
e. Evaluation of waste management services provided
by the government: Partnership between government and a
Chinese company to treat the waste incineration;
community satisfaction grade; control of time to collect
the waste, results of councils cleaning services financing,
energetic form valorization importance, factors that
influences the generation of waste.
III. RESULTS
A. Demographic Character
The sample was selected randomly in the following
Administrative Posts: Vera Cruz (23.67 % of respondents),
Nain-Feto (25.06%, of respondents) Dom Aleixo (25.99% of
respondents) and Cristo Rei (25.29 % of respondents). The
respondents were mostly male (58.70%) and female were
41.30% .80.5 % were permanent residents.
The age average is 35 years old, ranging between 18 and
76 years old; the majority of the respondents live in Dili for
less than 6 years. Household average are made up of 5 adults
and children average 3, ranging from 1 child up to 5. The
level of education is mostly constituted by graduates 33.6%.
Households earn income is based on specific work; the
main source of family income is acquired by the
professionals that work on public function and on non-
governmental institutions (59.86 %). However, the variability
is large, in which (20.65) public employers, 10.67% farmers,
and most of respondent’s income is between 101 and 200
US$.
B. Community Behavior beyond Solid Waste
There are many determinants for waste accumulation in the
villages. Among the most significant are: public cleaning
service is handled by the municipality services with incipient
measures (56%), the increasing of population (41%) (More
people more waste). Also the community attitude contributes
to increase the volume of waste (31%). Other reasons like the
unfamiliarity with 3Rs program as a policy adopted by the
government; community consumption pattern and no existing
monitoring (less than 30%). There is 94% of recollect the
waste is from the residence. Common bins are used by 43%
of respondents to dispense household waste, trash burning
has a significant number (36%), throw it in the river, on the
street or bury it in the backyard cover approximately 17%.
The waste recollecting from home is 97%. The daily waste
recollecting is 60.1 %.
C. Waste Management Situation in Neighborhood
Regarding the waste separation habits, there is less
respondents separating waste due to the absence of a
recycling industry in Dili. Of the interviewed households,
only 45.9% separates the waste; the most doesn’t do it
(48.7%). However, the type of waste which is separated is
cans, organic, glass, plastic and paper. The organic waste is
reused, mostly for animal feed (31%) and fertilizer (27%). If
it exists the opportunity to sell separate waste, only a small
percentage of people would do it. Regarding the respondents
who do separation, most of them most would sell the cans
(72%). This is very important for policy that want to base
strategies in financial incentives. Community could be
encouraged to sell their own waste for recycling companies
reducing the volume of waste. There is already a private
enterprise “Smart product” in Manleuana that transforms
plastics and bottles in raw materials and exports it to
Indonesia. (TVTL, Monday, March 23 2015).
In East Timor the government is still practicing the waste
management in a traditional way. The government is only
responsible for the waste management. They present now the
waste management model that is implemented by the Timor
Leste government to manage solid waste in Tibar. In
addition, they present the waste management model that will
be applied in Timor.
Fig. 1 Waste Management model of East Timor
International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
http://www.ijert.org
IJERTV7IS050040 (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)
Published by :
www.ijert.org
Vol. 7 Issue 05, May-2018
49
D. Final Destination of Waste Management (Timor-
Leste)
In Dili the waste management is still incipient and of
government responsibility. The waste is collected in common
open trucks in the city neighborhoods, deposited in open bins
and transported than to Tibar landfill. The landfill does not
have any preparation and it is in reality a large open burning.
The final destination of the urban solid waste in Dili
community is open burning in Tibar, so it is burning of
unwanted materials that causes smoke and other emissions to
be related directly into the air and environment. The materials
of the burning compose of outdoor piles, burning in a burn
barrel and the use of incinerators which have no pollution
control devices and as such release the gaseous by products
directly into the free atmosphere.
E. Solid Waste Impacts
Based on the analysis results there is a sensibility in
respondents to the waste problem. In fact, respondents have
responsibility in the management of their houses waste.
However, this is still a little matter of low priority. The
problem that most urgently needs solution is health (84%);
pollution appears as the second most referred problem (58%),
tourism (47%) and at last the social problem (42%).
Impact on Health
Regarding health problems caused by waste (81.3 %).
Respiratory diseases (58%), malaria (23%), dengue 22%.
The Director of the National Community Development and
of support to councils also reports that most of workers that
collect waste has tuberculosis disease with 7 confirmed
deaths. The main reason for the transmission of this disease is
the daily direct contact with waste. This information was also
confirmed by sanitation department of Dili municipality - 15
workers caught tuberculosis caused by waste.
The waste collection can also attract many people to collect
recyclable waste to own reuse. There is two types of
collectors: the personal ones composed by adults (43.72 %)
and children (36.93 %); the animal scavengers mostly dogs
(42.26 %).
Fig 2. The volunteer pickers are picking up trash
According to Heller and Catapreta [6](1999) there is a
relation between inadequate management of waste and the
existence of infectious and parasitic diseases. The absence of
collection of solid waste added to their improper disposal is a
major risk factor for public health, especially in the outskirts
of large urban centers, where the population with the lowest
income is heavily.
Impact on the Environment
In environmental impacts, the one that is referred as more
urgent to solve is the increasing of waste volume (42 %), than
appears air pollution (23%), traffic congestion (because
difficult the circulation) (22 %), water contamination (20%),
decrease of water supply and an inadequate sanitation system
(sewerage) (15%);
Inappropriate treatment of waste can cause negative impacts
in the environment which contaminate water, pollute soil and
cause bad smell. Result of this pollution is the decrease of
environmental quality. In addition to environmental problems
are the social problems through the excluded society that
seeks in waste materials to sell (paper, plastic, cans, etc.);
sometimes people also seek food, or remains for consumption
often damaged and contaminated, showing the apex of human
degradation.
These impacts are dependent on waste production rate: a
2014 study developed by the Asian Development Bank shows
that daily arrives to Tibar bin more than 120 tons of waste, so
the management of municipal waste is a growing challenge
for the capital authorities. It means that a person produces
0.51 kg of waste per day.
F. Assessment for the management services provided
by the municipality
We had analyzed the community grade of satisfaction with
the current waste management provided by the
municipalities. There are satisfied 71.46 % of people what
means that Dili community is satisfied with the mechanism
established by the municipality.
Although most of the answers are satisfied with the services
provided by the municipality, 55.9 % of respondents said that
the government hadn’t monitored or controlled the regulation
in the community. This means that the government is
permissive to community inadequate behavior beyond the
waste management (namely the collection). The director of
the sanitation department of Dili municipality has confirmed
that they didn’t apply the penalties to communities that do not
obey to regulation because this law has not yet been enacted
and approved by the government until now.
Regarding of the partnership between government and a
Chinese Company to use a waste incineration process using a
thermal system, as a valorization of an energetic form. The
opinion of the community sample relating this matter was
that this process could improve the waste management
(44%).
The community opinion about government financing for
cleaning activities and reduction of waste volume in councils,
32.71 % says that with this incentive the government is
creating a good dependency attitude in the communities in
relation to cleaning their own neighborhoods. This means that
communities will carry out cleaning activities with some
incentives.
G. Proposal of an integrated and adequate waste
management policy
Regarding the application of an integrated and adequate
policy of waste management it was presented to the inquired
the 3R system (Reduce, Reutilize and Recycle). Most of them
agrees with this system (91%); It was asked to them how they
were available to contribute to the solution of the waste
International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
http://www.ijert.org
IJERTV7IS050040 (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)
Published by :
www.ijert.org
Vol. 7 Issue 05, May-2018
50
problem. 73,8% says that they would pay an amount for this
system application.
Than they were asked the amount they were available to pay
for the system sustainability. 18,6% were available to pay an
amount between $2,05 to $5. So, 34% says that this issue is a
government responsibility so they weren’t available to pay
for that. 77,49% would contribute for a change in the
community’s behavior beyond the waste problem.
About the importance of the waste service payment 71,5%
said that would be important to establish an amount based on
the waste volume produced by each person what means that
could be implemented the polluter payment principle (the
payment was based on the amount of produced waste).
Probably this measure would contribute for a in waste
volume.
Currently in East Timor there are some non-governmental
institutions that do waste separation and treatment. Organic
fertilize ris produced by H3R, Unipessoal Lda, company, in
Tibar. Cans are collected by Besitua company in Aitarak
Laran and then is exported to Singapore. Bottles are collected
by 'Timor Hopeseller Leadership Center' of Timor-Leste's
local organization that Works together with UNDP, and are
exported to Kupang in Indonesia.
After conduct this study, consider that number of
population, generated of urban solid waste, budget, number
of transportation, human resources and quantity of the waste
has been considered as most important factor in solid waste
generation in the urban area.
The next steps of this research is will be make prediction of
the solid waste quantity. As we know that the population is
increasing day by day solid waste generation is also
increasing specifically in the urban area. This is very big
question in front of Ministry of state Administration and Lead
of Municipality that how to fight this problem. It is very
important to predict the quantity of solid waste in the
upcoming year to implement the adequate solid waste
management system in Timor Leste.
H. Prediction of solid waste generation by using the Artificial
Neural Network (ANN)
This artificial neural network (ANN) is to predict solid
waste generation in urban area. We may consider that human
vision, which is an information-processing task. It is the
function of the visual system to provide a representation of
the environment around us. The way in which the neurons of
a neural network will structure and well link with the learning
algorithm using to train the network and will use algorithms
to design of neural networks as being structure.
Fig
3. ANN Model of SWM prediction
I. Solid Waste Management Policy
The waste management responsibility is of the producers.
However according with article 25o of the Law n.o7/2007, 5
de Sep, defined by Government, namely by State of
Administration and Territory Planning Ministry in article no
9, Cleaning and Sanitation Section , the District
Administration service is responsible for the technic support
in the cleaning and sanitation domains namely: remove and
deposit in adequate place the waste collected in the District;
activities of cleaning, washing and disinfection of streets,
pathways and public spaces; cleaning and management of
waste deposits, paper wrappers, grass and bush cut, gutter and
sinks cleaning, removal of posters, among others.
The solid waste management is defined by specific
legislation establishing forms of collection, transport, storage,
processing, disposal, recycling or reuse of solid waste. The
management of solid waste from domestic and commercial
sources are responsibility of local authorities, although the
hospital and industrial and waste from construction activities
or any other are responsibility of the producer
(Environmental Law RDTL, 2011).
IV. CONCLUSION
Urban Solid Waste is one of the major problems in Dili
Community. The waste accumulation is a particular cause of
land, water and air pollution, with huge negative effects on
the environment and in communities’ life quality. However,
the waste can be regarded as potential raw materials for
production of other products and thus constitute a business
opportunity, generating income, creating profit for companies
and reducing impacts in health and environment.
The survey reveals a serious problem for the solid waste
management that is it's increasing with the population and the
income per capita growth. Other problems are the improper
disposal of the government and of the community beyond the
waste reality; also the lack of sensibilization and divulgation
of recycling programs, i.e 3R's program, is a problem, as well
as the consumption pattern and the absence of monitoring by
the government.
Regarding the way community manages the waste the
questionnaires showed that for 94.4 % of respondents the
waste is collected from residence and transported to common
Input Layer
Hidden Layer
Output Layer
International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
http://www.ijert.org
IJERTV7IS050040 (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)
Published by :
www.ijert.org
Vol. 7 Issue 05, May-2018
51
bins; 52% of respondents dispense household waste
recollection, 36% burns waste. The analysis of the waste
impacts reveals that the problems that urgently require a
solution are related with health and environment.
About 3'R system application, as a more integrated and
adequate system for managing waste in the community, the
answer of most respondents was that would accept the system
(89.8 %). About the analysis of the willingness to pay for the
service provided by the government 73.8 % said yes. The
reasons for that was the possibility to change community
behavior and to reduce the impacts on health and
environment.
The analysis evaluation of waste management provided by
the government reveals that 71.5 % of respondents are
satisfied. Regarding the government activities for monitoring
this service 55.9 % said that government does not control the
rules established. The councils funding for cleaning activities
in neighborhoods are already creating habits of waste
management in communities and their neighborhoods.
The partnership between Government and the Chinese
company will improve the existing system but we suggest the
utilization of non-recycled waste to produce energy, because
recyclable waste can be introduced in the production chain as
secondary raw- material producing a new product. It can also
generate employment and income for communities for
business, and reduce the exploitation of natural resources.
In conclusion, contributions for an alternative model for
waste management in East Timor is: a Government program
setting an example practiced by employees on Friday, that
applies the waste management 3'R. A fund for councils to
attribute an award or a prize that will motivate waste
management in communities. Construction of an
infrastructure for waste deposition and treatment. Promote
environmental education and sensibilization in schools and in
councils. The application of sanctions for ones that not obey
to the waste management regulation.
Fig 4. An alternative model of the East Timor Waste Management
In East Timor-Leste we need to create a specific municipal
waste management policy, which sets the principles and
individual responsibilities. The waste problem solution
requires the effort of citizens and government. It is needed to
set goals and quantified targets that enable the development
of institutional networks that integrate and monitored the
system management. It will be important we can improve
more study or research to make prevision related of the
budget, human resource, logistics and can contribute to Timor
Leste Strategic plan
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author would like to Asia Foundation for financial
support and Policy Leader Group.
REFERENCES
[1] ABNT (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS
TÉCNICAS).Resíduos Sólidos: classificação”, NBR 10.004. Rio
de Janeiro, p.63, 1987.
[2] BERNSTEIN, Janis B, “Alternative approaches to pollution control
and waste management regulatory and economic instruments. Urban
Management Programme Discussion Paper No.3”, Washington, DC:
World Bank, 1991.[Online] Available URL:
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/131231468767361425/A
lternative-approaches-to-pollution-control-and-waste-management-
regulatory-and-economic-instruments
[3] CARVALHO JESUS BIA, “Análise da Política da Gestão de resíduos
sólidos em Timor - Leste: Uma Descrição Comparativa dos Sistemas
de Gestão de Resíduos em Portugal e Timor Leste”, Master Thesis
at Universidade Minho Portugal, 2012. [Online] Available URL:
http://repositorio.untl.edu.tl/handle/123456789/104
[4] http://timor-leste.gov.tl/?p=4144&n=1&lang=en
[5] GUPTA, S.et al., “Solid waste management in India: options and
opportunities. Resources, Conservation and Recycling”, vol. 24,
no.2, pp. 137154, 1998. Doi:10.1016/S0921-3449(98)00033-0
[6] HELLER, L.; CATAPRETA, C.A.A, “Associação entre coleta de
resíduos sólidos domiciliares e saúde, Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil”.
Revista Panamericana de Saúde Publica / Pan American Journal of
Public Health, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 88-96, 1999.
[7] Ministério de Saúde Timor Leste, Update at: Novembro 23, 2014.
[Online] Available URL: http://www.moh.gov.tl/?q=node/95
[8] Jornal da República Timor Leste (2008), “Diploma Ministerial
RDTL, Updated at: Novembro 23, 2014. [Online] Available
URL:http://www.jornal.gov.tl/?mod=artigo&id=1459
[9] MUELLER, Charles C, “Os economistas e as relações entre o
sistema económico e o meio ambiente”, Brasília Editora UNB, 2007.
[10] NUNESMAIA M. F, “GESTION DES DÉCHETS URBAINS SOCIALEMENT
INTÉGRÉE . PhD Thesis At: UCP/França, November 2001
[11] Tavares Russo Mário Augusto, “Evolução da gestão dos resíduos
sólidos. In Russo, M. A. T. (2003), Tratamento de resíduos sólidos
(p.8). Universidade de Coimbra, Updated at Novembro 20 2014.
[Online] Available URL:
http://homepage.ufp.pt/madinis/RSol/Web/TARS.pdf
[12] Herdiawan, Junanto. “Rahasia sukses pengelolaan sampah di
Jepang”, Available URL:
http://olahsampah.com/index.php/manajemen-sampah/39-rahasia-
sukses-pengolahan-sampah-di-jepang
[13] Rajashekaran S, Pai G.A.V, Neural networks, fuzzy logic and
genetic algorithms. In: Ghosh AK (ed) Introduction to artificial
intelligence systems 16th print. Prentice Hall of India, India, pp.
1130, [Online] Avaliable URL:Google Schoolar
[14] Waste Management korea/WasteManagement.pd. [Online]
Available URL:
http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_ni/ni_pdfs/NationalReports/
International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
http://www.ijert.org
IJERTV7IS050040 (This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)
Published by :
www.ijert.org
Vol. 7 Issue 05, May-2018
52
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Existem poucos estudos publicados sobre o efeito da coleta inadequada de resíduos sólidos sobre a saúde da população exposta a estes resíduos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi descrever esta associação em uma amostra de crianças menores de 5 anos, moradoras de sete vilas e favelas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram consideradas expostas as crianças cujas famílias não eram beneficiadas pela coleta; não expostas eram as crianças cujas famílias moravam em zonas de coleta. Foi empregado o delineamento epidemiológico seccional, sendo definidos como "casos" os registros ambulatoriais secundários que indicavam doenças diarréicas, parasitárias e dermatológicas. Paralelamente, as demais notificações observadas para a mesma faixa etária constituíram o grupo controle. O estudo foi realizado com base em dados de 1994, sendo que os dados sobre incidência das doenças que caracterizaram os casos, assim como os registros empregados para a composição da amostra de controles, foram obtidos junto ao sistema informatizado da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde. O estudo epidemiológico desenvolvido revelou associação entre ausência de coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e saúde pública. Os resultados sugerem que a população infantil exposta à ausência de serviços de coleta dos resíduos sólidos domiciliares possui 40% (razão de possibilidades de ocorrência ou odds ratio da ordem de 1,40) mais oportunidade de apresentar doenças diarréicas, parasitárias e dermatológicas do que a população não exposta. Além disso, o cálculo do risco atribuível populacional revelou que a universalização da coleta de lixo poderia evitar, considerando o quadro existente em 1995, 512 casos entre crianças nas vilas e favelas estudadas e, para a situação existente em 1994, 2316 casos entre a população infantil em toda a cidade de Belo Horizonte.
Article
In India, the collection, transportation and disposal of MSW are unscientific and chaotic. Uncontrolled dumping of wastes on outskirts of towns and cities has created overflowing landfills, which are not only impossible to reclaim because of the haphazard manner of dumping, but also have serious environmental implications in terms of ground water pollution and contribution to global warming. Burning of waste leads to air pollution in terms of increased TSP and PM10 emissions, which is equivalent to vehicular emissions at times.In the absence of waste segregation practices, recycling has remained to be an informal sector working on outdated technology, but nevertheless thriving owing to waste material availability and market demand of cheaper recycled products. Paper and plastic recycling have been especially growing due to continuously increasing consumption levels of both the commodities.Composting-aerobic and anaerobic, both the options are available to the country for scientific disposal of waste in future. However, country also needs something in terms of policy and guidelines to enable the municipal corporations to run the waste services efficiently.
Article
The purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the most common strategies and policy instruments (that is, regulatory and economic) used in developed and developing countries to achieve pollution control and waste management objectives. Although this topic has been at the center of theoretical controversy both within and outside the World Bank, the paper is not intended to contribute to this debate. Rather, its purpose is to explore how regulatory and economic instruments are used to control air and water pollution, protect ground water, and manage solid and hazardous wastes. The paper is directed to policy makers at the national, state, and local levels of government, as well as to other parties responsible for pollution control and waste management programs.
Análise da Política da Gestão de resíduos sólidos em Timor -Leste: Uma Descrição Comparativa dos Sistemas de Gestão de Resíduos em Portugal e Timor -Leste
  • Jesus Carvalho
  • Bia
CARVALHO JESUS BIA, "Análise da Política da Gestão de resíduos sólidos em Timor -Leste: Uma Descrição Comparativa dos Sistemas de Gestão de Resíduos em Portugal e Timor -Leste", Master Thesis at Universidade Minho Portugal, 2012. [Online] Available URL: http://repositorio.untl.edu.tl/handle/123456789/104
  • Revista Panamericana De Saúde Publica
Revista Panamericana de Saúde Publica / Pan American Journal of Public Health, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 88-96, 1999.
  • Jornal Da República Timor Leste
Jornal da República Timor Leste (2008), "Diploma Ministerial RDTL, Updated at: Novembro 23, 2014. [Online] Available URL:http://www.jornal.gov.tl/?mod=artigo&id=1459
Os economistas e as relações entre o sistema económico e o meio ambiente
  • Charles C Mueller
MUELLER, Charles C, "Os economistas e as relações entre o sistema económico e o meio ambiente", Brasília Editora UNB, 2007.
Evolução da gestão dos resíduos sólidos
  • Tavares Russo
  • Mário Augusto
Tavares Russo Mário Augusto, "Evolução da gestão dos resíduos sólidos. In Russo, M. A. T. (2003), Tratamento de resíduos sólidos (p.8). Universidade de Coimbra, Updated at Novembro 20 2014. [Online] Available URL: http://homepage.ufp.pt/madinis/RSol/Web/TARS.pdf
Rahasia sukses pengelolaan sampah di Jepang
  • Junanto Herdiawan
Herdiawan, Junanto. "Rahasia sukses pengelolaan sampah di Jepang", Available URL: http://olahsampah.com/index.php/manajemen-sampah/39-rahasiasukses-pengolahan-sampah-di-jepang
In: Ghosh AK (ed) Introduction to artificial intelligence systems 16th print
  • S Rajashekaran
  • G A Pai
Rajashekaran S, Pai G.A.V, Neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. In: Ghosh AK (ed) Introduction to artificial intelligence systems 16th print. Prentice Hall of India, India, pp. 11-30, [Online] Avaliable URL:Google Schoolar [14] Waste Management korea/WasteManagement.pd.