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Hegel, Postmodernism, and the Question of Intrinsic Individual Freedom and the Right to Private Property

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Abstract

The intrinsic value of individual freedom is challenged in current global societal thinking. The philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) and postmodern philosophy are two examples of a kind of continual opposition to freedom, as is argued in this paper. This essay studies whether Hegel and postmodernism have holistic and substantial means for upholding the value of intrinsic individual freedom. The paper aims to bring a starting point for, and a starter for the discussion about, the relationship between individual freedom of choice /private judgment and collective responsibility by taking individual right to private property as an example, and to offer a framework which prevents overuse of communal responsibility as the definer of the bounds of individual freedom, by showing the inner inconsistencies of the two philosophies in holism and highest substance, and by offering Protestant philosophy as a better system.
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HEGEL,!POSTMODERNISM,!AND!THE!QUESTION!OF!
INTRINSIC!INDIVIDUAL!FREEDOM!AND!THE!RIGHT!TO!PRIVATE!PROPERTY!
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!
!
VILLE!SUUTARINEN!
A!GRADUATE!STUDENT!IN!SYSTEMATIC!THEOLOGY!
JUNE!11,!2020!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 1!
HEGEL,!POSTMODERNISM,!AND!THE!QUESTION!OF!
INTRINSIC!INDIVIDUAL!FREEDOM!AND!THE!RIGHT!TO!PRIVATE!PROPERTY!
!
The!intrinsic!value!of!individual!freedom!is!challenged!in!current!global!socie-
tal!thinking.
1
!The!philosophy!of!Georg!Wilhelm!Friedrich!Hegel!(17701831)!
and!postmodern!philosophy
2
!are!two!examples!of!a!kind!of!continual!opposi-
tion!to!freedom,!as!is!argued! in!this!paper.!This!essay!studies!whether!Hegel!
and! postmodernism! have! holistic! and! substantial! means! for! upholding! the!
value!of!intrinsic!individual!freedom.!
The!paper!aims!to!bring!a!starting!point!for,!and!a!starter!for!the!dis-
cussion!about,!the!relationship!between!individual!freedom!of!choice
3
/private!
judgment!and! collective! responsibility!by! taking! individual! right! to!private!
property!as!an!example,!and!to!offer!a!framework!which!prevents!overuse!of!
communal!responsibility!as!the!definer!of!the!bounds!of!individual!freedom,!
by!showing! the!inner! inconsistencies!of!the! two!philosophies!in!holism! and!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
1
!For!example,!Jeffrey!Sachs,!‘a!special!advisor!to!the!United!Nations!and!director!of!
the!Earth!Institute!at!Columbia!University’!states!that!Pope!Francis!directly!challenges!
the!“American!idea”!of!God-given!rights!embodied!in! the!Declaration!of! Independ-
ence.’! Cliff! Kincaid,! “Liberal! Academic! Says! America’s! Founding! Document! Out-
moded,”!!""#$%"&'()'*+,(%!(May!18,!2015),!https://www.aim.org/aim-column/!
liberal-academic-says-americas-founding-document-outmoded/.!!
2
!‘That!postmodernism!is!indefinable!is!a!truism.’!Gary!Aylesworth,!“Postmodernism,”!
The! Stanford! Encyclopedia! of!Philosophy! (Spring! 2015),! Edward! N.! Zalta,! ed.,!
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/postmodernism/#3.! Postmodernism! is! defined!
in!this!paper!and!in!terms!of!the!issues!of!this!paper!cumulatively!as!postmodernism!
is!dealt!with,!and!by!referring!to!specific!authors.!In!this!research,!the!terms!postmod-
ernism! and! postmodern!philosophy! are! used! interchangeably,! and! the!examples! of!
postmodern!philosophy!are!discussed!generally,!even!though!postmodernism!is!hard!
to!define!and!it!includes!varying!thought.!
3
!Obviously,!I!do!not!subscribe!to!determinism!or!compatibilism,!but,!roughly!speak-
ing,!I!hold!on!to!libertarian!free!will,!meaning,!in!the!context!of!the!present!topic!of!
the!liberty!of!conscience,!one’s!fundamental!ability!to!make!his/her!own!decision!ac-
cording!to!his/her!conscience.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 2!
highest!substance,!and!by!offering!Protestant!philosophy!as!a!better!system.
4
!
Hence,!this!study!starts!from!the!assumption!that!the!Bible!is!the!Word!of!God!
which!analogously!gives!authoritative!answers.!
The!study!does! not!aim!to!dictate!how!laws!should!be!enacted,!and!it!
realizes!but!does!not!deal!with!the!difficult!and!intricate!political,!judicial,!and!
economic!issues!of!finding!the!balance!between!responsibility!and!freedom!in!
-.+"(/("'cases,!but!stays!on!the!philosophical!and!theological!areas!of!.$()"(.0+.!
First,!I!will!analyse!Hegel’s!view!of!the!individual!freedom!and!private!
property.! Second,! I! will! analyse! postmo dernism’s !s tand! on! the!same!issues,!
with!some!differences!with!Hegelianism.!Third,!I!will!compare!the!two!views!
with!similarities.!Fourth,!I!will!critically!assess!the!two!views!and!give!a!possi-
ble!answer!to!the!problem!from!the!system!of!thought!exemplified!by!the!phi-
losophy!of!the!Protestant!founding!fathers!of!America.!
!
Hegel%and%the%Individual%Freedom%
Hegel’s! social,!theological,!and!political!views!are!still!influential!in!philoso-
phy,
5
!and!his!dialectics!is!still!prominent.
6
!Hegel!also!has!a!dialectical!view!to-
wards!the!individual!and!the!collective,!as!Jacques!Derrida!concludes.
7
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
4
!This!philosophical! method! is!further! explained!below! when!the! method!is! imple-
mented.!
5
!Paul!Redding,!Georg!Wilhelm!Friedrich!Hegel,”!The!Stanford!Encyclopedia!of!Phi-
losophy!(Spring!2020),!ed.!Edward!N.!Zalta,!https://plato.stanford.edu/!
archives/spr2020/entries/hegel/.!
6
!Andrew!Cole,! “Hegelianism,”! in! 12+' 30445-6#$&' 745 .%)(4)' 84' *%$9,! ed.! Jeff ! Dia-
manti,!Andrew!Pendakis,!and! Imre!Szeman!(London:!Bloomsbury!Academic,!2019),!
18586,!http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781474278737.ch-020.!!
7
!Simon!Lumsden,!“Hegel,!Derrida!and!the!Subject,”!74-54-'%),':(-84$&;'12+'<4#$)%0'
4/'=%8#$%0'%),'>4"(%0'?2(04-4.2&!3.23!(2007),!35,!http://!
www.cosmosandhistory.org/index.php/journal/article/view/68.!!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 3!
It!is!difficult!to!find!out!Hegel’s!view!on!individuality.!Kislev!states!that!
‘Hegel!nowhere!defines!what!he!means!by!the!principle!of!individuality.’
8
!How-
ever,!he!differentiates!the!concept!of!individual!(+()@+0)+)!‘from!the!immediate!
einzelne!of!sense!perception.’
9
!A),(B(,##5,!on!the!other!hand,!can!mean!both!
a!specific! person’!or!an! organic! form ! of! unity’.
10
!Now!the! question!is:! Does!
Hegel!have!a!notion!of!intrinsic!value!for!individual!freedom?!
Many!thinkers!have!concluded!that!Hegel!argues!that!the!government!
‘knows!what!is!rational!or!beneficial!for!individuals,’!and!that!the!individuals!
need!to! yield! to!the! state’s! definition!of!the!common!good.
11
!However,! Bau-
mann!claims!that!these!thinkers!are!not! getting!the!whole!idea!of!Hegel.!In-
stead,!for!Hegel!the!relationship!between!an!individual!and!the!community!is!
an!interrelated!process.!Baumann!pens:!
In!terms!of!subjective!development,!the!capacity!to!use!language!and!to!de-
velop!certain!ways!of!comprehending!the!world!can!only!evolve!in!commu-
nication!with!others!and!in!a!society!that!provides!one!with!complex!objects!
of!thought.’!(Baumann,!“Hegel!and!Marx!on!Individuality!and!the!Universal!
Good,”!63)!
!
The!dynamic!roles!of!individuals!or!selves!or!singulars,!which!can!exist!only!as!
a!whole,!in!defining!the!common!universal!good,!is!Hegel’s!interest.
12
!As!far!as!
the!common!essence!of!that!good!for!humanity!is!found!(even!by!a!dictator),
13
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
8
!Shachar!Freddy!Kislev,!“Hegel,!Spinoza,!and!the!‘Principle!of!Individuality,’”!A)8+$)%C
8(4)%0' <4#$)%0' 4/'?2(04-4.2("%0' >8#,(+-!26.4! (2018),! 499,!
https://doi.org/10.1080/09672559.2018.1483413.!!!
9
!Kislev,!“Hegel,!Spinoza,!and!the!‘Principle!of!Individuality,’”!501.!
10
!Kislev,!“Hegel,!Spinoza,!and!the!‘Principle!of!Individuality,’”!502.!
11
!Charlotte!Baumann,!“Hegel!and!Marx!on!Individuality!and!the!Universal!Good,”!:+C
D+0'3#00+8()!39.1!(2018):!6181,!doi:10.1017/hgl.2016.33.!
12
!Baumann,!“Hegel!and!Marx!on!Individuality!and!the!Universal!Good,”!63;!Redding,!
Georg!Wilhelm!Friedrich!Hegel,”!ch.!3.1.1,'3.2.2E'
13
!Baumann,!Hegel!and!Marx!on!Individuality!and!the!Universal!Good,”!62.!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 4!
the!wholistic!dynamics!can!be!perfected.!The!practical!and!dynamic!process!of!
individualization!is!illustrated!by!Hegel’s!view!on!the!right!to!private!property.!
!
Hegel%on%Private%Property%Rights%
According!to!Ciavatta,!Hegel!criticizes!the!‘absolute!character!of!the!exclusive!
property!rights!of!the!individual.’
14
!Hegel!is!not!for!self-articulation!as!the!ul-
timate!definer!of!the!reality!of!the!self,!and!this!is!why!"+$8%()'F(),-'4/!contrac-
tual! relations! determine! property! rights.
15
!For! Hegel,! one! can! have! private!
property!if!one!is!psychologically!matured!and!stable.
16
!It!seems!that! one!is!
truly!free!only! if!his/her!‘standpoint!of! possession!is!transcended,’!meaning!
that!it!must!be!somehow!demonstrated!by!an!act!‘that!the!holder!has!come!to!
establish!her!ontological!independence!vis--vis!the!thing.’
17
!This!is!how!one!
can!experience!one’s!own!identity!without!things!determining!who!one!is;!in-
stead,!one’s!will!determines!‘itself!on!its!own!account.’
18
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
14
!David!Ciavatta,!“Hegel!on!Owning!One’s!Own!Body,”!12+'>4#82+$)'<4#$)%0'4/'?2(04-C
4.2&!43.1!(2005),!1,!doi:!10.1111/j.2041-6962.2005.tb01940.x.!
15
!Ciavatta,!“Hegel! on! Owning! One’s! Own!Body,”!2;!Georg! Wilhelm!Friedrich! Hegel,!
?2(04-4.2&'4/'G(D28!(trans.!S.!W.!Dyde;!1896;!trans.!with!notes!T.!M.!Knox;!1942;!repr.,!
Clarendon!Press,!1952),!§§7193,!https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/!
hegel/works/pr/philosophy-of-right.pdf.!Beltrán!argues!that!for!Hegel,!‘[t]here!is!no!
social! contract,’! but! ‘[p]rivate! property!is! a! fact’! that! depends! on! a! relation.! Elena!
Beltrán,!“Property!in!Human!Bodies,!Self-Preservation!and!Human!Rights,”!in!Ting!Xu!
and!Jean!Allain,!eds.,!?$4.+$8&'%),':#5%)'G(D28-'()' %' H046%0'74)8+98!(Oxford:!Hart!
Publishing,!2015),!12829,!http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781474202596.ch-005.!!
16
!Beltrán,!“Property!in!Human!Bodies,!Self-Preservation!and!Human!Rights,”!129.!
17
!Ciavatta,!“Hegel! on! Owning! One’s! Own! Body,”! 6;! Timothy! Brownlee,! “Hegel’s!De-
fense!of! Toleration,”! in!Angelica!Nuzzo,!ed.,! :+D+0' 4)'G+0(D(4)'%),'?40(8("-!(Albany:!
SUNY!Press,!2013),!87.!
18
!Ciavatta,!“Hegel!on!Owning!One’s!Own!Body,”!5.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 5!
However,!according!to!Hegel,!an!individual!truly!exists!in!estates,!cor-
porations,!and!in!the!government.
19
!‘Social!recognition’!in!the!maturing!pro-
cess!is!a!foundation.
20
!Hegel!sets!universal!spirit!of!reason!above!the!individual!
and! freedo m! of! choice! in! his! “hierar chy! of! values”,
21
!even! thou gh!Baumann !
thinks!that!individuals’!particular!interests!ideally!construct!the!whole!in!He-
gel’s!thought.
22
!The!estates!and!corporations!define!the!individual!for!Hegel,!
because!he!‘argues!that!individuals!must!enter!the!state!as!members!of!the!es-
tates,’
23
!and!because!he!concludes!that!even!private!judgment! does!not!exist!
without!the!estates,!meaning!that!this!notion!
is!to!bring!private!will!and!private!judgment!to!a!political!will!and!conscious-
ness!focused!on!the!whole!and!its!ends.!(Charles!Taylor,!:+D+0![Cambridge:!
Cambridge!University!Press,!1977],!444)!
!
According! to!Buchwalter,!Hegel!does!hold! on!to!‘the!right! of!conscience!and!
the!free!expression!of!belief’!which!the!state!should!protect.
24
!However,!Hegel!
sees!his!notion!of!the!realized!or!actualized!freedom!as!a!development!from!
the!subjective!view!of!freedom!to!a!worldwide!system.
25
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
19
!Hegel,!?2(04-4.2&'4/'G(D28,!§§301–2,!34142.!
20
!Beltrán,!“Property!in!Human!Bodies,!Self-Preservation!and!Human!Rights,”!128.!
21
!Robert!C.!Solomon,!I$45'G%8(4)%0(-5'84'J9(-8+)8(%0(-5;'12+'J9(-8+)8(%0(-8-'%),'12+($'
=()+8++)82C"+)8#$&'3%"FD$4#),-,!2nd!ed.!(Lanham,!MD:!Rowman!&!Littlefield,!2001),!
9192;!Hegel,!?2(04-4.2&'4/'G(D28,!§§150–152.!
22
!Baumann,!“Hegel!and!Marx!on!Individuality!and!the!Universal!Good,”!72.!
23
!Baumann,!“Hegel!and!Marx!on!Individuality!and!the!Universal!Good,”!73.!
24
!Andrew!Buchwalter,!Religion,!Civil!Society,!and!the!System!of!an!Ethical!World:!
Hegel!on!the!Protestant!Ethic!and!the!Spirit!of!Capitalism,”!in!Nuzzo,!:+D+0'4)'G+0(D(4)'
%),'?40(8("-,!213.!
25
!Buchwalter,!“Religion,!Civil!Society,!and!the!System!of!an!Ethical!World,”!215.!It!is!
not!surprising,!then,!that!Hegel!is!not!for!separation!of!church!and!state!but!for!a!sym-
biotic!relationship!between!them,! in!which! only!a!particular!kind! of! religion!is! apt,!
and!this!religion!‘is!itself!developed!and!shaped!within!rational!state!structures.’!Ra-
chel!Bayefsky,!“The!State!as!a!Temple!of!Human!Freedom,”!in!Nuzzo,!:+D+0'4)'G+0(D(4)'
%),'?40(8("-,!48.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 6!
We!may!conclude!that!for!Hegel!individuality!does!not!have!value!out-
side!the!community.
26
!The!highest!value!in!his!thought!is!the!universal!process!
and!the!absolute!collective!subject,!because!it!enables!‘the!greatest!amount!of!
freedom.’
27
! This! means! that! intrinsic! individual!freedom! is! not! the!starting!
point!for!Hegel.!
!
Postmodernism%and%the%Individual%Freedom%
When,!we! might!say,!for! Hegel! the!mind!of! God!is!the! deepest! reality!of! the!
process!of!history,!in! postmodernism!the!sublime!is!‘one!point!of! entry!into!
understanding!this!process.’
28
!Hegel!was!for!‘the!totalization!of!knowledge,’
29
!
but!postmodernism!is!against!it.!Postmodern!philosophy!replaced!the!Enlight-
enment!universals!with!differences!(,(//K$%)"+),
30
!even!though!Derrida!is!not!
for!relativism!and!does!not!abandon!absolutes.
31
!
According!to!Taylor,!there!is!no!property!of!one’s!own!person!even,!be-
cause!the!self!is!not!stable!in!this!movement
32
!we!call!time,!which!is!why!only!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
26
!For!Hegel,![t]he!state!can!regulate!prices!and!even,!if!necessary,!determine!every-
one’s! labor.”’!Baumann,!“Hegel!and! Marx!on! Individuality!and!the! Universal! Good,”!
6869;!Hegel,!?2(04-4.2&'4/'$(D28,!§§236,!262.!
27
!Baumann,!“Hegel!and!Marx!on!Individuality!and!the!Universal!Good,”!77.!
28
!Richard!H.! Roberts,!“Theology!and!the!Social!Sciences,”!in!David!F.!Ford,!ed.,!12+'
*4,+$)' 12+404D(%)-;'!)'A)8$4,#"8(4)'84' 72$(-8(%)'12+404D&'()'82+'1L+)8(+82'7+)8#$&,!
2nd!ed.!(Malden,!MA:!Blackwell,!1997),!703.!
29
!Roberts,!“Theology!and!the!Social!Sciences,”!703.!
30
!Vincent!B.!Leitch,!M(8+$%$&'7$(8("(-5'()' 82+'NO-8'7+)8#$&;' 12+4$&'G+)%(--%)"+!(Lon-
don:! Bloomsbury! Academic,! 2014),! 52,!
http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781472594013.ch-004.!!
31
!Jacques!Derrida!quoted!in!Jacques!de!Ville,!<%"P#+-'Q+$$(,%;'M%L'%-'!6-40#8+':4-.(C
8%0(8&,!Nomikoi:!Critical!Legal!Thinkers!(Routledge,!2012),!Google!Books!Preview,!ch.!
1,!https://books.google.fi/books/!
about/Jacques_Derrida.html?id=Tz3RbwAACAAJ&redir_esc=y.!!
32
!Derrida!used! the! term! ‘movement’! for! a! weave!of!differences’.!Lumsden,!“Hegel,!
Derrida!and!the!Subject,”!37.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 7!
a!trace!of!identity!appears!in!the!present.
33
!Hence,!postmodernism!is!against!
value!of!an!individual!subject!if!it!is!based!on!a!universal!concept,!and!if!it!is!
not!on!a!‘ceaseless![movement!of]!becoming.’
34
!
As!individuality,! equality,! and!freedom! are!something!that!2%..+)!in!
exchange! relations,
35
!there! are! no! objective! rights! for! them! in! postmodern!
thinking.!According!to!Meylahn,!Derrida’s!différance!means!that!‘there!are!no!
universal!individual!rights.’
36
!Through!language!the!world!is!created!anew!as!
equal,
37
!which!means!that!the!value!of! the!individual’s!freedom!is! based!on!
communication.!This!suggests!that!postmodern!philosophy!subscribes!to!indi-
vidual! freedom!of! choice,! but! does!not!subscribe!to!()8$()-("!individual!free-
dom!of!choice!as!a!universal!right.!
When!it!comes!to!the!right!to!private!property,!Derrida!looks!at!it!from!
an!angle!of!hospitality!which!creates!a!dilemma.!If!one!is!hospitable,!it!assumes!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
33
!Mark!C.!Taylor,!J$$()D;'!'?4-854,+$)' %R12+404D&!(Chicago:!University!of!Chicago!
Press,!1984),!4251.!
34
!C.!Schrag,!The!Self!After!Postmodernity!(New!Haven:!Yale!University!Press,!1997),!
8,!quoted!in!John!Webster,!“The!Human!Person,”!in!Kevin!J.!Vanhoozer,!ed.,!12+'7%5C
6$(,D+'745.%)(4)'84'?4-854,+$)'12+404D&,!Cambridge!Companions!to!Religion!(Cam-
bridge:!Cambridge!University!Press,!2003)!223.!
35
!Simon!Wortham,!12+'Q+$$(,%'Q("8(4)%$&!(London:!Continuum,!2010),!PDF!e-book,!
171.!
36
!Johann-Albrecht!Meylahn,!“An!Ethos!of!Deconstruction!in!Multi-Cultural!and!Multi-
Religious!Contexts,”!G+0(D(4)'S'12+404D&!23.34!(2016),!380,!doi:!10.1163/!
15743012-02303004.!Martin!Heidegger!(18891976)!was!a!major!influence!towards!
the!concept!of!difference!by!his!concept!of!disjunction.!See!Joanna!Hodge,!Genealogy!
for!Postmodern!Ethics:! Reflections! on!Hegel!and! Heidegger,”!in!Philippa!Berry! and!
Andrew! Wernick,! eds.,! >2%,4L' 4/' >.($(8;' ?4-854,+$)(-5' %),' G+0(D(4)!(London:!
Routledge,!1992),!137.!
37
!Meylahn,!“An!Ethos!of!Deconstruction!in!Multi-Cultural!and! Multi-Religious!Con-
texts,”!382.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 8!
a!private!property!out!of!which!to!be!hospitable.
38
!Hence,!Derrida!has!a!nega-
tive!tone!towards!private!property!since!it!brings!walls!and!fences!between!
people,
39
!which,!we! may!conclude,!prevents!différance!and! communication.!
Moreover,!Mark!C.!Taylor!sees!that!‘economy!of!domination!based!on!the!prin-
ciple!of!ownership’!presupposes!property.
40
!
Therefore,!postmodernism!judges!capitalism,
41
!especially!in!the!form!
of!crony! and! greedy! capitalism! of! which! Taylor! us es! the! term:! ‘economy! of!
domination’.
42
!However,!this!does!not!necessarily!mean!that!postmoderns!are!
Marxists!or!communists.
43
!In!fact,!postmodernism!tries! to!dissolve!right!and!
left,!abandon!historical!purpose—which!is!something!that!Marxism!has—and!
lose!the!self!(ego).
44
!
!
Similarities%between%the%Two%Philosophies:%
Making%the%Case%for%the%Continual%Opposition%to%Freedom%
%
As!we!see!in!the!analyses!above,!both!Hegel!and!postmodernism!do!not!have!
the!end!of!individual!freedom!of!choice!without!the!community.!According!to!
Taylor,!Hegel!sees!difference!in! identity!as! constituting!the!authentic!self.
45
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
38
!Jacques!Derrida,!T/':4-.(8%0(8&;'!))+'Q#/4#$5%)8+00+'A)B(8+-'<%"P#+-'Q+$$(,%'84'G+C
-.4),,!trans.!Rachel!Bowlby!(Stanford,!CA:!Stanford!University!Press,!2000),!5355.!
39
!Derrida,!T/':4-.(8%0(8&,!4755.!
40
!Taylor,!J$$()D,!27.!
41
!Kirk!R.!MacGregor,!74)8+5.4$%$&'12+404D&;'!)'A)8$4,#"8(4);'70%--("%0U'JB%)D+0("%0U'
?2(04-4.2("%0U'%),'H046%0'?+$-.+"8(B+-!(Grand!Rapids,!MI:!Zondervan,!2019),!28788.!
42
!Taylor,!J$$()D,!2728.!
43
!Derrida!fostered!only!the!‘spirit’!of!Marx.!Niall!Lucy,!!'Q+$$(,%'Q("8(4)%$&!(Malden,!
MA:!Blackwell,!2004),!8085.!
44
!Eve!Tavor!Bannet,!“Marx,!God!and!praxis,”!in!Berry!and!Wernick,!>2%,4L'4/'>.($(8,!
132.!
45
!Mark!C.!Taylor,!<4#$)+&-'84'>+0/244,;':+D+0'%),'V(+$F+D%%$,!(Berkeley,!CA:!Univer-
sity!of!California!Press,!1981),!PDF!e-book,!275.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 9!
The!self!is!fragmented,!and!can!be!attained!via!community,!perhaps! from! ‘a!
space!of!reasons’!which!has!basis!in!the!following!thought!from!Lumsden:!
While! ,(//K$%)"+!is! not! straightforwardly! equivalent! to! intersubjectivity,!
norms,!the!natural!world!and!so!on,!neither!is!it!wholly!other!to!the!field!of!
determination!or!the!space!of!reasons!that!makes!up!the!inhabited!world.!
(Lumsden,!“Hegel,!Derrida!and!the!Subject,”!37)!
!
!
When!in!postmodernism!the!value!of! the!individual’s!freedom!is!founded!on!
communication,! it! means! that! it! includes! relationships,
46
!human! beings’!
words,!and!communities.!When!seeing!the!Other!and!not!your!ego,!realization!
of!freedom!from!self-possession!can!happen.
47
!
48
!
49
!
Very! similarly! with! postmodern! thinkers,! Hegel! asserts! that! one! be-
comes!truly!free!when!he/she!is!liberated!(through!education)!from!‘the!self-
will!of!the!individual,’!mere!subjectivity,!capricious!desires,!and!‘private!con-
science.’
50
!In!this!sense,!Hegel’s!and!postmodernism’s!abandoning!of!the!indi-
vidual!self!is!similar,!and!is!connected!with!their!definition!of!freedom!and!set-
ting!the! value!of! communal!harmony!above!the! value!of! intrinsic!individual!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
46
!Taylor!states!that!,(//+$+)"+'/$45!other!is!at!the!same!time!$+0%8(4)'84!other.’!Taylor,!
J$$()D,!108.!
47
!Taylor,!J$$()D,!1951.!Taylor!traces!the!influence!for!self-possession!back!to!Refor-
mation!theology!and!Luther’s!attention!to!individual!believer.!Taylor,!J$$()D,!2021.!
48
!According!to!Bannet,!the!ego!is!an!inclination!of!oneself!‘before!something!Other!
than!his!own!finitude!and!his!own!self-interest.’!Bannet,!“Marx,!God!and!praxis,”!133.!
‘This!something!is!the!Sacred!and!its!Law.’!Bannet,!“Marx,!God!and!praxis,”!133.!How-
ever,!it!cannot!be!a!universal!law,!because!postmodernism!abandons!universals.!
49
!Taylor!argues!that!the!principle!of!ownership,!which!he!links!with!the!individual’s!
search!for!satisfaction,!leads!to!totalitarianism!even.!Taylor,!J$$()D,!2628.!
50
!Hegel,!?2(04-4.2&'4/'G(D28,!157159.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 10!
freedom,!as!is!discussed!below.!Even!though!Derrida!refuses!Hegelian!univer-
sals,!Hegel’s!‘collective!human!self-determination’!which!is!constantly!chang-
ing
51
!is!comparable!with!postmodernism.
52
!
It!is!prominent!that!two!in!many!ways!different!philosophies!hold!this!
one!thing!in!common.!It! suggests!that!a!philosophical!opposition! against!in-
trinsic!human!freedom!is!continual.!By!realizing!this,!we,!today,!might!feel!the!
need!to!seek!reasonable!ways!to!preserve!individual!liberty!which!is!valuable.!
!An!important!common!thing!for!Hegel!and!postmodernism!in!terms!of!
this!paper!is!that!both!of!them!do!not!base!their!philosophies!on!the!Historical-
Grammatical!method,!which!stands!on!the!analogous!system!of!the!Word!of!
God.! Hegel’s! universal! mind! is! not! epistemologically! biblical,
53
!but! it! is!
grounded!on! the!Self! and!its!mental!games.
54
!Postmodernism,! on! the! other!
hand,!draws!from!the!hermeneutics!of!discourse,!which!fragments!the!coher-
ence!of!the! Bible!into!conflicting! political!voices!and! language!games.
55
!This!
paper! brings! an! alternative! philosophy! to! challenge! the! claims! mentioned!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
51
!Lumsden,!“Hegel,!Derrida!and!the!Subject,”!48.!
52
!Lumsden!also!states!that!in!Hegel,!‘we,!and!the!natural!consciousness,!come!to!see!
ourselves! not! just! as!products!of!these!conditions!but!as!collectively!producing!the!
conditions!that!underlie!our!judgements!and!discursive!exchanges.’!Lumsden,!“Hegel,!
Derrida!and!the!Subject,”!47.!This!sounds!somewhat!like!the!postmodernism’s!argu-
ment!of!communication’s!ability!to!produce!reality!(of!freedom,!equality,!etc.).!
53
!MacGregor,!74)8+5.4$%$&'12+404D&,!36.!
54
!Eta! Linnemann,! Historical-Critical!and! Evangelical!Theology,”!<4#$)%0'4/'82+'!,C
B+)8(-8'12+404D("%0'>4"(+8&!5.2!(1994),!25,!https://!
digitalcommons.andrews.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1443&context=jats.!
Moreover,!Sontag!asserts:!‘Like!Augustine,!Hegel!finds!God!by!starting!from!his!own!
consciousness.’! Frederick!Sontag,! Q(B()+' ?+$/+"8(4);' ?4--(60+'A,+%-' 4/' H4,!(London:!
SCM!Press,!1962),!74.!In!Hegel’s!thought,!the!Divine!life!is!transformed!‘after!the!pat-
tern!of!the!human!self.’!Sontag,!Q(B()+'?+$/+"8(4),!74.!
55
!Timo!Eskola,!*+$F(8&-8+)'W+$F4--%;'G%%5%8#)8#0F()8%'X%'V(+0+)':+$5+)+#8((FF%,!Ius-
titia!34!(Helsinki:!Suomen!Teologinen!Instituutti,!2018),!23335.!Taylor!explains!that!
’the!distinction!between!signifier!and!signified!is!actually!a!product!of! "4)-"(4#-)+--'
(8-+0/.’!Taylor,!J$$()D,!105!(emphasis!in!the!original).!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 11!
above.
56
!In!addition!to!assessing!the!two!philosophies!from!the!aspects!of!ho-
lism!and!substance,!we!shall!also!bring!arguments!relevant!for!the!topic!from!
this!different!system!of!thought!which!also!evaluates!the!two!philosophies.!
!
Holism%and%Substance%of%Values%
of%Individual%Freedom%and%Common%Good%
%
According!to!the!founding!fathers!of!America,!individual!rights,!including!lib-
erty!of!conscience!and!right!to!private!property,!are!grounded!on!the!Bible.
57
!
Hence,!this!essay!uses!the!Protestant!method.
58
! !
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
56
!I!have!already!discussed!about!the!liberty!of!conscience!from!the!Bible!and!history,!
even!though!very!shortly.!See!Ville!Suutarinen,!“Exploring!the!Grievances!of!the!Union!
of!Church!and!State,”!ResearchGate,!https://www.researchgate.net/!
publication/320691807_Exploring_the_!
Grievances_of_the_Union_of_Church_and_State.!!!This!paper!concentrates!more!on!the!
right!to!private!property!and!its!relation!to!individual!liberty,!and!on!the!philosophical!
side!of!the!issues.!
57
!This! research! pap er! generally! bases! its! thought! on! the! earl y!fat hers’! Protestant !
principles!(or!method)!of!.$(5%,!-40%!and!848%'-"$(.8#$%,!and!%)%04D(%'-"$(.8#$%+,!as!
starting!points,!from!which!Historical-Grammatical!method!is!derived!(without!going!
into!the!nuances!of!different!schools!and!views!inside!Protestantism,!such!as!different!
views!inside!Historical-Grammatical!method).!Roy!E.!Gane’s!method,!which!is,!gener-
ally!speaking,!grounded!on!Historical-Grammatical!method,!is!used!in!this!essay.!Roy!
E.!Gane,!T0,'1+-8%5+)8'M%L'/4$'72$(-8(%)-;'T$(D()%0'74)8+98'%),'J),#$()D'!..0("%8(4)!
(Grand!Rapids,!MI:!Baker!Academic,!2017),!19195.!See!also!Nicholas!Miller’s!method!
of!holistic!biblical!realism!as!he!calls!it,!as!one!example!of!a!development!from!those!
Protestant!biblical!ideas.!Nicholas!P.!Miller,!“Divided!by!Visions!of!the!Truth:!The!Bi-
ble,!Epistemology,!and!the!Adventist!Community,”!!),$+L-'Y)(B+$-(8&'>+5()%$&'>8#,C
(+-!47.2!(2009):!24162,!https://digitalcommons.andrews.edu/auss/vol47/iss2/5/.!
More!about!the!Protestant!method!and!Historical-Grammatical! method! in! principle!
see!Richard! M.! Davidson,! “Biblical! Interpretation,”! in! :%),644F'4/'>+B+)82CQ%&' !,C
B+)8(-8' 12+404D&,!vol.!12!of!7455+)8%$&'G+/+$+)"+'>+$(+-!(Hagerstown,! MD:! Review!
and!Herald,!2000):!58104;!Walter!C.!Kaiser!and!Moisés!Silva,!A)8$4,#"8(4)'84'3(60("%0'
:+$5+)+#8("-;' 12+' >+%$"2' /4$' *+%)()D,! rev.! and! expanded! ed.! (Grand! Rapids,! MI:!
Zondervan,!2007).!
58
!I!am!aware!that!Hegel!claimed!to!be!a!Lutheran!Protestant.!Lu!De!Vos,!“Hegel!and!
Protestantism,”!in!Timo!Slootweg,!and!Barend!Christoffel!Labuschagne,! eds.!:+D+0Z-'
?2(04-4.2&'4/'82+':(-84$("%0'G+0(D(4)-,!vol.!6!of!7$(8("%0'>8#,(+-'()'H+$5%)'A,+%0(-5!(Lei-
den:!Brill,!2012),!243.!However,!his!philosophy,!as!far!as!the!topic!of!this!paper!and!
epistemology!as!showed!above!are!concerned,!is!not!based!on!Protestant!principles,!
as!is!argued!in!this!essay.!Moreover,!Hegel’s!‘interpretation!of!religion!more!generally!
seems!eclectic!and!transconfessional.’!De!Vos,!“Hegel!and!Protestantism,”!243.!Hegel!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 12!
The! emergence! of! individual! rights! is! meaningfully! influenced! by!
Protestant!thought.
59
!
Equality!in!the!eyes!of!God!laid!the!foundation!for!equality!in!the!eyes!of!oth-
ers! and! before! the! law.! Equal! obligations! eventually! became! equal! rights.!
(Steve!Bruce,!“The!Social!Process!of!Secularization,”!in!12+'30%"FL+00'745C
.%)(4)' 84'>4"(404D&'4/' G+0(D(4),! vol.! 2! of! 30%"FL+00' 745.%)(4)-' 84' G+0(D(4)U'
Richard!K.!Fenn,!ed.![Oxford:!Blackwell,!2001],!255)!
!
!
Protestantism! contributed! significantly! to! industrialization,!which!gave!way!
for!the!changing!of!occupation!from!hierarchical!model! to!task/role-specific,!
when!‘people!behind!the!roles!could!be!seen!as!in!some!sense!equal.’
60
!Given!
that!oppression!was!happening!at!work!places;!however,!people!were!now!on-
tologically!equal,!and!it!‘gave!birth!to!the!universal!right!to!own!property,!to!
be!free!from!the!arbitrary!exercise!of!power,!and!to!select!one’s!political!lead-
ers.’
61
!
The!founding!father!Elisha! Williams! used! philosophical! and! religious!
thinking!when!he!came!up!with!the!notion!of!individual!rights!to!liberty!and!
property,!as!he!took!from!Enlightenment!thinking!and!the!Bible.
62
!Also!Isaac!
Backus!was!for!individual!rights!for!conscience,!liberty,!and!property.
63
!These!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
is! not! interested! in! sola! scriptura,! but! in! ‘the! purification! of! the! singular! heart!
(through!education!and!action)!in!the!ethical,!free!life!of!spiritual!community.’!De!Vos,!
“Hegel!and!Protestantism,”!263.!
59
!Nicholas! P.! Miller,! 12+' G+0(D(4#-' G448-' 4/' 82+' I($-8' !5+),5+)8;' Q(--+)8()D'
?$48+-8%)8-'%),'82+'>+.%$%8(4)'4/'72#$"2'%),'>8%8+!(Oxford:!Oxford!University!Press,!
2012),!89.!
60
!Bruce,!“The!Social!Process!of!Secularization,”!256.!
61
!Bruce,!“The!Social!Process!of!Secularization,”!256.!
62
!Miller,!12+'G+0(D(4#-'G448-'4/'82+'I($-8'!5+),5+)8,!9699.!Elisha!used!Second!Tim-
othy!3:1515!and!John!20:32!for!biblical!sovereign!authority!for!faith!and!practice.!
Miller,!12+'G+0(D(4#-'G448-' 4/' 82+'I($-8'!5+),5+)8,!98.!For!private!interpretation!of!
Scripture,!he!used!Acts!17:11!and!First!Corinthians!10:15.!Miller,!12+'G+0(D(4#-'G448-'
4/'82+'I($-8'!5+),5+)8,!9899.!
63
!Miller,!12+'G+0(D(4#-'G448-'4/'82+'I($-8'!5+),5+)8,!106.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 13!
biblical! principles! influenced! the! Western! values! and! the! universal! human!
rights.
64
!Hence,! an! agreement”! was! made!between!Enlightenment!thinking!
and! biblical! thinking.
65
!History! shows! the! legitimacy! of! this! agreement,! be-
cause!it!was!a!breakthrough!out!of!the!medieval!mindset!in!which!communal!
harmony,!even!under!a!totalitarian!rule,!had!higher!value!than!individual!free-
dom! of! choice,
66
!breaking! the! whole!of! values.! Hegel! and! postmodernism!
turned!philosophy!back!towards!the!medieval!“anti-holism”.!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
64
!In!general,!the!Protestant!method!abandoned!the!“civil”!and!“ceremonial”!laws!of!
the!Old!Testament!(OT)!via!the!new!covenant!because!they!were!theocratic!laws.!Nor-
man!Geisler,!72$(-8(%)'J82("-;'74)8+5.4$%$&'(--#+-'S'T.8(4)-,!2nd!ed.! (Grand!Rapids,!
MI:!Baker,!2010),!213.!Only!universal!principles!can!be!derived!from!these!laws.!Gane,!
T0,'1+-8%5+)8'M%L'/4$'72$(-8(%)-,!177.!‘Most!of!the!articles!in!the!Universal!Declara-
tion!of!Human!Rights!(UDHR)!have!antecedents!in!OT!law,!a!much!earlier!milestone!
originally!given!to!one!nationancient!Israelthat!was!to!serve!as!a!model!for!other!
nations!(e.g.,!Deut.!4:58;!Isa.!2:24;!Mic.!4:13).’!Gane,!T0,'1+-8%5+)8'M%L'/4$'72$(-C
8(%)-,!308.!
65
!Miller!explains!further:!’While!the!right!of!private!judgment!played!a!role!in!both!
Enlightenment!and!Protestant!thought,!it!originated!in!the!West!as!a!Protestant!reli-
gious!idea!that!was! only!later!borrowed!and!modified!by! Enlightenment!thinkers…!
Protestant!ministers!were!not!the!only!ones!who!claimed!that!private!judgment!was!
religious!in!its!roots.!British!political!thinkers!acknowledged!their!debt!tor!religious!
thinkers!and!pastors!for!the!concept.’!Miller,'12+'G+0(D(4#-'G448-'4/'82+'I($-8'!5+),C
5+)8,!92,!93.!
66
!Historical!study!per!se!is!out!of!the!scope!of!this!paper.!For!clarity’s!sake,!the!fol-
lowing!has!to!be!stated.!Roughly!speaking,!even!though!a!variant!of!property!rights!
existed!in!the!medieval!law!(Arianna!Pretto-Sakmann,!34#),%$(+-'4/'?+$-4)%0' ?$4.C
+$8&;' >2%$+-' %),' >#6C>2%$+-![London:! Hart! Publishing,! 2005],! 88,!
http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781472559746),! Christianity! moved! somewhat! back-
wards!in!the!development!of!individual!rights,!and!especially!concerning!liberty!of!
conscience,!since!the!sacramental!system!of!the!medieval!church!taught!that!one!can!
be!saved!only!by! the!collective!ecclesiastical!hierarchy,!and! since!it! established!the!
canon! law! which! enforced! tyranny! over! conscience.! Philip! Schaff! writes! that! the!
canon!law!‘gave!its!sanction!to!the!devilish!principle!of!ecclesiastical!compulsion,!de-
claring!that!physical!force!is!to!be!used!to!coerce!ecclesiastical!dissidents.!It!justified!
wars!against!the!enemies!of!religion!and!the!persecution!of!heretics.’!Philip!Schaff,!
12+'*(,,0+'!D+-,!vol.!5!of!:(-84$&'4/'82+'72$(-8(%)'72#$"2!(1882;!repr.,!Oak!Harbor,!WA:!
Logos! Research! Systems,! 1997),! 407,! https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/hcc5.html.!
Finally,!Protestantism!brought!back!the!idea!of!individual!salvation!(Duane!Olson,!A-C
-#+-'()' 74)8+5.4$%$&'72$(-8(%)'124#D28;'!' I4$8$+--'A)8$4,#"8(4)![Minneapolis:!For-
tress!Press,!2011],!120),!and!Luther!burned!the!canon!law!which!was!‘destructive!of!
the!liberty!of!the!individual,’!(Schaff,!12+'*(,,0+'!D+-,!407).!Heinrich!Hoffmann!states!
that!many!Protestants!see!that!the!implementation!of!the!liberty!of!conscience!is!the!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 14!
Holistic%Values%
It!is!correct!that!in!order!for!the!society!to!work!in!co-dependency,!one!has!to!
take!the!needs!of!other!individuals!into!consideration,!such!as!Hegel!taught.
67
!
Given!also!that!one!should!not!let!material!things!determine!one’s!freedom!and!
identity.! Moreover,! Hegel! and! postmoderns! are! right!when! they! want! the!
death!of!self,!to!use!a!biblical!expression!(Luke!9:23).
68
!
Nevertheless,!it!seems!that!in!the!mindset,!which!Hegel!and!postmoder-
nity!are!against,!the!view!of!the!self!is!not!holistic!and!biblical!but!somewhat!
like!
self-articulating!form!of!individual!self-consciousness:!in!willing!its!own!re-
ality!as!an!owner,!the!self!necessarily!articulates!for!itself!a!definite!stance!
concerning! both!the!ultimate!nature!of!its!own!freedom!as! a!self-asserting!
self! and! the! ultimate!n ature! of! the! things! that! it! would! claim! as! its! own.!
(Ciavatta,!“Hegel!on!Owning!One’s!Own!Body,”!1–2)!
!
Christian! humanity! is! not! ultimately! self-possessing! but! everything! comes!
from!God!as!a!gift.
69
!Human!dignity!is!not!based!on!freedom!of!choice,!but!it!is!
based!on!humanity!being!the!image!of!God!which!()"0#,+-!freedom!of!choice.!
Both!the!common!good!%),!the!intrinsic!value!of!individual!freedom!need!to!
be!starting!points;!otherwise,!one! can!rise!above! the!other,!as!can! happen!in!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
main! achievement!(2%#.80+(-8#)D)! of! the! Reformation.! Ossi! Kettunen,!V$ (-8(8&)' W%C
.%#,+)'X%'>(,4))%(-##,+)'Q(%0+F8((FF%'*%$88('M#82+$()'G+/4$5%84$(-+--%' 1+404D(%--%'
O[O\RO]^O[_`,!vol.!110!of!>#45%0%(-+)'1+404D(-+)'V($X%00(-##--+#$%)'<#0F%(-#X%!(Hel-
sinki:!Kirjallisuusseura,!1978),!12n15),!despite!of!the!threat!for!his!life!and!the!threat!
of!taking!away!the!freedoms!of!his!adherents,!including!confiscating!their!property!by!
the!papal!legates.!J.! H.! Merle!D’Aubigne,! :(-84$&'4/'82+'H$+%8' G+/4$5%8(4)'4/'82+'>(9C
8++)82'7+)8#$&'()'H+$5%)&U'>L(8@+$0%),U'S".,!vol.!4,!book!14!(New!York:!Robert!Carter,!
1846;!repr.!Project!Gutenberg,!2012),!ch.!2,!9,!Project!Gutenberg!edition,!13132,!226,!
http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/40971.!!
67
!Andrew!Buchwalter,!“Religion,!Civil!Society,!and!the!System!of!an!Ethical!World,”!
217.!
68
!Also,!Taylor!uses!this!expression.!Taylor,!J$$()D,!129.!
69
!Webster,!“The!Human!Person,”!228.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 15!
Hegelianism!and!postmodernism,!and!the!consequence!can!be!either!anarchy!
and!“chaos!of!selfishness”!or!totalitarianism.
70
!Hegel!has!a!kind!of!holistic!sys-
tem!between!an!individual!and!community,!but!he!does!not!have!holistic!B%0C
#+-!between!them.!
The!importance!of!the!holism!of!values!is!seen!also!from!that!social!in-
dividuality!and!many!individual!rights!come!together!with!the!right!to!prop-
erty.
71
!This!does!not!necessarily!mean!that!the!government!should!redistrib-
ute!wealth,!but!rather!that!everyone!has!the!right!to!pursue!well-being,!wealth,!
and!private!property.
72
!Indeed,!this!was!the!idea!in!the!American!Declaration!
of! Independence,! in! which! ‘Liberty! and! pursuit! of! Happiness’! are! inter-
twined.
73
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
70
!In!ancient!Israel,!social!justice!was!held!important!together!with!individual!rights.!
Gane,!T0,'1+-8%5+)8'M%L'/4$'72$(-8(%)-,!1034,!308.! When! Exodus! 23:10!presumes!
private!land-ownership,!23:11!directs!to!giving!to!the!poor!from!one’s!private!prop-
erty.!
71
!James!A.!Montanye,!“Property!Rights!and!the!Limits!of!Religious!Liberty,”!12+'A),+C
.+),+)8'G+B(+L'O`EO!(2011),!45,!https://!
www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_16_01_3_montanye.pdf.!
72
!This!paper!holds!the! right!to! ownership!as!the!foundation!for!the!right!to!private!
property.!This!stand!comes!from!Anthony!Honoré’s!thinking,!as!he!‘regards!the!right!
to!possess,!that!is,!“to!have!exclusive!physical!control!of!a!thing”,!as!“the!foundation!
on!which!the!whole!superstructure!of!ownership!rests”.’!Ting!Xu!and!Jean!Allain,!“In-
troduction:!Property!and!Human!Rights!in!a!Global!Context,”!in!Xu!and!Allain,!?$4.C
+$8&' %),' :#5%)' $(D28-' ()'%'H046%0' 74)8+98,! 7,!
http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781474202596.0007.!Dealing! with! the! nuanced! issues!
of!right!to!access,!right!not!to!be!excluded,!intellectual!rights,!and!copy!rights,!just!to!
mention!a!few,!fall!out!of!the!scope!of!this!study.!
73
!Declaration! of!Independence!in! 12+'Q+"0%$%8(4)' 4/'A),+.+),+)"+'%),' T82+$' H$+%8'
Q4"#5+)8-'4/' !5+$("%)' :(-84$&'Oaa[^O\`[,!Dover!Thrift!Editions,!ed.!John! Grafton!
(Mineola,!NY:!Dover,!2000),!67.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 16!
This!goes!hand!in!hand!with!the!right!to!buy!and!sell!goods!and!ideas.
74
!
75
!James! Madison!wrote! that!the!rights!of! property! arise! from!the! liberty! to!
have!different!opinions.
76
!
Madison!drew!from!John!Locke!and!foreshadowed!John!Stuart!Mill!when!he!
wrote! that! property!“embraces! every! thing! to! which! a! man! may!attach! a!
value!and!have!a!right;!%),'L2("2'0+%B+-'84'+B+$&'4)+'+0-+'82+'0(F+'%,B%)8%D+.!
[It!includes]!.!.!.!a!man’s!land,!or!merchandize![sic],!or!money!.!.!.![as!well!as]!
his!opinions!and!the!free!communication!of!them.!He!has!a!property!of!pe-
culiar!value!in!his!religious!opinions,!and!in!the!profession!and!practice!dic-
tated! by! them”! ([1792]! 1906,! 6:101,! emphasis! in! original).’! (Montanye,!
“Property!Rights!and!the!Limits!of!Religious!Liberty,”!44)!!
!
Given!that!the!world!without!the!value!of!common!good!can!lead!to!‘global!dis-
possession’!of!property!which!‘threatens!human!rights’.
77
!However,!if! values!
come!out!in!a!process,!as!in!Hegel!and!postmodernism,!the!values!cannot!be!
presupposed!principles.!Contracts!for!reasonable!dividing!of!property!comes!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
74
!Moreover,!property!rights!are!closely!entwined!with!the!right!to! privacy,!as! the!
Third,!and!the!Fourth!Amendments!to!the!Constitution!of!the!United!States!of!America!
express.!Amendments!to!the!Constitution!of!the!United!States!of!America!in!12+'Q+"C
0%$%8(4)'4/'A),+.+),+)"+'%),'T82+$'H$+%8'Q4"#5+)8-'4/'!5+$("%)':(-84$&'Oaa[^O\`[,!
25.!
75
!It!is!interesting!that!Revelation!13:17!informs!about!an!evil!power!that!suppresses!
the!$(D28!to!buy!or!sell!from!some!people.!In!the!verse,!δύνηται,!the!subjunctive,!which!
means!the!ability!for!one!to!do!something,!is!used.!Timothy!Friberg,!Barbara!Friberg,!
and!Neva!F.!Miller,!!)%0&8("%0'M+9("4)'84'82+'H$++F'=+L'1+-8%5+)8,!Baker's!Greek!New!
Testament!Library!(Grand!Rapids:!Baker,!2000),!BibleWorks,!v.10,!s.v.!“δναμαι.”!This!
means!that!the!ability!to!buy!or!sell!is!taken!away.!
76
!James!Madison,!“The!Same!Subject!Continued:!(The!Union!as!a!Safeguard!Against!
Domestic! Faction!and!Insurrection):!From!the! New! York!Packet,”! 12+'I+,+$%0(-8'Ob!
(1787)!in!12+' Q+"0%$%8(4)' 4/' A),+.+),+)"+' %),' T82+$' H$+%8' Q4"#5+)8-'4/' !5+$("%)'
:(-84$&'Oaa[^O\`[,!37.!
77
!Xu!and!Allain,!Introduction:!Property!and!Human!Rights!in!a!Global!Context,”!10.!
Holding!the!right!to!private!property!with!preventing!the!possibility!of!drifting!into!
anarchy!and!“chaos!of!selfishness”!is!possible!when!the!law!against!theft!exists!(Exod!
20:15),!and!when!social!justice!is!held!important!as! well.!Given! that!theft! is!partly!
defined!by!ownership,!and!it!is!not!always!easy!to!define!ownership.!This!paper!aims!
to!remind!of!the!right!to!ownership!on!the!foundation!of!the!intrinsic!individual!free-
dom!of!conscience,!which!protects!the!individual!from!the!overuse!of!common!good!
as!the!definer!of!the!bounds!of!freedom,!as!was!stated!above.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 17!
from!well-functioning!communities,!which!hold!mutual!respect!for!their!indi-
viduals!and!their!intrinsic!rights.!Ownership!is!a!social!construct
78
!L(82!the!no-
tion!of!private!freedom.!
Even!though!it!is!a!hard!task!for!politicians!and!other!influential!people!
for!public!policy!to!hold!the!holistic!balance!between!giving!freedoms!and!let-
ting! programs! that! enhance! responsibility! to! flourish,! when! both! common!
good!and!individual!liberty!are!separately!held!as! inalienable!base!values,!a!
force!toward!settlement!is!cherished,!and!there!is!a!greater!possibility!that!nei-
ther!one!of!the!values!are!ultimately!(or!perhaps!continually)!broken!but!there!
is!an!attempt!to!make!them!work!together,!not!perfectly!because!human!be-
ings!are!fallible!as!James!Madison!stated,
79
!but!()'.$()"(.0+.!God’s!Word!offers!
coherent!principles,!because!it!is!a!stable!highest!substance.!
%
The%Highest%Substance%
Even!though!Hegel!is!right!in!saying!that!there!is!no!individuality!without!the!
whole!of! individuals,!which!gives!substance! to! laws,
80
!his!holism!is!derived!
from!the!process,!similar!to!postmodernism.!Given!that!human!beings!are!the!
ones!who!make!civil!laws,!when!justice!is!not!always!equal!to!the!law,
81
!out!of!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
78
!Jean!Allain,! Property!in! Persons:! Prohibiting!Contemporary! Slavery!as!a! Human!
Right,”! in! Xu! and! Allain,! ?$4.+$8&' %),' :#5%)' $(D28-' ()'%'H046%0' 74)8+98,! 108,!
http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781474202596.ch-004.!!
79
!James!Madison,!“The!Same!Subject!Continued,”!37.!
80
!Hegel,! 12+' ?2+)45+)404D&' 4/' *(),,! trans.! J.! B.! Baillie! (London:! Allen! &! Unwin,!
1977),!456.!
81
!In!Derrida’s!ethics,!‘justice!is!never!equal!to!the!law.’!W.!Lawrence!Hogue,!“The!Heirs!
to!Jacques!Derrida!and!Deconstruction,”!in!Jeffrey!R.!Di!Leo,!ed.,!Q+%,'12+4$&;'Q+$$(,%U'
Q+%82U' %),' 82+' !/8+$0(/+' 4/' 12+4$&!(London:! Bloomsbury! Academic,! 2015),! 36,!
http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781474274388.ch-002.!!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 18!
which!comes!political!“redistributions!of!power”!and!identity!politics,!for!ex-
ample.! Nevertheless ,! Hegel! and! postmodernism! have!only! a!secondary!sub-
stance!as!I!call!it.!For!the!primary!and!highest!substance!is!in!God’s!law!which!
gives!universal!meaning!to!laws!without!needing!to!retrieve!the!first!substance!
from!social!life!which!is!not!stable.!God’s!law!of!love!(values!of!love)!gives!the!
intrinsic!value!to!human!liberty.
82
!
The!right!to!private!property!is!clearly!biblical!(e.g.!Exod.!20:15;!23:4).!
Even!when!property!rights!are!contractual,!as!they!ought!to!be,!they! should!
firstly!be!determined!by!equality!before!the!law,
83
!not!by!some!demonstration!
of!ontological!independence!as!Hegel!suggested,!which!falls!into!the!category!
of!first!principle!from!communication,!similar!to!postmodernism,!again.!Sec-
ondarily!the!maturity!can!be!demonstrated!by,!for!example,!good!reputation!
and! evidence! of! responsibility,! as! Hegel!thought.
84
!If!freedom!in!principle!is!
firstly!determined!by!some!demonstration,!community!takes!over!God’s!law!in!
the!process,!because,!then,!the!community!can!ultimately!define!the!means!of!
responsibility.!History!shows!that!if!the!principle!of!equal!individual!freedom!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
82
!I!suggest!that!all!laws,!including!God’s!law!in!the!Bible,!come!from!values.!Freedom!
of!choice!is!a!transcultural!right!for!all!individuals!at!all!times!because!it!is!expressed!
in!Genesis!as!a!choice!to!keep!God’s!command!(Gen!2:16),!and!it!appears!throughout!
the!Bible,!all!the!way!to!the!new!earth,!because!one’s!choice!to!keep!the!command-
ments!of!God!is!needed!for!one!to!be!able!‘to!eat!from!the!tree!of!life’!which!is!on!the!
new!earth!(Rev!2:7;!see!Rev!22:14!KJV).!To!this!conclusion!I!applied!Gane’s!method!
(and!William!J.!Webb’s!method!which!Gane!used!and/or!applied).!Roy!Gane,!T0,'1+-C
8%5+)8'M%L'/4$'72$(-8(%)-,!19195.!We!can!apply!liberty!of!conscience!in!Gane’s!hier-
archy!of!values,!which!is!holistic!under!the!value!of!love.!Gane,!T0,'1+-8%5+)8'M%L'/4$'
72$(-8(%)-,!14748,!15253,! 158,!19091.!We!can!do!this,!because!God’s!law!should!
be!kept!from!the!heart,!which!presumes!individual!choosing!(Mark!12:2834).!
83
!Gane,!T0,'1+-8%5+)8'M%L'/4$'72$(-8(%)-,!220.!
84
!As!mentioned!above,!Hegel!thought!that!the!responsibility!has!to!be!showed!by!psy-
chological!maturity!and!stableness.!Beltrán,!“Property!in!Human!Bodies,!Self-Preser-
vation!and!Human!Rights,”!129.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 19!
is!not!believed!in,!the!stripping!of!property!rights!follows,!which!happened!to!
French!Huguenots,!for!example.
85
!
Private!and!free!conscience!holds!a!private!judgment.!As!liberty!of!con-
science!comes!from!God,!it!has!both!transcendent!definer!%),!equality!for!all!
human! beings,! which! cannot! be! found! from! postmodernism’s! productive!
power!of!words!and!communication!which!is!only!immanent,
86
!or!from!Hegel!
who! unites! transcendence!and! immanence!as! was! shown! above,
87
!because,!
then,!only!the!second!substance!remains.!No!human!being!can!ultimately!de-
termine!or! speak! (as! the! first! substance)!whether!anyone! has! rightfully!
demonstrated!independence,!but,!as!William!Penn!thought,!
[t]he!believer![or!any!individual!with!a!conscience]!has!the!right!to!private!
judgment!because!God!alone!has!the!right!to!judge!a!man!and!has!not!dele-
gated!that!right!to!another.!(Miller,!12+'G+0(D(4#-' G448-'4/'82+'I($-8'!5+),C
5+)8,!57)!
!
Even! if! Enlightenment! thinking! went! too! far! in/into!‘liberal! legalism’,
88
!in!
which!there!would!have!been!%6-40#8+!right!of!ownership!always!controlling!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
85
!Miller,!12+' G+0(D(4#-'G448-'4/'82+'I($-8'!5+),5+)8,! 4950.!It!is!true!that!religious!
beliefs!determined!the!legal!confiscations!of!property.!However,!the!religious!beliefs!
of!the!medieval!church-state!influenced!the!canon!law!mentioned!above.!
86
!Taylor!argues!that! death!of!God!took!place!in!philosophy!(Taylor,!J$$()D,!1933)!
and!in!culture,!which!gave!up!the!transcendent,!and!led!and!‘leads!to!the!total!pres-
ence! of! Being! here! and! now,’! (Mark! C.! Taylor,! “Reframing! Postmodernisms,”!in!
>2%,4L'4/'>.($(8,!19)!or!thorough!incarnation.!Taylor,!J$$()D,!103.!
87
!The!process!of!becoming!free!in!terms!of!the!absolute!collective!subject!in!Hegel,!as!
was!mentioned,!unites!transcendent!and!immanent.!Moreover,!according!to!Jansen,!
in!Hegel,!’God’s!actual!being!comes!into!existence!through!the!world,’!(Henry!Jansen,!
G+0%8(4)%0(8&'%),'82+'74)"+.8'4/'H4,![Amsterdam:!Rodopi,!1995],!103)!which!suggests!
the!becoming!of!transcendence!and!immanence!into!one!in!Hegel’s!thought!in!general.!
See!Sontag,!Q(B()+'?+$/+"8(4),!74.!
88
!Allain!pens!that!‘ownership’!is!‘a!fundamental!tenet!of!liberal!legalism!and!the!basis!
of!the!capitalist!economic!order’.!Allain,!“Property!in!Persons,”!108.!
!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 20!
over!the!common!good,
89
!the!principle!of!private!judgment!and!ownership!cor-
rects!the!Hegelian!and!postmodern!views!of!collective!%6-40#8+c-d!()!82+'.$4C
"+--' 4/' 6+"45()D!the! first! substance! over! and! the! definer! of! the! individual!
rights.%
!
Conclusion%
For!Hegel,!the!value!of!individual!freedom!does!not!exist!outside!the!commu-
nity.!Postmodernism,! on! the!other! hand,!does!not! have!universal!individual!
rights.!Both!of!these!influential!philosophies!start!from!human!consciousness,!
and!let!the!community!define!individual!freedom,!and!are!against!inalienable!
individual!rights.!Perhaps!this!continuation!of!the!opposition!to!the!intrinsic!
value! of! individual! freedom! partly! explains! why! the! current! thinking! is! so!
strongly!against!individual!freedoms.!
!Nevertheless,! we! can! learn! from! Protestantism! and! the! founding! fa-
thers!of!America,!which!built!on!Christian!principles,!and!made!an!“agreement”!
with!some!Enlightenment!principles.!They!held!the!biblical!intrinsic!value!of!
human!freedom,!including!the!right!to!private!property,!as!a!whole.!
!When!God’s! values!of!laws!of!common!good!and!individual!judgment!
are!held!holistically!as!intrinsic!presuppositions,!and!as!the!highest!substance,!
unlike!in!Hegelianism!and!postmodernism,!we!can!prevent!from!slipping!into!
chaos!of!selfishness!or!totalitarianism.!This,!I!argue,!can!keep!the!conversation!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
89
!If!one!decides!to!use!the!term!%6-40#8e,!Article!544!of!the!French!Civil!Code!(1804)!
uses!it,!in! my!view,! quite!well:!the!right!to!enjoy!and!dispose!of!things!in!the!most!
absolute!way,!provided!one!does!nothing! forbidden! by!laws! or!regulations’.!Quoted!
in!Beltrán,! “Property!in! Human! Bodies,! Self-Preservation!and! Human! Rights,”!130.!
Hence,!the!second!clause!has!a!condition!for!the!absoluteness.!
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 21!
going,!and!can!offer!a!framework!for!the!balanced!settlements!and!relationship!
between! individual! freedom! of! choice/private! judgment! and! collective! re-
sponsibility,!which!protects!the!individual!from!the!collective!process!in!which!
the!communicative!relations!determine!rights!as!the!absolute!controller!over!
the!bounds!of!freedom.!
! !
The!Intrinsic!Individual!Freedom!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Ville!Suutarinen!! 22!
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