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The study was focused on the substantiation of a personalized approach to designing health-promoting exercise programs for young women based on the genetic factors. To achieve the defined objectives the following methods were used: theoretical analysis and generalization of the data of scientific and methodological literature; surveys and questionnaires; anthropometric methods and methods of assessing cardiorespiratory function; pedagogical methods (pedagogical observation, testing, and experiment); molecular genetic methods (collection of genomic DNA by buccal swabs, DNA typing by polymerase chain reaction); methods of mathematical statistics. On the basis of the data of biological and pedagogical studies of young women, the relevance of considering genetic factors in determining the type and content of fitness classes was substantiated. The effectiveness of different training modes to improve health status was studied in young women carrying different allelic variants of the ACE, eNOS, and PPARG genes. Genetic markers associated with high physical performance have been identified. A quantitative assessment of differences in physical status parameters between the groups of female carriers of different variants of the genes was carried out for predicting the effectiveness of health-promoting fitness classes. The paper provides scientific support for the criteria applied to personalize health-promoting fitness programs by varying the ratio of concurrent aerobic and resistance training depending on the genetic factors. An algorithm was suggested to personalize fitness programs for young women by considering the genetic factors.
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Journal of Physical Education and Sport
®
(JPES), Vol 20 (Supplement issue 1), Art 46 pp 331 – 337, 2020
online ISSN: 2247 - 806X; p-ISSN: 2247 – 8051; ISSN - L = 2247 - 8051
© JPES
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Corresponding Author OLENA ANDRIEIEVA, Email: olena.andreeva@gmail.com
Original Article
Personalization of health-promoting fitness programs for young women based on
genetic factors
SVITLANA DROZDOVSKA
1
, OLENA ANDRIEIEVA
2
, OLENA YARMAK
3
, OLEKSANDRA BLAGII
4
1,2,4
National University of Ukraine on physical education and sport, Kiyv, UKRAINE
3,
BilaTserkva National Agrarian University, BilaTserkva, UKRAINE
Published online: February 29, 2020
(Accepted for publication: January 20, 2020)
DOI:10.7752/jpes.2020.s1046
Abstract.
The study was focused on the substantiation of a personalized approach to designing health-promoting exercise
programs for young women based on the genetic factors. To achieve the defined objectives the following
methods were used: theoretical analysis and generalization of the data of scientific and methodological literature;
surveys and questionnaires; anthropometric methods and methods of assessing cardiorespiratory function;
pedagogical methods (pedagogical observation, testing, and experiment); molecular genetic methods (collection
of genomic DNA by buccal swabs, DNA typing by polymerase chain reaction); methods of mathematical
statistics.
On the basis of the data of biological and pedagogical studies of young women, the relevance of considering
genetic factors in determining the type and content of fitness classes was substantiated. The effectiveness of
different training modes to improve health status was studied in young women carrying different allelic variants
of the ACE, eNOS, and PPARG genes. Genetic markers associated with high physical performance have been
identified. A quantitative assessment of differences in physical status parameters between the groups of female
carriers of different variants of the genes was carried out for predicting the effectiveness of health-promoting
fitness classes. The paper provides scientific support for the criteria applied to personalize health-promoting
fitness programs by varying the ratio of concurrent aerobic and resistance training depending on the genetic
factors. An algorithm was suggested to personalize fitness programs for young women by considering the
genetic factors.
Key words: physical condition, young women, health-promoting fitness, gene polymorphisms, genetic factors.
Introduction.
Preserving and promoting the public health and preventing diseases by engaging in systematic physical
exercise is one of the government policy areas of most European countries (Earle, Baechle, 2008; et al.). One of
the main tasks of physical education is developing a strong motivation to and a need for preserving and
promotiong the health, physical development and physical fitness, and utilizing physical education means in the
organization of healthy lifestyle (Hakman, 2019;Kashuba, et al, 2019). This issue is effectively addressed by
engaging people in health-promoting fitness classes (Davydov, Shamardin, Krasnova, 2005). Various fitness
classes in health club settings play a crucial role in preserving the health of the people.
The health-promoting effects of modern forms of physical activity are mediated by the activation of the
most important functional systems of the body (Howley, Franks, 2003; Ivaschenko, 2008; Ivchatova, 2011, et al.;
Kashubaet al. 2019).
The analysis of scientific research, the results of which have been implemented into the practice of fitness
clubs over the past decades (Martyniuk, 2011; etc.), shows that the effectiveness of fitness programs does not
always reach the maximum result in most cases. Each of the methods of using modern forms of physical activity
has both advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, at present, the development of the health fitness sector cannot
be done without the scientifically sound implementation of modern innovative technologies into the fitness
industry. One of the most promising research areas in this field is the study of molecular genetic markers that
determine the functions of the body associated with physical performance (Akhmetov, 2009). These genetic
markers include polymorphisms in genes related to anthropometric measurements and body composition,
cardiovascular and respiratory function, as well as genes encoding enzymes, coenzymes, and proteins involved
in carbohydrate, fat, and mineral metabolism (Rankinen, et al, 2006). The use of modern molecular genetic
technologies in health fitness make it posssible to take into account the individual characteristics of the body’s
adaptation to physical exercise, genetic predisposition to a disease, and features of metabolism that, in turn, will
contribute to the health-enhancing and plastic effects of physical exercise. In view of the above, the search for
effective criteria for designing a personalized fitness program for young women considering the genetic
predisposition is a relevant objective. The results of such studies will allow us to develop approaches and
practical recommendations for determining exercise loads in traditional and new types of fitness classes.
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Materials and Methods.
In the study, the following methods were used: analysis and generalization of special scientific and
methodological literature; surveys and questionnaires (to study the motivation of young women to physical
activity); anthropometric methods (measurement of body mass index (BMI), Pignet index, estimation of body
composition by bioelectric impedance analysis); functional methods to assess cardiorespiratory function under
various testing conditions; estimation of the level of physical condition by the Pirogova’s method of predicting
physical condition; molecular genetic methods (collection of genomic DNA by buccal swabs, DNA typing by
polymerase chain reaction); pedagogical methods: pedagogical observation was used to analyze the effects of
fitness classes on the body of young women taking into account genetic factors; pedagogical testing of motor
skills was used to evaluate physical fitness of women; pedagogical experiment was used to evaluate the effects
of different types of exercise training (aerobic, resistance, and combined workouts) on physical condition of
young women; methods of mathematical statistics (Byshevets, et al, 2019).
The studies were carried out at the Leonardo wellness club. Genotyping was performed at the Laboratory
of general and molecular pathophysiology of the Bogomolets Institute of Physiology of the National Academy of
Sciences of Ukraine. Body composition was measured at the Department of theory and methodology of sports
training and reserve capabilities of athletes of the Scientific Research Institute of the National University of
Physical Education and Sport of Ukraine.
The study involved 44 young women aged from 23 to 35 years who participated in fitness classes at the
Leonardo wellness club. Among them, 80% have participated in fitness classes for a period up to one year, 6% –
for a period from one to two years, and 4% – for a period of more then two years.
At the beginning of the pedagogical experiment, we formed two groups of women, the experimental
group 1 (EG1) (resistance training, n = 24) and the experimental group 2 (EG2) (aerobic training, n = 20). When
analyzing the training results, each group of the women was further divided into two subgroups according to the
PPARG genotype. As a result, four subgroups participated in the study: REG1 – women with Pro/Pro allelic
variant of the PPARG gene (resistance training); REG2 women with Pro/Ala or Ala/Ala allelic variant of the
PPARG gene (resistance training); AEG1 women with Pro/Pro variant of the PPARG gene (aerobic training);
and AEG2 – women with Pro/Ala or Ala/Ala variant of the PPARG gene (aerobic training). The health-
promoting fitness programs of the main period were lasted for 4 months (two mesocycles).
Results.
We investigated the association of the ACE, eNOS, and PPARG genes polymorphisms with the level of
physical condition of young women participating in fitness classes (Table 1).
Table 1. The level of physical condition of young women with different genotypes participating in fitness
classes
Gene Level of physical
condition Percentage of women, %
Genotype I/I (n=15) Genotype I/D (n=23) Genotype D/D (n=6)
АСЕ
(n=44)
low 8.7
lower than average 17.4 50.0
average 40.0 34.8 50.0
higher than average 53.3 34.8
high 6.7 4.3
Genotype T/T (n=23) Genotype T/C (n=19) Genotype C/C (n=2)
eNOS
(n=4
4)
low
5.3
lower than average 17.4 15.8
average 43.5 36.8 50.0
higher than average 34.8 36.8 50.0
high 4.3 5.3
Genotype Pro/Pro (n=30) Genotype Pro/Ala
(n=13)
Genotype Ala/Ala
(n=1)
PPARG
(n=44)
low
lower than average 13.3 15.4
average 36.7 61.5 100.0
higher than average
.7
15.4
high 3.3 7.7
An increase in the number of I alleles of the ACE gene is associated with higher index of physical
condition, i.e. the deletion (D) in the gene is associated with poor physical condition of the women. Analysis of
the eNOS gene indicated that there are no significant differences in the distribution of women with different
levels of physical status between the subgroups identified by the T/C polymorphism. Genotyping of PPARG
gene polymorphisms in women revealed only one woman with the Ala/Ala genotype in the sample, so women
with the Pro/Ala and Ala/Ala genotypes were grouped into one subgroup of Ala-allele carriers. The average
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group level of physical condition calculated by the method of predicting physical condition was 0.65±0.11 in
women with Pro/Pro genotype and 0.60±0.13 in Ala-allele carriers. There were no differences between the two
subgroups.
Among the polymorphisms studied, only variants of the PPARG gene were significantly associated with
body constitution. To evaluate the body constitution, Pignet index was used. The PPARG gene polymorphism
was shown to significantly affect the values of Pignet index (p=0.031). In the Pro/Pro genotype group, Pignet
index was 2.1 times higher (p <0.01) than in the Ala-allele carriers group (22.5% and 10.6%, respectively). The
presence of the Ala allele contributes to increased body weight and the hip and the abdomen measurements of
women. In the subgroup of Ala-allele carriers, all women (100%) had a body weight that exceeded the standard
by more than 5.0%. The analysis of the body build gave the following distribution of women with the Pro/Pro
genotype: 80% of normostenics, 10% of hyperstenics, and 10% of hypostenics. In the subgroup of Ala-allele
carriers, the proportion of normostenics decreased by 5.7%, there were no hypostenics, and the proportion of
hyperstenics was increased by 25.7%, that also supports the hypothesis about the association of PPARG gene
variants with the characteristics of anabolic processes in the body. These results suggest that PPARG genotyping
can be used to personalize health-promoting fitness programs. The data of genetic status and morphofunctional
parameters assessment were used to develop aerobic and resistance training fitness programs for young women
with Pro/Pro, Pro/Ala, and Ala/Ala genotypes of REG1, REG2, AEG2, and AEG2 subgroups.
The resistance training fitness program of moderate intensity for women included a set of resistance
exercises to develop strength endurance and improve posture, and aerobic exercise to develop general endurance
and lose weight (Table 2). The resistance exercise were aimed at strengthening the skeletal muscles and
developing strength, increasing bone density, that contributes to the prevention of osteoporosis and reduction in
the risk of fractures as well as to the increase of internal body temperature and intensity of metabolic processes.
The objectives of aerobic training were to improve the functional abilities, first of all, of the cardiorespiratory
system and musculoskeletal system, and to increase energy expenditures during workouts mainly due to the fat
oxidation. The aerobic training fitness program (aerobics and jazz gymnastics) included mainly dynamic
exercises, while static and stretching exercises were used to a lesser extent (Table 2).
Table 2. Characteristics of the aerobic and resistance training fitness programs for young women with
Pro/Pro, Pro/Ala, and Ala/Ala genotypes of REG1, REG2, AEG2, and AEG2 subgroups
Program component Resistance training fitness program
(for REG1 and REG2 subgroups)
Aerobic training fitness program
(for AEG1 and AEG2 subgroups)
Objectives
• increasing the level of physical condition and
physical activity;
• improvement of body composition;
• reducing the risk of some diseases;
increasing physical fitness and physical
performance.
• increasing the level of physical condition and
physical activity;
• change in body composition;
• improvement of the functional state of the
cardiorespiratory system;
• increasing physical fitness and physical
performance.
Frequency of
workouts
3
-
4 times a week
Duration of workouts 45-60 minutes
Recommended
exercises
resistance exercises with a load of 20-50% of
max load in the interval mode and endurance
resistance exercise in the continuous and
variable modes.
aerobic training combined with resistance
exercise with a load of 40-60% of max load in
continuous and interval modes.
Percentage of
general exercises
specific exercises
25 – 40%
60 – 75%
60 – 75 %
25 – 40%
Aerobic heart rate
zones:
– training
– recovery
140-160 bps
120-130 bps
140-160 bps
110-130 bps
Exercise intensity: –
aerobic
– resistance
50-70% of VO
2
max
14-16 RM or 11-12 points on the Borg scale
40-50% of VO
2
max
10-12 RM or 10-12 points on the Borg scale
Methodological
recommendations
For the transition to the main period of physical
training, it is necessary to increase the
resistance during the first month and then to
increase the number of repetitions. An increase
in the exercise load may be followed by another
increase in the resistance and, then, in the
number of repetitions.
The program involved a holistic approach,
prevalence of aerobic exercises (75% of the total
workout time), and no high-intensity exercise
series.
Additional means
recreational activities, r
ecovery tools (sauna, massage).
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The criteria for measuring the effectiveness of fitness classes included: decrease in resting heart rate and
resting respiration rate; blood pressure normalization; improvement of functional tests and exercise tests results;
improvement of indices of body proportionality.
The analysis of the results of the study presented in Table 3 showed that the changes in the indicators of
physical condition of young women depend on genetic factors. The fitness classes resulted in a decrease in body
weight of 4.7% in the REG1 group and of 2.28% in the REG2 (p <0.05). Thus, the resistance training leads to
less significant changes in body weight of women of the second experimental group. Similar differences between
the groups were also observed in the changes of the BMI index. At the beginning of the study, BMI in the first
experimental group was 17.4% lower than in the REG2. After the formative experiment, BMI decreased by 4.8%
in the REG1 and by 2.29% in the REG2.
Table 3. Parameters of physical condition of young women with different genotypes participating in
resistance training (
x
±S) (n=24)
Parameters
...
REG1
REG2
ascertaining
experiment formative experiment
ascertaining
experiment
formative
experiment
Body weight, kg 60.1±5.76 57.2±5.54 74.6±4.32** 72.9±4.26*
BMI 21.2±1.77 20.2±1.69 24.9±3.70* 24.3±3.65
Chest circumference, cm 90.4±2.65 89.4±2.49 94.6±10.33 94.0±11.27
Waist circumference, cm 69.1±3.31 66.9±3.26 75.3±10.21 73.1±10.11
High hip circumference, cm 95.8±3.11 93.6±3.54 101.0±9.36 99.2±9.28
Hip circumference, cm 55.7±2.78 53.8±2.59 59.0±6.21 57.7±6.22
Abdomen circumference,
cm 74.5±6.11 70.8±5.34 ** 80.8±11.25* 76.7±11.29**
Fat mass, % 19.2±1.32 17.4±1.49** 24.0±6.41* 21.8±5.74
Non-fat mass, % 80.8±1.38 82.6±11.48 76.0±6.43 78.2±17.81**
Resting heart rate, bpm
78.8±11.19 70.8±10.39 81.1±7.26 77.9±7.33
Systolic blood pressure,
mm Hg 119.3±14.27 113.9±13.25 122.0±14.26 117.5±13.81
Diastolic blood pressure,
mm Hg 73.9±6.39 70.3±6.55 75.2±7.29 71.3±7.78
Robinson index, arb. units
55.5±11.27
49.9±9.54
61.3±10.39
55.9±10.22
Ruffier index, arb. units 2.2±0.07 1.8±0.06 4.3 ±0.18 3.5±0.12
Physical condition index 0.63±0.11 0.70±0.14** 0.57±0.13* 0.63±0.10**
Note: * – the difference between groups is statistically significant (р<0.05); ** the difference between the
experiments data is statistically significant (р<0.05)
All of the body circumference measures were decreased in both groups after resistance training, however
significant changes were found only in hip and abdomen girth. In the REG1, pelvic circumference was decreased
by 2.3% and abdomen circumference – by 5.0% (p<0.05), while in the REG2, these parameters were decreased
by 1.7% and 5.0% (p<0.05), respectively. Therefore, in the women of the first experimental group, resistance
exercise resulted in more noticeable changes in anthropometric parameters than in the women of the second
group. Nevertheless, the changes in the body composition of young women with different genetic characteristics
induced by resistance training had a different pattern. The amount of fat tissue decreased by 1.7% n the first
experimental group and by 2.2% (p<0.05) in the second experimental group. In both groups, the percentage of
fat-free tissue increased due to reducing body weight and increasing muscle mass. The increase was 3.9% (p
<0.05) in the first group and 5.6% (p <0.05) in the second group. Thus, in the women of REG2, resistance
training resulted in significant changes in the body composition combined with a slight decrease in body weight
and circumference parameters. In the women of REG1, weight loss and decrease in circumference measures of
the body was more substantial, while the body composition was slightly changed.
Heart rate decreased by 4.8%, diastolic and systolic blood pressure decreased by 4.2% and 4.9%,
respectively. The Robinson Index, also known as double product, is an indicator of the myocardial workload.
This index was estimated by the Apanasenko method and decreased significantly (by 9.6%) in all women.
The Ruffier Index, which reflects physical performance, decreased by 18.7%. Although the results of the
Ruffier test at the beginning of the pedagogical experiment differed significantly between group 1 and group 2,
they improved significantly in both groups after resistance training. The Ruffier Index decreased by 15% in the
women of the first experimental group and by 20% in the women of the second experimental group.
After four months of training, the physical condition index increased significantly by 9.8% (p <0.05). The
distribution of women by the level of physical condition also changed. We did not found individuals with low
levels of physical condition at the end of the pedagogical experiment. The number of women with the high level
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of physical condition increased by 12.5%, while the amount of the women with the lower than average level
decreased by 8.4%. The patterns of the changes in the parameters of physical condition differed between the
women of subgroup AEG1 (Pro/Pro genotype) and subgroup AEG2 (Pro/Ala and Ala/Ala genotypes) who
participated in aerobic training (Table 4).Aerobic training resulted in significant changes in body weight of
young women in both groups. The mean group body weight decreased by 4.3% (p<0.01) in the AEG1 group and
by 6% (p<0.05) in the AEG2 group. BMI decreased by 4.6% (p<0.01) in the AEG1 group and by 6,6% (p<0.05)
in the AEG2 group.
Resting heart rate decreased in both groups: by 6.1% in AEG1 and by 6.9%) (p<0.01) in AEG2. Systolic
blood pressure did not change significantly in AEG1 and decreased by 1.9% in AEG2. Diastolic pressure
decreased significantly only in AEG1 (by 9.8%, p<0.01). The Robinson Index decreased both in AEG1 (by
6.6%, p<0.01) and in AEG2 (by 8.8%, p <0.05). The Ruffier Index decreased by 34% (p<0.01) in AEG1 and by
29.1% (p<0.01) in AEG2.
After four months aerobic training, 6.7% of women in the AEG1 group have improved their physical
condition to the high level.
Table 4. Parameters of physical condition of young women with different genotypes participating in
aerobic training (x
̅±S) (n=20)
Parameters
AEG1 AEG2
ascertaining
experiment formative experiment
ascertaining
experiment formative experiment
Body weight, kg 57.8±7.12 55.2±7.03* 62.0±5.12 58.3±4.23*
BMI 19.8±1.49 19.0±1.67* 22.4±0.76 20.7±0.15*
Chest circumference, cm 85.9±5.11 86.9±5.31 82.0±2.62 83.2±2.67
Waist circumference, cm 69.7±5.22 67.3±5.12 66.9±5.11 62.4±5.17
High hip circumference, cm 92.3±4.28 90.9±4.34 86.9±4.51 84.6±4.51
Hip circumference, cm 50.9±2.67 48.3±4.55 46.9±4.29 40.5±5.18
Abdomen circumference, cm 72.3±5.29 69.5±5.43* 71.6±5.25 67.4±5.83*
Fat mass, % 24.3±4.11 23.4±4.26* 22.4±3.42 21.1±3.49*
Non-fat mass, % 75.7±4.34 76.6±4.37* 77.6±3.39 78.9±3.51*
Resting heart rate, bpm
70.4±6.25 66.1±5.21* 77.6±9.47 72.2±8.35*
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg
115.8±11.28
116.7±5.21
110.2±11.06
108.2±10.42
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 76.6±8.26 69.1±5.66* 69.6±11.81 69.8±6.13
Robinson index, arb. units 81.3±8.18 75.9±5.11* 85.9±16.21 78.4±14.27*
Ruffier index, arb. units 13.5±4.11 8.9±4.18* 17.9±4.15 12.7±4.48*
Physical condition index 0.68±0.05 0.75±0.06* 0.66±0.11 0.71±0.10
Note: * – the difference between groups is statistically significant (р<0.05); ** the difference between the
experiments data is statistically significant (р<0.05)
The number of women with the higher then average level of physical condition increased by 20.0%, while
the number of the women with the average level decreased by 20.0%. In the AEG2 group, the number of women
with the higher than average level of physical condition increased by 20.0%, while the percentage of women
with the low level decreased to zero. The most significant changes in the level of physical condition after aerobic
training occurred in the AEG1 group (women with the Pro/Pro genotype). Although both groups experienced
changes in the cardiovascular system parameters that indicates an improvement in the functional state of this
system, the largest increase occurred in the AEG1 group.
On the basis of identified characteristics of physical condition of young women and results of the analysis
of advantages and disadvantages of existing methodologies and programs of conditioning training programs, we
have provided rationale for the development of fitness programs with different ratios of aerobic and resistance
exercise depending on genetic characteristics that allow to individualize fitness training for women taking into
account their morphofunctional parameters.
Based on our research, we have developed an algorithm for personalizing the program of health-
promoting fitness training taking into account genetic characteristics of young women, which included the
following:
assessment of the motivation to participate in fitness classes, the evel of physical condition, morphometric
parameters (carried out by an instructor of the club, in accordance with job responsibilities);
medical examination, identification of risk indicators and risk factors for morbidity (carried out by a sports
physician of the club according to the club's instructions and regulations);
assessment of genetic factors: collection of buccal swab samples (carried out by a sports physician using
disposable test kit that consists of sterile swabs and tubes with a reagent for collection and preservation of DNA
samples).
– development of practical recommendations for personalization of fitness program taking into account genetic
factors and level of physical condition: determination of the duration of the main period and the mesocycle
depending on the level of physical condition; selection of the structure of fitness workouts (number of blocks,
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their content, and duration vary depending on the allelic variants of ACE, eNOS, and PPARG genes;
determination of exercise intensity and heart rate zones depending on allelic variants of ACE and eNOS genes;
selection of the ratio of aerobic and resistance exercise depending on the allelic variants of ACE and PPARG
genes;
– adjustment of the fitness program parameters at the end of each mesocycle taking into account the changes in
morphometric measures and functional status of women.
To assess the effectiveness of the program the following criteria are used: changes in heart rate, blood
pressure, body mass index, circumference indices, and body composition and approximation of the parameters to
normative values.
Discussion.
Clients are often faced with the fact that training do not produce the desired effect, and the existing
chronic health conditions make it impossible for them to choose the right type of physical activity. The
effectiveness of fitness training can be significantly improved through the use of genetic information. The
number of studies focused on examining the contribution of genetic factors to improving the health-promoting
effects of fitness training has increased significantly in recent years. The understanding of the influence of
genetic factors, which determine the body response to exercise training, provide an opportunity to design
individualized fitness programs for clients. Genetic analysis will help to choose appropriate physical activities
for people with health problems. Nevertheless, only a few studies have addressed the use of molecular genetic
data in fitness training. The association was found between the polymorphisms of PPARA and PPARD genes
regulating skeletal muscle metabolism and improvement in anthropometric and strength parameters that resulted
from exercise training. The data on the PPARA and PPARD genes polymorphisms make it possible not only to
predict the improvement of anthropometric and strength parameters of clients in resistance training programs
taking into account the body type, but also to adjust the parameters of the training load (Ahmetov, 2009,
Gineviciene,еt al, 2014).
The results of molecular-genetic analysis of DNA samples of elite bodybuilders and powerlifters, as well
as individuals engaged in body fitness and fitness training, indicate the significant influence of gene variants
(alleles) on performance in these physical activities (Akhmetov, 2008). It has been found that the presence of
certain gene alleles gives an advantage in the development of strength and muscle growth. The deletion variant
of the ACE gene was shown to be associated with obesity (Makarov, 2007). Overweight women engaged in
exercise training in fitness clubs have a high frequency of alleles associated with the risk of obesity.
The study of association between genes polymorphisms and physiological and anthropometric
characteristics of women engaged in health-promoting physical activity programs demonstrated the highest
values of body mass index and fat mass in PPARGC1A Ser/Ser and UCP3-55C/T genotype carriers. The study
of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system showed that the highest level of physical performance
(PWC170) is observed in PPARA GG genotype carriers (Ahmetov, Dondukovskaya, Ryabinkova, 2008).
The results of the study indicate that PPARA G, PPARGC1A Gly, and UCP2 Val alleles are associated
with endurance performance, while PPARA C, PPARGC1A Ser, and UCP2 Val alleles are related to risk of
developing obesity. Furthermore, association of UCP3-55C/T polymorphism with dynamometric measurements
was revealed in women engaged in health-promoting fitness training.
We have confirmed the findings of previous studies that health-promoting exercise training contributes to
improving the physical condition, physical fitness, and morphofunctional parameters of young women
(Ivchatova, 2005, Goglyuvataya, 2007;Drozdovskaya, еt al, 2012), and that the training effect of fitness classes
depends on genetic factors (Ahmetov, Dondukovskaya, Ryabinkova, 2008). The analysis of the genetic
characteristics of young women engaged in health-promoting exercise training identified the association between
the women's body mass index, physical condition index, and body type and ACE and PPARG genes allelic
variants. These results are consistent with those of other studies (Ahmetov, 2009).This research extends our
knowledge of the factors that affect the effectiveness of exercise training as a health promotion tool (Ivchatova,
2005; Martyniuk, 2010) and of the genes that are associated with physical performance (Gineviciene,еt al, 2014).
Further, the study provides the data about the relationships between the level of physical condition,
indicators of physical fitness and morphofunctional characteristics of women engaged in health-promoting
fitness training and their genetic characteristics; about the the effectiveness of various types of exercise training
in women with different genetic characteristics; and about the possibility of personalizing the program of health-
promoting fitness classes taking into account gene polymorphisms. This study has also shown that different
types of exercise training affect the physical condition of women with different genetic characteristics in the
same manner, but the extent of the influence varies.
Conclusions.
Thus, identification of genetic markers makes it possible to use personalized approach to designing
customized fitness programs that includes selection of the structure of training classes depending on the ACE,
eNOS, and PPARG genes allelic variants; selection of the ratio of aerobic and resistance exercise, depending on
SVITLANA DROZDOVSKA, OLENA ANDRIEIEVA, OLENA YARMAK, OLEKSANDRA BLAGII
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JPES ®
www.efsupit.ro
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ACE and PPARG genes allelic variants; and selection of intensity of the training load and heart rate training
zones depending on the ACE and eNOS genes allelic variants.
Conflict of Interest
All the authors declare to have no conflict of interest.
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This paper presents the 12th update of the human obesity gene map, which incorporates published results up to the end of October 2005. Evidence from single-gene mutation obesity cases, Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as a clinical feature, transgenic and knockout murine models relevant to obesity, quantitative trait loci (QTL) from animal cross-breeding experiments, association studies with candidate genes, and linkages from genome scans is reviewed. As of October 2005, 176 human obesity cases due to single-gene mutations in 11 different genes have been reported, 50 loci related to Mendelian syndromes relevant to human obesity have been mapped to a genomic region, and causal genes or strong candidates have been identified for most of these syndromes. There are 244 genes that, when mutated or expressed as transgenes in the mouse, result in phenotypes that affect body weight and adiposity. The number of QTLs reported from animal models currently reaches 408. The number of human obesity QTLs derived from genome scans continues to grow, and we now have 253 QTLs for obesity-related phenotypes from 61 genome-wide scans. A total of 52 genomic regions harbor QTLs supported by two or more studies. The number of studies reporting associations between DNA sequence variation in specific genes and obesity phenotypes has also increased considerably, with 426 findings of positive associations with 127 candidate genes. A promising observation is that 22 genes are each supported by at least five positive studies. The obesity gene map shows putative loci on all chromosomes except Y. The electronic version of the map with links to useful publications and relevant sites can be found at http://obesitygene.pbrc.edu.
Molecular genetics of sport: monograph. Moscow: Sovetskiy Sport
  • I I Ahmetov
Ahmetov I. I. Molecular genetics of sport: monograph. Moscow: Sovetskiy Sport, 2009. 268 p.
Features of adaptive changes in the structural and functional organization of the heart under the influence of systematic muscular work in persons of different gender. Ukrainskii medichnyi almanakh
  • N V Bogdanovska
  • N V Malikov
Bogdanovska N.V., Malikov N.V. Features of adaptive changes in the structural and functional organization of the heart under the influence of systematic muscular work in persons of different gender. Ukrainskii medichnyi almanakh, 2008. Vol. 11, No 6. P. 7-9.
Using the methods of mathematical statistics in sports
  • N Byshevets
  • L Denysova
  • O Shynkaruk
  • K Serhiyenko
  • V Usychenko
  • O Stepanenko
  • I Syvash
Byshevets N., Denysova L., Shynkaruk O., Serhiyenko K., Usychenko V., Stepanenko O., Syvash I. Using the methods of mathematical statistics in sports and educational research // Journal of Physical Education and Sport, University of Pitesti, Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES), Vol 19 (Supplement issue 3), Art 148, pp 1030 -1034, 2019 DOI:10.7752/jpes.2019.s3148
New Fitness Systems: study guide (New directions, methods, equipment and inventory)
  • V Davydov
  • Yu
  • G O Shamardin
  • G Krasnova
Davydov V. Yu., Shamardin G. O., Krasnova G. O. New Fitness Systems: study guide (New directions, methods, equipment and inventory). Volgograd: VGAFK, 2001. 140 p.).
About the possibility of using molecular genetic methods in health-promotinmg fitness training. Sports medicine and physical rehabilitation
  • S Drozdovskaya
  • O Borovik
  • E Andrieieva
Drozdovskaya S., Borovik O., Andrieieva E. About the possibility of using molecular genetic methods in health-promotinmg fitness training. Sports medicine and physical rehabilitation, 2012. No. 1. P. 102-109.
Programming of health-promoting aquafitness training for first mature age women: Diss. submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Cand. of
  • N O Goglyuvataya
Goglyuvataya N. O. Programming of health-promoting aquafitness training for first mature age women: Diss. submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Cand. of Sciences in Phys. Education and Sports. Kiev, 2007. 223 p.
Technology of planning and management of leisure activities for working elderly people with a low level of physical activity
  • A Hakman
  • O Andrieieva
  • V Kashuba
  • T Omelchenko
  • I Carp
  • V Danylchenko
  • K Levinskaia
Hakman A., Andrieieva O., Kashuba V., Omelchenko T., Carp I., Danylchenko V., Levinskaia K. Technology of planning and management of leisure activities for working elderly people with a low level of physical activity. Journal of Physical Education and Sport ® (JPES), Vol 19 (Supplement issue 6), Art 324, pp 2155-2166, 2019 DOI:10.7752/jpes.2019.s6324