Primary cell wall (PCW) is a rigid yet flexible cell wall surrounding plant cells and it plays key roles in plant growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defence. As a technique widely used to study the characteristics of mammalian cells, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is rarely used in plant science. In this work, we designed and fabricated an EIS based biosensor coupled with microfluidic platform to investigate the formation process of primary cell wall (PCW) at the single-cell level. Arabidopsis mesophyll cells with completely regenerated PCW showed significantly higher impedance values compared to the nascent protoplasts without PCW, demonstrating that PCW formation caused a dramatic change in cell electrical properties. The device could also discriminate plant mutant cells with modified PCW compositions, thus provided a novel tool for physical phenotyping of plant cells. The dose-dependent effects of exogenously applied auxin on PCW regeneration were corroborated on this platform which revealed its potential to sensitively detect the influences of in vitro stimuli. This work not only provided one novel application of impedance-based biosensor to characterize a plant-specific developmental event, but also revealed the promises of EIS integrated microfluidic system as a sensitive, time-effective and low-cost platform to characterize single plant cells and make new scientific discoveries in plant science.