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Methodological and technological considerations in flipped language learning interventions: A systematic review

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Abstract

Flipped learning has become an important area of investigation in the second language field. We located 56 flipped learning interventions through a systematic search on databases including Scopus and Proquest. Analysis of methodological and design features of these reports showed that almost half of them did not check the reliability of their outcome variables, that about 30% failed to include an empirical pre-test, and that no report conducted an a priori power analysis. We offer guidance on how to address these methodological and design issues after identifying them. Our results also showed that all reports relied on technology to flip their classrooms. Most of these interventions (75%) used videos and under half (41%) employed an interactive platform where students interacted with and/or through the technology. Using examples from the report pool, we then highlight how interactive and multimodal flipped applications might be most effective in light of recent theory, especially the drive to develop 21st century skills (Laar et al., 2020). Finally, we make suggestions for future research based on gaps in our report pool, such as more research on certain language outcomes, on languages other than English, and on younger learners.
Methodological and technological
considerations in flipped language
learning interventions:
A systematic review
Joseph P. Vitta, Rikkyo University, Japan (vittajp@rikkyo.ac.uk)
Ali H. Al-Hoorie (hoorie_a@jic.edu.sa)
JALTCALL 2020
June 6, 2020
Agenda
Defining flipped learning
Flipped learning effectiveness
Systematic review
Methodological features
Power, reliability & use of pre-test
Review of technology use
Videos & interactive technology use
Gaps for feature Research
21st century skills
Flipped Learning as a
Debated Construct
Minimum definition: new content
precedes class time in the form of
homework/outside of class study
activity.
Higher order thinking and agency
as the defining features of flipped
vs.
Technology as the defining feature
of flipped
Flipped as communicative language teaching?
Webb and Doman (2016): Flipped Learning ≠ CLT
Hung (2015) and Ishikawa et al. (2015) both compared flipped
treatment groups with CLT comparison groups.
Chen Hsieh et al. (2017) had students draft “the final dialog
collaboratively” (p. 4) under the conventional learning condition.
Ideal Conditions for Flipped (Mehring, 2018)
Procedural and conceptual outcomes
Motivated and trustworthy students
Technologically literacy on both the student and teacher ends
Flipped Learnings
Effectiveness
Usually tested via experimental designs
where flipped is a treatment compared
with non-flipped learning conditions
Past meta-analyses have found flipped
groups perform better by a magnitude of
0.3 to 0.5 standard deviations (Cohen’s
d) across different educational domains
Humanities, subsuming second/foreign
language learning, have slightly higher
effects observed (e.g., Cheng et al., 2019,
gor corrected d= 0.63)
From our meta-analysis of L2 flipped interventions
- Magnitude of L2 d (Plonsky & Oswald, 2014): 0.4 (small), 0.7 (medium), 1.0 (large)
- Overall effect g (corrected d) = 0.99, but it corrects to 0.58 when considering
possible publication bias
L2 outcome
Studies
gLower
95% CI Upper
95% CI
Writing
13 1.50 1.00 1.99
Listening
4 1.42 0.62 2.21
Speaking
8 1.14 0.81 1.48
Multi
-skill 14 1.03 0.65 1.41
Grammar
5 1.01 0.38 1.63
Vocabulary
9 0.25 0.03 0.47
Standardized test performance
4 0.33 0.07 0.72
Reading
3 1.25 0.09 2.59
From our meta-analysis,
concerning observations:
Lack of details on the ‘flip’
Much higher effects in non-
SSCI journals (points to
publication bias and
methods issues) Scopus g
= 1.39
Executed a systematic
review in response
Overview of Study
Systematic review is a research synthesis that identifies and quantifies
trends in a report pool:
RQ1: What are the observed methodological issues in L2 flipped experimental
reports?
Power, reliability, use of pre-test
RQ2: How do L2 flipped interventions employ technology in flipping the content?
Videos, web 1.0 vs. web 2.0
RQ3: What additional ‘gaps’ in relation to age, L2, and learning outcomes emerge
from a review of L2 flipped experimental reports?
Judgements were validated via inter-rater reliability checking reported in the larger
meta-analysis report – 85% to 88% agreement (.7 ≤ κ ≤ .86)
The report pool
Many L2 meta-analyses and
systematic report pools limit
their report search to a few
journals but this goes against
the spirit of research
synthesis endeavors where
comprehensiveness is king.
Robust search ending in 56
experimental reports more
than double the L2 reports in
either flipped review studies
RQ1. Power, i.e. minimum sample size
Finding: No report engaged in an a priori power analysis
Why is this an issue? Power calculations tie research to the existing body
of literature. Underpowered and no-power samples may not be
untrustworthy in both directions: 1) they can miss true but small effects
in the population (type 2 error) and 2) detected large effects could be
flukes (Brysbaert, 2019)
How to fix it? Lets assume d= 0.58, calculate power G*Power software:
2 groups of 48 basic design that tests flipped vs. non-flipped RQ
3 groups of 40 treatment, comparison, control design + ANOVA testing
Values from other meta-analyses can be substituted
RQ1. Reliability
53% of reports (30 of them) reported the reliability of the measurement
of the outcome/dependent variable
Why is it important? Without reliability, validity is impossible to satisfy,
and so the study could be flawed. Validity of instruments, especially in L2,
can be assumed across studies, BUT reliability must be checked in every
instance (Al-Hoorie & Vitta, 2019).
How to fix it? Inter-rater agreement when outcome is a proficiency
judgment. Cronbach’s alpha (KR-21) on test items. When using
standardized tests that have been externally marked, clearly identify this in
report.
Chen Hsieh et al. (2017): positive example
RQ1. Pretest Usage
Finding = 39 reports (~70%) employed pre-tests to empirically
demonstrate pre-treatment equivalence before the treatment.
In all, this was a positive observation and speaks well of our field.
While experimental designs in the strictest sense only require post-
test comparisons, pre-treatment equivalence is important in L2
research as we’re pushing the boundaries of experimental research as
it is, i.e., we’re not in a lab.
Curious example: 2017 study (reading outcome) with g= 2.89
RQ2 100% of reports used technology
Video Usage
75% (42 reports) used videos
Video as preferred medium of
flipped applications
Easy for teachers to made/control
Accessibility of YouTube etc.
Interactive Technology
41% (23 reported) used
interactive technologies
WhatsApp was a popular choice
Learning management systems
such as Edmodo
Web 2.0 as the natural
complement to flipped learning?
RQ3. Gaps Emerging within Report Pool
91% of reports (51 studies) saw English as the L2
75% reports (42 studies) had samples of university language learners
L2 outcomes involving competencies underpinning proficiency skills
appears to be under-researched:
Vocabulary ~11% (6 studies)
Grammar ~9% (5 studies)
Pronunciation 0 studies
Implications for Researchers Going Forward
There is room for improvement in flipped experimental designs,
especially in relation to power analysis and psychometric checking.
There is a need for future research to investigate the effects of flipped
learning on non-university students and learners of other languages
besides English.
The positive and strong effects of flipped learning on procedural
proficiency skills appears to be established, but flipped learning
effects on outcomes such as grammar and vocabulary are still unclear.
Implications for Teachers Going Forward
Overall, the research supports the view
that flipped learning is effective in our
classrooms
Try to flip using interactive technology
Process/skill outcomes seem suitable for
flipped learning
You can join the flipped learning
academic discussion via frontline
qualitative/action research into how
flipped is working
21st century skills provides a justification
for using flipped learning in your
classrooms
References
Al-Hoorie, A. H., & Vitta, J. P. (2019). The seven sins of L2 research: A review of 30 journals’ statistical quality
and their CiteScore, SJR, SNIP, JCR Impact Factors. Language Teaching Research, 23(6), 727-744.
doi:10.1177/1362168818767191
Brysbaert, M. (2019). How many participants do we have to include in properly powered experiments? A
tutorial of power analysis with reference tables. Journal of Cognition, 2(1), 1-38.
doi:10.5334/joc.72
Chen Hsieh, J. S., Wu, W.-C. V., & Marek, M. W. (2017). Using the flipped classroom to enhance EFL learning.
Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(12), 121. doi:10.1080/09588221.2015.1111910
Cheng, L., Ritzhaupt, A. D., & Antonenko, P. (2019). Effects of the flipped classroom instructional
strategy on students’ learning outcomes: A meta-analysis. Educational Technology Research
and Development, 67(4), 793824. doi:10.1007/s11423-018-9633-7
Hung, H.-T. (2015). Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster active learning.
Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(1), 8196. doi:10.1080/09588221.2014.967701
Ishikawa, Y., Akahane-Yamada, R., Smith, C., Kondo, M., Tsubota, Y., & Dantsuji, M. (2015). An EFL
flipped learning course design: Utilizing students’ mobile online devices. In F. Helm, L. Bradley, M.
Guarda, & S. Thouësny (Eds.), Critical CALL Proceedings of the 2015 EUROCALL Conference, Padova,
Italy (pp. 261267). Dublin, Ireland: Researchpublishing.net.
Mehring, J. (2018). The flipped classroom. In J. Mehring & A. Leis (Eds.), Innovations in flipping the
language classroom: Theories and practices (pp. 110). New York, NY: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Plonsky, L., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). How big Is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language
Learning, 64(4), 878-912. doi:10.1111/lang.12079
Webb, M., & Doman, E. (2016). Does the flipped classroom lead to increased gains on learning outcomes in
ESL/EFL contexts? CATESOL Journal, 28(1), 3967.
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