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Bioactive Compounds, Pharmacological Activity and Food Application of Ficus racemosa: A Critical Review


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Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) is a popular medicinal plant found throughout India, which has long been used in Ayurveda as a source of medicine for curing various diseases/disorders including diabetes, liver disorders, diarrhea, inflammatory conditions, hemorrhoids, respiratory and urinary diseases. It is commonly known as “Gular” in India and widely distributed throughout the world. The different parts of the plant have numerous phytochemical compounds (alkaloids, tannins, saponins, β-sitosterol, lupeol and other compounds) and it possesses numerous therapeutic properties. Despite various pharmacological properties possessed by the plant, it remains underutilized because of its limited availability, i.e., found at limited places and for a limited time period. However, to date, no scientific report has witnessed its effective utilization in the food and feed industry. Therefore, an attempt has been made to explore F. racemosa in terms of its composition, health benefits, value addition and future perspective so that its future can be enlightened.
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Bioactive Compounds, Pharmacological Activity
and Food Application of Ficus racemosa: A Critical
Gitesh Kishor Chaware , Vikas Kumar , Satish Kumar & Pankaj Kumar
To cite this article: Gitesh Kishor Chaware , Vikas Kumar , Satish Kumar & Pankaj Kumar (2020):
Bioactive Compounds, Pharmacological Activity and Food Application of Ficus�racemosa: A Critical
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Bioactive Compounds, Pharmacological Activity and Food
Application of Ficus racemosa: A Critical Review
Gitesh Kishor Chaware
, Vikas Kumar
, Satish Kumar
, and Pankaj Kumar
Food Technology and Nutrition, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara,
Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana,
SERB- National Post-Doctoral Fellow (DST New Delhi), CSIR - Institute of Himalayan
Bioresource Technology, Palampur, India
Ficus racemosa: Linn. (Moraceae) is a popular medicinal plant
found throughout India, which has long been used in Ayurveda
as a source of medicine for curing various diseases/disorders
including diabetes, liver disorders, diarrhea, inammatory con-
ditions, hemorrhoids, respiratory and urinary diseases. It is com-
monly known as Gular in India and widely distributed
throughout the world. The dierent parts of the plant have
numerous phytochemical compounds (alkaloids, tannins, sapo-
nins, β-sitosterol, lupeol and other compounds) and it possesses
numerous therapeutic properties. Despite various pharmacolo-
gical properties possessed by the plant, it remains underutilized
because of its limited availability, i.e., found at limited places
and for a limited time period. However, to date, no scientic
report has witnessed its eective utilization in the food and feed
industry. Therefore, an attempt has been made to explore
F. racemosa in terms of its composition, health benets, value
addition and future perspective so that its future can be
Ficus racemosa;
pharmacological profile;
therapeutic properties;
traditional uses; toxicology
Medicinal plants are an important therapeutic agent for eliminating health-
related risks of human being and its witness has been given by their presence
in Rigveda and Ayurveda. The rate of prevalence of diseases, as well as
discomfort, has increased in the recent era. This situation has to lead the
researchers to explore different medicinal as well as herbal plants to eliminate
this problem. As per the reports presented by WHO, 80% of the population all
over the world implement remedial herbs to heal diseases as the most impor-
tant therapy at a basic stage (Akerele, 1993). The use of these medicinal plants
having disease curing activity has been widely proposed in most developing
countries, on a normal basis these plant sources act as a remedy for health
benefits (UNESCO, 1996; Salehi et al., 2018a, 2018b; Sharifi-Rad et al., 2018a).
Nowadays, an increasing trend for the utilization of medicinal plants in the
CONTACT Vikas Kumar Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab
Agricultural University Ludhiana, Punjab 141004, India
© 2020 Taylor & Francis
industrial sector has been seen in the different sectors such as extraction and
development of several drugs having disease curing as well as biological
properties (Sharifi-Rad et al., 2018b; UNESCO, 1998).
Among all the medicinal plants, F. racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) is one of
them which is a member of Fig family generally known as Gular in India which
is widely distributed throughout India (Himalayan ranges from Punjab,
Khasia mountain, Maharashtra, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Rajasthan,
Deccan and South India) and world (Australia, Malaysia, Burma, China,
Indonesia); and is known by different names.
Traditionally the crop is being utilized as fodder for feeding the animals,
food (as fermented and non-fermented products), as well as ceremonial
application. All parts of this plant (leaves, fruits, bark, latex, and sap of the
root) have medicinal as well as therapeutic importance in the traditional
system of medicine in India for curing piles, dysentery, asthma, gonorrhea
accompanied by gleet, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, hemoptysis and urinary dis-
eases (Swain, 1990). Recently, these different parts have been explored by
various researchers for their different biological functions/activities such as
hepatoprotective, chemopreventive, antidiabetic, antipyretic, antitussive and
antidiuretic activity (Rao et al., 2002).
Despite the numerous health benefits possessed by the plant, the
crop remains underutilized because of its limited availability in
a limited time period. Moreover, the presence of fig wasp present
inside the fruit is another obstacle for its utilization. Therefore, the
present review has been prepared to explore the utilization, phyto-
chemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activities
of F. racemosa, with the aim to attract readers, researchers and indus-
trialists for its effective utilization.
Proximate composition of F. racemosa fruit
The fruit, bark, roots, and latex of F. racemosa possess a number of phyto-
chemical, physicochemical compounds along with minerals (Ca, K, Mg, P, Fe).
The fruit and bark of trees contain a sufficient amount of nutrients (crude
protein, total lipids, crude fat, sugars, and starch). The leaves of F. racemosa
are rich in reducing sugars, polyphenols and minerals. The fruit contains
digestible carbohydrates and yields a high-energy value along with phytother-
apeutic constituents (Singh et al., 2013). The detail of these phytochemicals
(Figure 1) along with their pharmacological activity has been presented in
(Tables 1 and 2). Thus, it can be concluded that these physicochemicals and
phytochemicals are obtained from different extracts of F. racemosa which is
useful for further studies of pharmacological parameters. A detailed study in
this regard must be done for further isolation leading to the extraction of pure
Phytochemical potential of dierent parts of F. racemosa
The different parts of F. racemosa possess various potential phytochem-
icals such as the roots of this plant constitute cycloartenol, euphorbol,
and its hexacosanoate, taraxerone, tinyatoxin, flavonoids, tannins,
saponins, alkaloids (Sharma and Gupta, 2008; Murti and Kumar,
2011; Goyal, 2012); stem consists of campesterol, hentriacontane, hen-
triacontanol, kaempferol, stigmasterol, methyl ellagic acid, lupeol
a . Alkaloids b . α- Amyrin c. β- Sitosterol
d . Bergapten e . Euphol f . Cycloartenol
g . Ficusin h. Flavonoid i. Glycosides
j. Kempherol k . Lupeol acetate l. Phenols
m. Psoralen n. Quercetin o . Rutin
p. Racemosic Acid q. Sterols r. Stigmasterol
Figure 1. Phytochemicals of F. racemosa.
acetate, β-sitosterol, lupeol, α-amyrin acetate, glauanol acetate (Joy
et al., 2001; Paarakh, 2009; Joseph and Raj, 2010b; Babu et al., 2010)
and leaves consist of tetra triterpene, glauanolacetate, racemosic acid,
alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins (Patil
et al., 2010). Moreover, the fruit and latex of F. racemosa are also
Table 1. Phytochemical and Pharmacological potential of different parts of F. racemosa.
Part Phytochemicals Pharmacological Activity References
Root Cycloartenol,
These exhibits anti-analgesic, anti-
diuretic, anti-hydrophobic, anti-
Microbial, anti-oxidant activity.
It also possesses wound healing
(Fawzy et al., 2008); (Dreosti, 2000);
(Raju and Balaraman, 2008);
(Punitha et al., 2005); (Varma et al.,
2009); (Sharma and Gupta, 2008);
(Murti and Kumar, 2011); (Goyal,
Stem Campesterol
Methyl ellagic acid
α-Amyrin acetate
Glauanol acetate
These phytochemicals show evi-
dence of activities like anti-
inflammatory, hypoglycemic, anti-
diarrheal, anti-ulcerative, anti-
asthmatic, antipyretic and wound
(Paarakh, 2009); (Joy et al., 2001);
(Joseph and Raj, 2010a); (Warrier,
1996), (Babu et al., 2010)
Leaves Tetra triterpene
Racemosic acid
Phenolic compound
These have been reported to show
anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-
inflammatory and wound healing
(Patil et al., 2010); (Paarakh, 2009);
(Kirtikar and Basu, 1975)
Fruit Glauanol
β sitosterol,
Tiglic acid
Esters of Taraxasterol
The phytochemicals present in the
fruit of F. racemosa exhibit hypo-
lipidemic, anti-diabetic, anti-
carcinogenic and anti-leucohorric
(Babu et al., 2010); (Asolkar and
Chopra, 1992), (Paarakh, 2009);
(Zulfiker et al., 2011)
Latex α-Amyrin
4-Deoxyphorbol and
its esters
Palmitic acid
Trimethylellagic acid.
These phytochemicals have been
reported to exhibit activities like
antipyretic, anti-inflammatory,
(Paarakh, 2009)
rich in certain phytochemicals including glauanol, hentriacontane,
β-sitosterol, glauanolacetate, tiglic acid, esters of taraxasterol, lupeol
acetate, friedelin and α-amyrin, β-sitosterol, cycloartenol, cycloeuphor-
denol, 4-deoxyphorbol and its esters, euphol, euphorbinol, isoeuphor-
bol, palmitic acid, taraxerol, tinyatoxin, tri-methyl ellagic acid,
respectively (Babu et al., 2010). All these phytochemicals have been
reported to exhibit numerous pharmacological properties that are ben-
eficial for human health. A complete detail of the phytochemical and
pharmacological properties is given in Table 1.
Pharmacological prole and health benets of F. racemosa
Several studies have been conducted on animal strains by different
researchers in order to explore the pharmacological profile of
F. racemosa. It has been reported that the different parts of this plant
(roots, stem, stem bark, leaves, fruit, and latex), when treated with
chemical extracts, were known to exhibit biological activities like anti-
microbial (Goyal, 2012; Murti and Kumar, 2011), antioxidant (Sharma
and Gupta, 2008), anti-hyperglycemic (Ahmed and Urooj, 2009), hypo-
glycemic (Jahan et al., 2009), anti-inflammatory (Mandal et al., 2000a),
hepatoprotective (Ahmed and Urooj, 2009), hypolipidemic (Keshari
et al., 2016), anti-diabetic (Ahmed and Urooj, 2010), anti-microbial
(JagtapSupriya et al., 2012), anti-bacterial (Mandal et al., 2000), anti-
helminthic (Adsul and Patil, 2013), gastroprotective (Rao et al., 2008)
and wound healing (Murti and Kumar, 2012). Therefore, F. racemosa
possesses various health benefits owing to its pharmacological profile.
It protects against different types of cancers, cardiovascular diseases,
liver diseases, ulcers, microbial (bacterial, fungal, parasitic) infections,
diarrhea, inflammatory conditions, respiratory and urinary diseases.
According to research studies, it has been revealed that the bark of
F. racemosa possesses anti-dementia activity by enhancing the neuro-
transmitter levels in the body, i.e., acetylcholine. It also possesses the
potential to reduce toxicity caused in the body due to oxidative stress
as the plant exhibits antioxidant activity owing to the presence of
numerous phenolics compounds including quercetin, ellagic acid, gallic
acid and terpenoids (Yadav et al., 2015). Many researchers have con-
ducted in vitro research studies on different animals, bacterial and
fungal strains in order to reveal the bioactivity of the different parts
of F. racemosa. A detail of the complete pharmacological profile of
F. racemosa as explored by the different researchers has been presented
in Table 2.
Table 2. Pharmacological profile of F. racemosa.
Plant Part Extract Used Animal/Strain Used Administrative Dose and Method Bioactivity Key Findings Reference
Root 90% (v/v)
Wistar albino rats Ketamine injection (0.5 mL/kg b.
w. i.p.)
Wound Healing It was found that the aqueous extract
of F. racemosa shows better-wound
healing activity as compared to the
ethanol extract.
(Murti and
(10 lit × 3)
Klebsiella pneumonia,
Staphylococcus aureus and
Escherichia coli (in -vitro
25, 50 and 75 mg/ml of Aqueous
and ethanol extract
Antimicrobial Activity The study revealed that the roots show
antimicrobial activity against S. aureus,
E. coli, and K. pneumonia.
(Murti and
Bacterial culture (E.
coli, Bacillus subtilis,
Pseudomonas aeroginosa
and Enterobacter cloacae),
Fungal culture (Penicillium
chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger,
Trichophyton rubrum and
Candida albicans
8, 6, 4 and 2 mg/disc of the test
extracts and
control streptomycin (for
bacteria) and
ketoconozole (for fungi) using
Disk Diffusion method
The ethanolic extract exhibited good
activity against E. coli and E. cloacae,
moderate activity against the
P. aeroginosa, while trace activity was
observed against B. subtilis at all
(Goyal, 2012)
Ethyl acetate
(400 ml)
In vitro Antioxidant model The method used was hot
continuous extraction method
using soxhlet apparatus.
Antioxidant activity The study reported that roots possess
antioxidant activity through the DPPH
radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl
radical scavenging activity, reducing
power, hydrogen peroxide scavenging
activity due to the presence of poly-
phenolic content.
(Sharma and
Gupta, 2008)
Stem Bark 70%(v/v) extract
of acetone
Male wistar rats (150–200 g) were
used for this investigation.
Oral administration of tannin
fraction (TF) (100 & 200 mg/kg
body weight) to rats fed with
high fat meal for 30 days (4%
cholesterol, 1% cholic acid,
0.5% egg albumin) and injected
with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg
i.p. in citrate buffer on
14th day).
Hyperglycemic activity,
Two different doses of tannin supple-
mentation had a favorable effect on
plasma glucose and lipid profile
It also shows an influence on attenuat-
ing oxidative stress in diabetic rats.
et al., 2012)
Table 2. (Continued).
Plant Part Extract Used Animal/Strain Used Administrative Dose and Method Bioactivity Key Findings Reference
Ethanol Extract In Vitro ATP Based Luminescence
A panel of enzyme assays
including cyclooxygenase-1
(COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2
(COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase
(5-LOX) and phospholipase A
) were used for the in-vitro
The inhibitory effect of the F. racemosa
extract on the biosynthesis of PGE 2
and PGD 2 observed in COX-1 assay
with IC50 value of 83.1 µg/mL, whereas
COX-2 value show effect on IC50 value
of 8.4 µM.
It identifies a new compound racemo-
sic acid that possesses inhibitory
activity against COX-1 and 5-LOX
in vitro with IC-50 values of 90 and
18 µM.
(Li et al., 2003)
Bark powder and
(12% w/w)
Healthy adult male Wistar rats
between eight and nine weeks
of age and weighing 140–160 g
Single intramuscular injection of
streptozotocin (55 mg/kg,
Sigma Aldrich, India) dissolved
in citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.5)
after 24 h of fasting.
and hypolipidemic
It was observed that the aqueous
extract was more effective than the
bark powder, indicating the role of
water-soluble phytoconstituents rather
than the plant fiber for the observed
biological effects.
(Ahmed and
Urooj, 2009)
Ethanol extract
(500 mg/kg)
Healthy strain of Wister albino rats
(150–250 g) and Swiss albino
mice (18–20 g) of either sex
were used as experimental
models for testing of activity.
The Wister rats were administered
with 5 % gum acacia,
petroleum ether, ethanolic,
hydro-alcoholic extracts (100,
300, 500 mg/kg) p.o
respectively. In Hot plate
method Swiss albino mice were
administrated withpetroleum
ether, ethanolic, hydro-
alcoholic extracts (100, 300,
500 mg/kg) p.o respectively.
The results showed that the stem bark
is useful in inflammatory and painful
(Harer Sunil
Male healthy rats of Wistar strain
140–160 g
The bark powder was subjected to
heat treatment in a vacuum
oven at 100°C for 60 min,
cooled in a desiccator, and used
for the preparation of emulsion.
Anti-diabetic activity It was reported that heat treatment
increased the inhibitory activity of
F. racemosa bark against phenolic
It could be used in the formulation of
functional foods for the effective man-
agement of diabetes.
(Ahmed and
Urooj, 2010)
Table 2. (Continued).
Plant Part Extract Used Animal/Strain Used Administrative Dose and Method Bioactivity Key Findings Reference
Albino Wistar rats were kept in
standard temperature (25 ± 5°
C), relative humidity
(55 ± 10%).
The plant materials (2 kg stem
bark) were air-dried under
shade, powdered and defatted
with petroleum ether (60–80°C)
using Soxhlet apparatus by
successive solvent extraction
Anti-diabetic and
The results revealed anti-diabetic,
hypolipidemic and antioxidant proper-
ties in Streptozotocin (STZ) rats which
supported the use of F. racemosa stem
bark as a useful supplementary drug
for future anti-diabetic therapy.
(Keshari et al.,
Stem Dried extract of
The stock of B. subtilis and
Enterobacter sp. strains were
taken out of −20° and revived
in LB medium. The culture was
incubated at 37°C overnight.
Dried leaf and bark samples
wereground into coarse
powder using a grinding
100 g of powdered plant
material was used
Anti-oxidant activity The results revealed that barks possess
high antioxidant activity. IC50 value of
bark extract was found to be 19 μg/ml
which is even better than of the stan-
dard BHT.
(Tariq et al.,
Ethanolic Extract The alloxan-induced rats with
blood glucose levels above
260 mg/dl were selected for the
experimental study.
Different doses of (100, 200, 300,
400 and 500 mg/ FrEBet
were assessed to find out the
effective antidiabetic dose in
alloxan induced diabetic rats.
The antidiabetic effect was
assessed by giving the different
doses of extract (100 to
500 mg/ daily for
45 days, to severely diabetic
rats [blood glucose 260 mg/dl
and urinary sugar (+++)] and
studied their effect on fasting
blood glucose and urine sugar.
Hypolipidemic and
anti-diabetic activity
The results showed that it reduced the
blood sugar level (80%) and restored
the status of lipids and lipoproteins
(60–70%) near the normal range.
(Sophia and
Methanol and
Ether extract
In vitro antimicrobial activity
tested against B. subtilis and
E. coli by cup plate diffusion
The sample was extracted by
using petroleum ether
(60–80° C) and methanol
(90–100C) under a rotary
vacuum evaporator.
Anti-microbial activity Methanolic extract shows good antimi-
crobial activity at a concentration of
100 mg/ml and it shows more potency
toward gram-positive bacteria.
et al., 2012)
Table 2. (Continued).
Plant Part Extract Used Animal/Strain Used Administrative Dose and Method Bioactivity Key Findings Reference
and hexanes
Antibacterial assay was carried out
against Staphylococcus and
Bacillus species and antifungal
activity against Saccharomyces
spp. and C. albicans.
Stem bark extracts of F. racemosa
were evaluated using scratch
wound assay (SWA) on Baby
Hamster Kidney (BHK 21) and
Madin-Darby Canine Kidney
(MDCK) cell lines and Kirby
Bauer disc diffusion assay
Wound healing activity Suspensions of these cultures were
prepared in sterile distilled water hav-
ing predetermined cell densities mea-
sured as OD value.
It shows enhancement of cell migra-
tion as well as anti-microbial activity,
this dual-action of F. racemosa stem
bark provides scientific support for its
traditional use in wound healing.
(Bopage et al.,
Leaves Powdered leaves
were extracted
ether (B.P.
60–80°C) in
a soxhlet
Male albino Wister rats weighing
200–250 g were placed in cages
with wire-net floors in
a controlled room temperature
2292°C, relative humidity
60–70% and provided with
food and water ad libitum
a weighed amount of the dried
extract was suspended in a 2%
(w/v) aqueous Tween 80
Anti-inflammatory The extract efficiently suppressed the
inflammatory activity produced by
histamine and serotonin.
(Mandal et al.,
Leaves were
(500 g) and
Antibacterial potential against
E. coli
ATCC 10536, B. pumilis ATCC
14884, B. subtilis ATCC 6633,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ATCC 25619 and S. aureus ATCC
For evaluation of antibacterial
activity at
different concentrations (150,
200, 250, 300 and 350 mg/
mL) by using the filter paper
disc diffusion method
(Pelczar et al., 1993).
Anti-bacterial activity The results showing that extract of the
leaves of F. racemosa may contribute
to its use in the Indian traditional sys-
tem of medicine.
(Mandal et al.,
Toluene and
Ethanol(10 µg/
The test organisms used were
E. coli (MTCC43), B. subtilis
(MTCC121), P. aeruginosa
(MTCC424), K. pneumonia
(MTCC432), S. aureus (MTCC96)
and Streptococcus mutans
Leaves (50 g) of F. racemosa Linn
was extracted using toluene
and ethanol separately in the
soxhlet extractor by not
exceeding the boiling point of
the solvent.
Anti-microbial activity The ethanol extract of F. racemosa
shows phytochemical compounds and
10 μg/mL of the extract shows good
antimicrobial activity.
(Danie Kingsley
et al., 2014)
Table 2. (Continued).
Plant Part Extract Used Animal/Strain Used Administrative Dose and Method Bioactivity Key Findings Reference
extracts (50%
Bacterial test organisms used
were E. coli, K. pneumoniae,
Lactococcus sp., and S. pyogenes
and the fungal test organisms
used for study were C. albicans,
A. niger
and S. Cerevisae
The hydro-alcoholic extracts (50%
v/v) were prepared according
to a cold percolation method
Anti-microbial activity The leaves extract showed no effect
against K. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes,
and S. cerevisae.
(Mathur et al.,
Swiss albino mice of either sex,
average weight 20–25 g were
used for experiments.
100 gm of dried coarse powdered
leaves were charged in to the
soxhlet’s apparatus (hot
extraction) and extracted
successively with chloroform
Analgesic activity A dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed
significant analgesic activity as com-
pared to the control group.
(Rai et al.,
Ethanolic extract Female albino mice were used to
carry out the experiment
Ethanolic extract of plant material
was prepared using a soxhlet
extractor. Aqueous extract was
prepared freshly. The extract
was evaporated and the
powder was stored in a sterile
container until use.
Anti-oxidant activity The results show that the ethanolic
extract of F. racemosa is a better sca-
venger for NO and SO radicals than
DPPH radical.
(Khan et al.,
Dried powder
(50C) and
hydro alcoholic
Extract was
screened against bacteria i.e.
Actinomyces viscosus
Leaves of F. racemosa were
prepared and dried at 50°C. The
the coarse powder was
extracted using
hydroalcohoic (methanol:
water) in soxhlet apparatus.
Antibacterial activity The hydroalcoholic extract of
F. racemosa was found effective
against A. vicosus (MTCC 7345).
(Shaikh et al.,
Fruits 95% ethanol Young Swiss-albino mice of either
sex aged 4–5 weeks, average
weight 20–25 gm were used for
the experiment.
F. racemosa were extracted in 95%
ethanol to evaluate for centrally
acting analgesic potential using
hot plate method and
peripheral pharmacological
actions using acetic acid-
induced writhing test in mice.
Analgesic activity F. racemosa fruit show central and per-
ipheral analgesic properties.
(Zulfiker et al.,
Table 2. (Continued).
Plant Part Extract Used Animal/Strain Used Administrative Dose and Method Bioactivity Key Findings Reference
50% Ethanol Sprague Dauley rats of either sex
weighing 200–250 g were used.
Animals were kept under
standard laboratory conditions
at 25 °± 2°C, 50 ± 15% RH and
photoperiod (12 h dark/12 h
Air-dried powdered fruits of
F. racemosa (1000 g) were
powdered and
exhaustively extracted by
overnight maceration with 10
volumes of 50%
ethanol and centrifugation at
10,000 rev/min. The extract was
separated by
filtration and concentrated on
Rota vapor (Buchi, USA) and
then dried in
Anti-oxidant activity Ethanolic extracts of F. racemosa pos-
sess high phenolics content and anti-
oxidant activity.
(Ramana et al.,
Antibacterial activity against all
the tested four Gram negative
and Gram positive bacteria:
S. aureus, B. subtilis, Vibrio
cholera, B. cereus, S. typhi,
Shigella dysenteriae,
P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella species
and Proteus species as well four
fungi: Alternaria spp.,
Colletotrichum spp., Curvularia
spp. and Fusarium spp.
The dried samples were ground to
a coarse powder with
a mechanical grinder and
extracted with methanol for
7 days with occasional shaking
in a beaker. The antimicrobial
activity was measured using
disk diffusion method
Antimicrobial activity The result shows highest inhibition at
a concentration of 200 μg/disc for
S. aureus (18 mm) and in the concen-
tration of 150 μg/disc for Fusarium spp.
(12 mm).
(Hossain et al.,
50% Ethanolic
Sprague–Dawley rats (140–180 g)
were procuredwith rodent
pellet dietand the food was
withdrawn 18–24 h before the
experiment though water was
allowed ad libitum.
Air-dried powdered fruit of
F. glomerata (1000 g) was
exhaustively extracted with
50% ethanol (3 × 10 L) and
concentrated under reduced
pressure to yield 7.25% w/w
HPTLC analysis shows gastroprotecti-
veactivity which might be due to gas-
tric defense factors and phenolics.
(Rao et al.,
Table 2. (Continued).
Plant Part Extract Used Animal/Strain Used Administrative Dose and Method Bioactivity Key Findings Reference
Aqueous (80%)
EtOH extract
Male long Evans rats weighing
180–200 g fasted for 18 h
were injected Streptozotocin
F. racemosa L. (70 kg) were sliced
and dried at 40_C in an electric
oven and then
grounded into powder.
Powdered material (6 kg) was
soaked into aqueous (80%)
400 I.A.
and antioxidant
The extract FR-p also showed 60%
DPPH scavenging activity and its
1-BuOH soluble part showed an 80%
inhibition activity.
(Jahan et al.,
The media used for the test was
Nutrient agar/broth and
Sabouraud’s dextrose agar/
The hydro-alcoholic extracts (50%
v/v) were prepared according
to cold percolation method.
Anti-microbial activity The plant showed maximum potency
against E. coli at MIC value 0.6 mg/ml
while moderate activity against
Lactococcus sp. and minimum activity
against A. niger.
(Mathur et al.,
Latex Metronidazole
(10 mg/ml),
Vidangasav as
a reference
Adult Indian earthworms
Pheritima posthuma was used
in the present study due to its
anatomical and physiological
resemblance with the intestinal
roundworm parasites of human
Metronidazole (10 mg/ml),
Vidangasav was used as
a reference standard and
distilled water as a control
Antihelmintic activity The antihelmintic activity of
F. racemosa was tested against Indian
earthworm and showed less death rate
with latex.
(Adsul and
Patil, 2013)
Traditional and modern uses of F. racemosa
F. racemosa has numerous traditional applications in curing diseases like bilious
infection, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, hemoptysis, visceral obstruction, diar-
rhea, constipation, leprosy, diabetes, uropathy, cholera, mumps, gonorrhea and
many more. In the traditional system, the parts of this plant can be used
internally as well as externally. As per the literature, all the parts of this plant
are useful and have an excellent medicinal value which can benefit the human in
various possible ways (Table 3). However, still it is unexplored and not that
much research has been carried out for its efficient utilization. Different ranges
of the products, i.e., fermented and non-fermented food products can be pre-
pared using F. racemosa fruit (Figure 2). In fermented food products, it can be
utilized for the production of wine and vinegar whereas in non-fermented food
products, it can be used in its raw form or dried form. A complete detail of the
future prospects of F. racemosa is presented in Figure 2.
Toxicology of F. racemosa
Very few studies have been carried out regarding the study of the toxicity
of this plant. However, one study has been performed in order to
Table 3. Traditional utilization of F. racemosa.
Plant Part Traditional Disease Curing Applications References
Leaves Mixture of leaves and honey is used to cure bilious
Decoction of leaves is used to cure dysmenorrhea.
Leaf juice massaged on hair to prevent splitting.
Leaf latex is used to prevent boils, blisters, and measles.
(Kirtikar and Basu, 1975); (Siwakoti and
Siwakoti, 2000)
Fruits Act as a stimulant tonic for the proper functioning of
the stomach.
Fruit juice is used for the treatment of menorrhagia and
Act as a remedy for visceral obstruction, diarrhea, and
Curing agent for leprosy and diabetes.
(Chopra et al., 1958); (Vihari, 1995)
Bark Infusion of bark is used in mouth wash of spongy gum
condition, dysentery, and menorrhea.
Decoction of bark is used in the washing of wounds,
burns, asthma and piles and swelling.
It has also great importance in uropathy to prevent
various urinary tract diseases.
(Chopra et al., 1958); (Kirtikar and Basu,
1975); (Paudyal, 2000); (Tiwari, 2001)
Latex It is used in the preparation of aphrodisiac drugs to
boost fertility system.
It acts as a curing agent in the stomach, cholera, and
It is used in the treatment of the skeletal fracture.
It is also used as adhesive for many purposes.
(Yadav, 1999); (Ghimire et al., 2000);
(Ekanayake, 1980); (Bheemachari
et al., 2007); (Dangol, 2002).
Sap of
Sap of root is used in the treatment of gonorrhea and
Root sap is also used to prevent muscle pain, headache,
heat stroke, chronic wounds, and malaria in cattle.
(Chopra et al., 1958); (Thapa, 2001)
determine the effect of F. racemosa on human physiology. Different para-
meters including hemoglobin, red blood cell count, white blood cell count,
urea, glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, and serum glutamate pyruvate trans-
aminase were determined and it was found that the aqueous extract of
F. racemosa bark was safe up to a certain limit but after that, it produced
an abnormal effect on the liver as well as kidney (Jaykaran et al., 2009;
Panwar et al., 2010; Yadav et al., 2015). As very few studies have been
conducted about the toxicity; therefore, it emphasizes the need for further
research regarding this aspect.
Conclusion and future perspective
Different parts of F. racemosa comprise a number of phytochemicals
that possess numerous biological activities and health benefits. In the
present review, authors have tried to review the diversity, phytochem-
ical and therapeutic potential, pharmacological profile, traditional uses
and toxicology of this plant. But the utilization of fruits of F. racemosa
is being neglected by the researchers, processors, and industrialists
besides its high potential. It is because of its limited availability at
fewer places and ultimately remains underutilized. Therefore, the
need of the present era is to explore F. racemosa for its further
utilization in the food industry, which is quite possible with the scien-
tific intervention to make it available throughout the year and different
places. The review at hand aims to attract processors and researchers
for its value addition, which may enhance the socio-economic status of
the folk.
Figure 2. Modern utilization of F. racemosa.
The authors are highly grateful to School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University
Phagwara, Punjab, India for providing financial assistance and infrastructure for preparation
of this review.
Authors’ Contributions
GKC and VK carried out a major part of the literature review, drafted the manuscript and are
equally first author. SK and PK co-authored, supervised the manuscript preparation and helped
to finalize the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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... Based on a review from Chaware et al. (2020), F. racemosa had antioxidant activity almost in all parts of this plant; root, stem bark, stem, and fruit. The stem bark of F. racemosa possesses high antioxidant activity with IC50 values of many, which is even better than the standard BHT., The extract from the fruit also showed 60% DPPH scavenging activity, and its 1-BuOH soluble part showed an 80% inhibition activity. ...
... Stem bark ethanol extract also showed antiinflammatory activity on the Wister rats and Swiss albino mice. In addition, the leaves of F. racemosa exhibited antiinflammatory by suppressing the inflammatory activity produced by histamine and serotonin in male albino Wister rats (Chaware et al. 2020). ...
... The ethanol extract showed 10μg/ml and hydroalcoholic extract were suitable for antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract from the fruit also displayed antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria (Chaware et al. 2020). ...
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Putra KWE, Pitoyo A, Nugroho GD, Rai M, Setyawan AD. 2020. Review: Phytochemical activities of Ficus (Moraceae) in Java Island, Indonesia. Bonorowo Wetlands 10: 98-125. Ficus is a genus of about 850-900 species. Some mention more than 1000 species, making it the largest species in the family of Moraceae. There are approximately 91 species of Ficus found in Java, Indonesia. Some of them have been studied about their traditional uses and phytochemistry. This study aims to know the phytochemical activities of Ficus species in Java. We found at least 40 species of Ficus studied in phytochemistry and biological activities (majority in vitro). Alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, and anthocyanins are found in almost every Ficus. The biological activities include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, cytotoxic activity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, anti-diabetic activities, hepatoprotective, anti-ulcer activities, wound healing, and other functions. Many species are still unexplored, especially in phytochemistry or pharmaceutical-based folklore. This could be an opportunity to study more deeply in the future.
... This nanoparticle solution was subjected to the absorption of the UV spectrum in wavelengths ranging from 200 to 800 nm. The plant is an excellent source of reducing sugars, polyphenols, ficusin, flavonoids, rutin, minerals, and quercetin, according to earlier phytochemical findings [16]. These substances are indicated to chelate and stabilize nanoparticles, and the probable synthesized mechanism of ZnO NPs is shown in Fig. 1. ...
The synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) from plants is a viable eco-friendly approach with applications in different sectors. Thus, we aim to synthesize and characterize zinc oxide NPs (ZnO NPs) from Ficus racemosa L. leaf extract and to evaluate their larvicidal potential against Aedes albopictus larvae, their efficacy against human clinical pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli). Furthermore, we evaluated its use in photocatalytic rhodamine B (RhB) dye degradation and its possible acute toxicity to a non-target organism (Artemia salina). The biosynthesized ZnO NPs were characterized using UV–Vis, XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, and FT-IR. UV–vis absorption spectrum indicates that the green synthesized ZnO NPs absorb at the wavelength centered at 365 nm, corresponding to the band gap of 3.2 eV. We reported that A. albopictus mosquito larvae were highly susceptible to ZnO NPs, especially when exposed to 250 μg ZnO NPs/mL. The reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the carboxylesterases phosphatases evaluated was concentration-dependent, constituting a possible mechanism of larvicidal action of NPs. Biosynthesized ZnO NPs also significantly inhibited the growth of the bacterial species evaluated, suggesting good bactericidal activity. Furthermore, the ZnO NPs efficiently degraded RhB dye in an aqueous solution under UV light irradiation, proving promising in dye remediation in wastewater. Finally, ZnO NPs suspension exhibited lower acute toxicity of A. salina after 48 h of exposure. Therefore, our study pioneeringly demonstrates that biosynthesis of ZnO NPs from F. racemosa leaf extract can be a great approach to developing versatile and environmental products.
... Alkaloids, β-sitosterol, saponins, tannins, and lupeol have been suggested to be the active constituents responsible for the potential therapeutic effects of Ficus racemosa Linn. (Chaware et al., 2020). ...
Background : Inflammation is a double-edged sword in the pathophysiology of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The global rise in the prevalence of T2DM in one hand, and poor disease control with currently-available treatments on the other hand, along with an increased tendency towards the use of natural products make scientists seek herbal medicines for the management of diabetes and its complications by reducing C-reactive protein (CRP) as an inflammatory marker. Purpose : To systematically review the literature to identify the efficacy of various medicinal plants with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties considering their effect on CRP in animal models of T2DM. Study design : systematic review. Methods : Electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochran Library were searched using the search terms “herbal medicine”, “diabetes”, “c-reactive protein”, “antioxidants” till August 2021. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory animal Experimentation (SYRCLE's) tool. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO with an ID number CRD42020207190. A manual search to detect any articles not found in the databases was also made. The identified studies were then critically reviewed and relevant data were extracted and summarized. Results : Amongst total of 9904 primarily-retrieved articles, twenty-three experimental studies were finally included. Our data indicated that numerous herbal medicines, compared to placebo or hypoglycemic medications, are effective in treatment of diabetes and its complications through decreasing CRP concentrations and oxidative stresses levels. Medicinal plants including Psidium guajava L., Punica granatum L., Ginkgo biloba L., Punica granatum L., Dianthus superbusn L.. Moreover, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Curcuma longa L., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Morus alba L., and Ficus racemosa L. demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects in animal models of diabetes. Conclusion : Hypoglycemic medicinal plants discussed in this review seem to be promising regulators of CRP, and oxidative stress. Thus, these plants are suitable candidates for management of diabetes’ complications. Nevertheless, further high-quality in vivo studies and clinical trials are required to confirm these effects. Keywords Herbal medicinesC-reactive proteinType 2 diabetesAntioxidantsExperimentalSystematic review Share link:
... Mohiuddin and Lia reported that Ficus racemosa (L.) contains many bioactive components such as phenolics, flavonoids, vitamins, etc. [3]. Chaware et al., [4] determined this fruit has intense antioxidant activity through the free radical scavenging test of diphenyl picryl hydrazine. A study by Zulfiker et al., [5] demonstrated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity of figs. ...
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Ficus racemosa (L.) belongs to the Moraceae family, this plant has been shown to have an abundant source of phytochemicals and health benefits. It is often used as a traditional medicine to support the treatment of various diseases, and it is also used as food in some countries. The study was aimed to evaluate the influence of the pretreatment method on the biological activity of F. racemosa (L.) dried fruits. Fresh fruits have been sliced, soaked in citric acid 1% (w/v) for 20 min, and blanching or blanching and freezing treatment. The blanching method, including steam blanching and hot water blanching, was investigated with blanching time as a factor. The blanching and freezing method, blanching parameters were evaluated with time or temperature blanching as a factor. The one-factor-at-a-time or temperature was used to design the experiment in which four-level. After each pretreatment condition, the sample was dried by convection at 60 °C until the moisture content was 0.05 g/g of sample on the dry basis (d.b). Then, the dried sample was analyzed to determine the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity by DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The findings indicated that blanching is not conducive to maintaining the antioxidant activity of F. racemosa fruits. In the case of blanching and freezing before drying, blanching with steam for 2 min or blanching with water at 80 °C for 2 min improves the antioxidant activity of the product by about 1.6 to 2 times.
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Phytocompounds play a key role in prevention and treatment of cancers. The secondary metabolites are being studied due to their anticancer and antioxidant properties leading to the finding of new therapeutic agents. Like many medicinal plants, Ficus racemosa (FR) is rich in polyphenols and can be used in cancer treatment. The side effects of existing therapeutic modalities at high doses may be reduced in combination. In this study the anticancer and anti-migration potentials of FR were evaluated, along with its combinational study at low therapeutic dosage with doxorubicin-HCl (Dox-HCl), dacarbazine (DTIC) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). The effects of FR leaves extract on the rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells morphology, cell viability, and cell migration ability were investigated by light microscopy, MTT assay, and wound healing cell migration assay respectively. The effect of various FR concentrations on RD cells indicated the potential anticancer effect in a dose dependent manner. The results of low dose di-combinations (FR-chemo, FR-PDT) and tri-combinations (FR-chemo-PDT) were synergistic. The % cell viability was reduced to 29% for FR-Dox-HCl-PDT and 44% for FR-DTIC-PDT combinations. A pronounced cytotoxic effect and cell migration was observed in tri-combination therapy as compared to di- and mono-therapy. This study concluded that FR leaves extract has anticancer effects and gives synergy with chemo and PDT combinations.
This review describes the traditional and industrial use of fig (Ficus carica) in medicine as remedies for health problems and its biological activities. It describes various ways of traditional use to treat various ailments like, inflammation, gastric problems and cancer. Phytochemical studies on fruits and leaves of fig plant have explored that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids and volatile compounds. Owing to rich and diversified presence of biologically active compounds, they possess various biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antifungal, antiviral, antimutagenic, antipyretic, antituberculosis, anti-angiogenic, antiparisitic, hematostatis, anticonstipation and antiwarts activities.
Background Edible native flora, or ‘Bushfoods’ of Australia include a diverse range of novel species in terms of their flavours and natural colours. Bushfoods have been recognised for high bio-active phytonutrient content. Bushfoods are also Traditionally valuable to Aboriginal and Torres strait Islander cultures, where industry participation facilitates capital and social benefits to remote communities. Currently, the suitability of native Australian plants for use as natural food flavouring and colourings is unknown, particularly in ‘fringe’ species which have minimal market adoption. Therefore, an appraisal of bushfoods suitability for natural additives is needed to promote new sector growth. Scope and approach This review presents key fields relevant to appraising the suitability of bushfoods for development of natural additives. The relevant fields are market assessment of natural additives and consumer motivations, directions of natural compound extraction, assessment of valuable fringe bushfoods species, and ethical and technical challenges to industry participation. Key findings and conclusions The growth of the bushfoods industry can be facilitated through natural additives development. Consumer trends are dictating industry adoption of natural food additives. Consumers are expected to be receptive of bushfoods derived additives, particularly in the Australian domestic market. Bushfoods are found to contain significant phytochemical content. Research focus on natural additive application of these compounds is presently minimal. An assessment of native Australian flora resulted in a high likelihood of identifying valuable species for natural additives investigation, with a collection of 17 fringe species being identified and summarised from literature. However, technical risks include a lack of food safety assessment of fringe species, as well as maintaining ethical development which observes Traditional Owner's rights and complies with the Nagoya Protocol. The review finds that natural additives development using bushfoods is practical, though further market surveying, food safety investigation, and ethical food industry participation are necessary to facilitate industry application.
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Background Different parts including the latex of Ficus racemosa L. has been used as a medicine for wound healing in the Ayurveda and in the indigenous system of medicine in Sri Lanka. This plant has been evaluated for its wound healing potential using animal models. The aim of this study was to obtain an insight into the wound healing process and identify the potential wound healing active substance/s present in F. racemosa L. bark using scratch wound assay (SWA) as the in-vitro assay method. Method Stem bark extracts of F. racemosa were evaluated using scratch wound assay (SWA) on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK 21) and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell lines and Kirby Bauer disc diffusion assay on common bacteria and fungi for cell migration enhancing ability and antimicrobial activity respectively. Dichloromethane and hexanes extracts which showed cell migration enhancement activity on SWA were subjected to bioactivity directed fractionation using column chromatography followed by preparative thin layer chromatography to identify the compounds responsible for the cell migration enhancement activity. ResultsDichloromethane and hexanes extracts showed cell migration enhancement activity on both cell lines, while EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus and Bacillus species and antifungal activity against Saccharomyces spp. and Candida albicans. Lupeol (1) and β-sitosterol (2) were isolated as the potential wound healing active compounds which exhibited significant cell migration enhancement activity on BHK 21 and MDCK cell lines (> 80%) in par with the positive control, asiaticoside at a concentration of 25 μM. The optimum concentration of each compound required for the maximum wound healing has been determined as 30 μM and 35 μM for 1 and 2 respectively on both cell lines. It is also established that lupeol acetate (3) isolated from the hexanes extract act as a pro-drug by undergoing hydrolysis into lupeol in the vicinity of cells. Conclusion Different chemical constituents present in stem bark of Ficus racemosa L show enhancement of cell migration (which corresponds to the cell proliferation) as well as antimicrobial activity. This dual action of F. racemosa stem bark provides scientific support for its traditional use in wound healing.
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Objectives: The present study assessed the phytochemical components, In vitro antioxidant ability and cytotoxicity of leaf extract of Ficus racemosa. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical analysis in aqueous and ethanol was carried out for the presence of phytochemical components. Of the two extracts used ethanolic extract possessed the highest phytochemical constituents compared to aqueous extract. Hence the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of F. racemosa was performed by several antioxidant assays including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assay, reducing power and superoxide radical (SO) scavenging assay. Results: From the results, F. racemosa has been found to have the significant antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner and IC50 value was 150 μg/ml for DPPH and 100 μg/ml for both NO and SO scavenging assays. Further, the cytotoxicity analysis was determined against Dalton Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) cell line and the IC50 value was found to be 175 μg/ml for ethanolic leaf extract of F. racemosa. Conclusion: Hence, the current study attests that F. racemosa is enriched in phytochemicals and a fine source of natural antioxidants with anticancer agents and can be used in pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of diseases induced by oxidative stress.
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Present work was undergone to investigate analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of Ficus racemosa Linn. Stem bark extract in rats and mice. Ficus racemosa Linn. was studied for its analgesic activity on acetic acid induced writhing test in mice, tail flick test in rats and hot plate method in mice. The anti-inflammatory effects were investigated by employing acute inflammatory model i.e carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema, egg albumin induced paw oedema in rats, also studied for its preliminary phytochemical screening and acute toxicity studies, revealed presence of flavonoids, tannins and polyphenolic compounds, triterpenoids, coumarins, phytosterols, carbohydrates. The extract did not produce mortality up to 5000 mg/kg p.o. Ethanol extract at the maximum dose (500 mg/kg) showed comparatively significant (p< 0.05) activity in tail flick method, significant inhibition of the writhes in writhing test, showed more significant (p< 0.05) response at 90, 120 and 180 min in hot plate method, comparatively significant (p< 0.01) inhibition of paw volume in carrageenan and egg albumin induced paw oedema method to that of standard diclofenac sodium (100 mg/kg). Petroleum ether extract is non-significant in all the cases of analgesic and anti-inflammatory methods. While, hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 300, 500 mg/kg) showed quiet more significant (p< 0.01) response in analgesic and anti-inflammatory method to that of respective standard. The results obtained suggest marked analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract (500 mg/kg) and hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 300, 500 mg/kg). The results obtained support the stem bark is useful in inflammatory and painful conditions like leaves and unripe fruits of the same plant Ficus racemosa Linn.
The antimicrobial activity methanol extracts of Ficus racemosa Linn., belonging to the family Moringaceae, was determined in vitro, using disc diffusion method against human pathogenic bacteria fungi. The displayed a potential antibacterial activity against all the tested four Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species and Proteus species as well four fungi: Alternaria spp., Colletotrichum spp., Curvularia spp. and Fusarium spp. The highest zone of inhibition was found in the concentration of 200 µg/disc for Staphylococcus aureus (18mm) and in the concentration of 150 µg/disc for Fusarium spp. (12mm). The consequences of this investigation suggest that the extracts of Ficus racemosa can be used to discover antibacterial agent for developing new pharmaceuticals to control studied human pathogenic bacteria responsible for severe illness.
Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against infections and degenerative diseases. Modern research is now directed towards natural antioxidants originated from plants due to safe therapeutics. Antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract of Ficus racemosa (FREA) root was investigated for its free radical scavenging activity by adopting various in vitro models. The extract was investigated for its antioxidant activity using Barotene-linoleate oxidation method, 1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl ( DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and determination of total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's phenolic reagent. FREA clearly indicated the polyphenolic content (hR(f) 89.3, 84.0, 74.6, 86.6). FREA at 250 mu g/ml concentration showed maximum scavenging activity of DPPH radical upto 73.11% and for hydrogen peroxide upto 65.42% at 1000 mu g/mL. Reducing power of FREA was also dose dependent. The measurement of total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent indicated that 1mg of FREA contains 8.8 mu g equivalent of gallic acid. The antioxidant property of the extract may be due to presence of phenolic content.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ficus racemosa (FR) has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic system of medicine in India and is closely associated with prevention, treatment and cure of various human ailments like obesity and diabetes. It is popularly known as gular. A vast and wide range of chemical compounds like polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane type triterpene, eudesmane-type sesquiterpene including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. However, no detail studies related to isolation of flavonoids has been reported previously with their antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and toxicological consequences. Aim of the study: The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and toxicological assessments of flavonoids isolated from Ficus racemosa (FR) stem bark. Materials and methods: We isolated four flavonoids from stem bark of FR and structures were confirmed by Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) (both 1D and 2D), mass spectroscopy (MS). Later, these flavonoids were administered to streptozotocin (STZ) rats once in a day for a period of seven days at 100 mg/kg dose. We measured blood glucose level and body weight changes at different days (1(st), 3(rd), 5(th) and 7(th) days). Serum lipid profiles were also estimated to investigate the hypolipidemic potential of flavonoids in the similar experiment. Various oxidative stress parameters in pancreas and liver and hepatic biomarker enzymes in plasma were also determined to investigate the toxicity potential of isolated flavonoids. Finally, we performed docking studies to find out the mechanism of action. Results: Our results collectively suggested that four flavonoids reduced blood glucose level and restored body weight, signifying antidiabetic action. There were reduction of other lipid profile parameters and increase of high density lipoprotein (HDL) during administration of flavonoids, also signifying hypolipidemic action. Various oxidative stress biomarkers and hepatic enzymes levels were also normalized with respect to diabetic control at the same time. Docking studies revealed that isolated flavonoids showed their antidiabetic potential via binding to PPARγ and GLUT1 receptors. Conclusion: The isolated four flavonoids demonstrated good antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties in STZ diabetic rats which supported the use of FR stem bark as useful supplementary drug for future antidiabetic therapy.