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EMD Uranium (Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee Annual Report - 2020

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This is a summary of the 2020 Annual Report of the EMD Committee on Uranium (Nuclear and Rare Earths), aka UCOM. A teleconference and Zoom testing were conducted by the Committee earlier this year. Major News: A significant rise in uranium prices is underway since the first of the year. Senior U.S. uranium industry personnel indicate that recent activities concerning Section 232 requesting protection of the U.S. uranium mining industry has gained traction in the White House. Many companies are resuming drilling properties. Numerous discoveries of high-grade uranium deposits have been made in Canada and new low-grade deposits are under development in Argentina and Peru. The main Australian uranium mines in South Australia are about to resume operations and mines in WA are also preparing to resume operations. An undeveloped, new uranium “roll front” district has been identified in the eastern Seward Peninsula of Alaska with nearby alkaline source rocks also containing thorium and rare-earth elements. There is general agreement that substantial uranium (and thorium) will be available to fuel the U.S. as the world's largest fleet of nuclear power and producing more than 30% of worldwide nuclear generation of clean electricity. Some 98 nuclear power plants in the U.S. remain in operation, a few more are scheduled for retirement on the grounds of economics and low-priced natural gas, but two new reactors are being completed in Georgia. Following a 30-year period during which no new reactors were built in the U.S., it is expected that two reactors will come online soon after 2021; others resulting from 16 license applications made since mid-2007 are proposing to build 24 new nuclear reactors, most of which are of the new small modular reactor (SMR) design. The U.S. produced about 4,015 billion (kWh) of electricity at utility-scale facilities in the U.S. in 2019. Currently, about 63% of the U.S. electricity generation is from fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, petroleum, and other gases). About 20% was from uranium providing nuclear energy, and about 17% (and rising) was from renewable energy sources of solar and wind, including hydroelectric power plants. Coal production and burning is falling off rapidly; coal may be useful without burning. Uranium production cuts were made in 2019 in the U.S. by the world’s largest uranium producers, but uncovered utility demand is expected to reach ~24% by 2021 and 62% by 2025. Hence, production should resume in the foreseeable future as the uranium price continues to rise. A number of mines in the U.S. (Texas, Wyoming, etc.) are either on stand-by or are available for rapid development. China (99 reactors by 2030), Russia (7 by 2028), Japan (now upgrading nuclear fleet), and India have aggressive nuclear power plant building programs underway. Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and UAE are also building nuclear power plants, some will be incorporating the new SMR designs, and “fast breeder” designs (Russia and India) that consumes most used fuel (waste), and a Russian floating nuclear power plant for use along the coast of Siberia and in the Arctic (using SMR designs). The U.S. Navy operates more than 40 ships and submarines with SMR nuclear power plants. Fusion research is progressing. Many hard-rock uranium deposits also contain associated REEs to the extent that co-production of raw REEs, thorium, and other critical metals are underway for stockpiling, awaiting shipment to processing sites around the world (more). Numerous sources of REE have become evident recently, e.g., in coal, fly ash, and in sea-floor deposits (more). Research funding by university and industry remains low, but state geological surveys (e.g., Wyoming and New Mexico) and the U.S. Geological Survey. are moving forward with robust research projects on uranium and rare earths. Discoveries of a new uranium mineral occurring like calcrete has been found in west Texas. The Earth’s radiation environment protected by magnetic fields continue to be monitored; and more medical applications in the use of radiation have emerged.
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EMD Uranium (Nuclear & REE) Committee
2020 EMD Uranium (Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee Annual Report
J une 6, 2020
German Nuclear Power Plant
Table of Contents
UCOM Committee Personnel ………………….
4
UCOM Committee Activities …………………
5
Jay M. Murray Memorial Grant …………………..
6
UCOM Publications & Nuclear Outreach ………..
7
UCOM Monitoring & Coverage …………….........
8
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY …………………….
9
Nature & Impact of Radiation ……………………. 11
Historical Perspective …………………………......
12
Nuclear Power Plants Require Fuel ……………...
13
U.S. Uranium Mine Production ………………
15
Total 2019 U.S. Production (All Sources) ………..
15
Value of World-Wide Uranium Supplies ………...
16
Fuel Competition …………………………………
18
Thorium Activities Summary …………………….
18
Rare Earth Activities Summary …………………..
18
2020 EMD Uranium (Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committ ee Annual Report Page 3
Adversaries of Mining & Nuclear Power ………...
19
UCOM Vice-Chairs Reports:
Steven S. Sibray, (Vice-Chair: University) ……...
20
Robert W. Gregory, (Vice-Chair: Government) ….
24
Ambient Radiation & Other Hazards from Space …
27
Monitoring for Asteroid/Comet Arrivals …………
31
Human Hazards in Zero Gravity & Deep-Space
32
Historical & Reading List Links ………………….
32
2020 EMD Uranium (Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committ ee Annual Report Page 4
EMD Uranium (Nuclear & REE) Committee
2020 EMD Uranium (Nuclear and REE) Committee Annual Report
Michael D. Campbell, P.G., P.H., C.P.G., C.P.H., Chairman
Executive Vice President and Chief Geologist (Mining) / Chief Hydrogeologist (Environmental)
I2M Consulting, LLC, Houston, TX (Ex-Teton Exploration Div., United Nuclear Corporation, and Texas Eastern Nuclear, Inc.)
Founding Member of EMD in 1977, and Past President of EMD: 2010-2011
Fellow SEG; Fellow GSA; Fellow AIG; Fellow and Chartered Geologist GSL; EurGeol; and RM SME
Professional Licenses: TX, LA, WY, WA, and AK
June 6, 2020
A summary of this report was presented at the 2020 Annual EMD Zoom Conference, June 6, (more).
Report Version: 1.7 (To check for updates, note Version and click (here)
Vice-Chairs:
Henry M. Wise, P.G., C.P.G., (Vice-Chair: Industry), National Recovery Corporation, La Porte, TX
(Founding Member of EMD in 1977, ex-US Steel, Uranium Div.)
Steven S. Sibray, P.G., C.P.G., (Vice-Chair: University), University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE
Robert W. Gregory, P.G., (Vice-Chair: Government), Wyoming State Geological Survey, Laramie, WY
Advisory Group:
Kevin T. Biddle, Ph.D., V.P., ExxonMobil Exploration (retired), Houston, TX
(Founding Member EMD in 1977)
James L. Conca, Ph.D., P.G., Senior Scientist, UFA Ventures, Inc., Richland, WA
Gerard Fries, Ph.D., Orano Mining, KATCO JV, LLP, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
Michael A. Jacobs, P.G., Manager, D. B. Stevens & Assoc., Midland, TX
(Founding Member of EMD in 1977, Ex-Tenneco Uranium Inc.)
Roger W. Lee, Ph.D., P.G., Consulting Geochemist, Austin, TX
Karl S. Osvald, P.G., U.S. BLM, Wyoming State Office Reservoir Management Group, Casper, WY
Mark S. Pelizza P.G., M. S. Pelizza & Associates, LLC, Plano, TX
Arthur R. Renfro, P.G., Sr. Geological Consultant, Cheyenne, WY
(Founding Member of EMD in 1977, Ex-Teton Exploration Div., United Nuclear Corporation)
David Rowlands, Ph.D., P.G., Rowlands Geosciences, Houston, TX
Special Consultants to the Uranium (Nuclear and Rare Earths) Committee:
Ruffin I. Rackley, Senior Geological Consultant, Seattle, WA
(Founding Member of EMD in 1977, Secretary-Treasurer: 1977-1979, and President: 1982-1983, Ex-Teton Exploration Div., United
Nuclear Corporation)
Bruce Rubin, Senior Geological Consultant, Millers Mills, NY
(Founding Member of EMD in 1977, Ex-Teton Exploration - United Nuclear Corporation, General Public Utilities, Fuel Div.)
M. David Campbell, P.G., Senior Principal and Senior Project Manager, I2M Consulting, LLC, Houston, TX.
(Founder of MarineBio.org and the MarineBio Conservation Society.
Robert A. Arrington, VP, Exploration, Texas Eastern Nuclear, Inc. (retired), College Station, TX
(Founding Member of EMD in 1977).
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
Page 5
The AAPG Energy Minerals Division’s Uranium (Nuclear and Rare Earths)
Committee (UCOM) monitors the uranium industry activities and the production of
electricity within the nuclear power industry because that drives uranium exploration
and development in the United States and overseas.
Input for this Annual Report has been provided by:
Henry M. Wise, P.G., C.P.G. Vice-Chair (Industry) on industry activities in uranium,
thorium, and rare-earth exploration and mining;
Steven Sibray, P.G., C.P.G., Vice-Chair (University) on university activities in
uranium, thorium, and rare-earth research; and
Robert Gregory, P.G., Vice-Chair (Government) on governmental (State and Federal)
activities in uranium, thorium, and rare-earth research.
Special input and reviews are also provided by members of the Advisory Group.
In this report, we also provide information on current thorium and rare-earth exploration and
mining, and associated geopolitical activities as part of the UCOM monitoring of “nuclear
minerals,” thorium and rare-earth elements (REE) activities (a function approved by the UCOM
in 2011). Uranium and thorium include REE minerals in deposits in the U.S. and around the world
(more).
A UCOM teleconference was held January 14, 2020 that included all three Vice-Chairs and
appointed members of the UCOM Advisory Group and Special Consultants (see Agenda (here)).
A follow-up meeting held later to test Zoom teleconferencing. For the purpose of reminding the
members of UCOM, the Chairman reviewed the stated objectives of UCOM and received
consensus. Also discussed was the renewed emphasis on the economics of mining and marketing
uranium, both on Earth and off-world.
With the widespread on-set of the Coronavirus in March, 2020, the ACE 2020 to be held in early
June in Houston was cancelled, Most scheduled presentations will be held on-line via Zoom, or
other teleconferencing or webinar/ PPT formats. Furthermore, earlier this year, the EMD Executive
Committee changed the historical format of future EMD Commodity Committee reports to one-
page reports. The UCOM one-page annual report will none-the-less provide a link to this full-scale
UCOM COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
Page 6
UCOM Annual Report. In many ways, this represents the continuing degradation of many of the
leading EMD commodity committee contributions, especially now that the success of gas-shales
research and production by fracking has been transformed from an unconventional resource
activity to conventional oil and gas activities. It should be noted that UCOM has the highest on-
line visit rate of all EMD commodity webpages and associated reports.
Jay M. McMurray Memorial Grant from AAPG Foundation
UCOM is also pleased to remind the reader that the Jay McMurray Memorial Grant is awarded
annually to a deserving student(s) whose research involves uranium or nuclear-fuel energy. This
grant is made available through the AAPG Grants-In-Aid Program and is endowed by the AAPG
Foundation with contributions from his wife, Katherine McMurray, and several colleagues and
friends. Students having an interest in applying for the grant should contact the UCOM Chair for
further information and guidance. The biography of Mr. McMurray’s outstanding contributions to
the uranium industry in the U.S. and overseas is available at the AAPG Foundation, 2019. We are
pleased to announce that Michelle Abshire was awarded the McMurray Memorial Grant in 2020.
Other recipients of the Grant since 2009 are presented in Table 1.
Tabl e 1: Recipients of the Jay M. McMurray Memorial Grant from AAPG Foundation
2009
FORMATION OF PRECURSOR CALCIUM PHOSPHATE PHASES
DURING CRYSTAL GROWTH OF APATITE AND THEIR ROL E ON
THE UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES
Olaf Borkiewicz
Miami University
2010 PRECIPITATION KINETICS OF AUTUNITE MINERALS:
IMPLICATIONS FOR URANIUM IMMOBILIZATION
Denise Levitan
Virginia Tech University
2011 THE FORMATION MECHANISMS OF UNCONFORMITY- RELAT ED
URANIUM DEPOSITS: INSIGHTS FROM NUMERICAL MODELING
Tao Cui
University of Windsor
2012
NOVEL NANOSEISMIC SURVEY TECHNIQUES IN TUNNELS
AND MINES
Chiara Mazzoni
University of Strathclyde
2013
(U-TH)/HE AND U-PB DOUBLE DATING CONSTRAINTS ON THE
INTERPLAY BETWEEN THRUST DEFORMATION AND BASIN
DEVELOPMENT, SEVIERFORELAND BASIN, UTAH
Edgardo Pujols
University of Texas
at Austin
2014
ANTHROPOGENICALLY ENHANCED MOBILIZATION OF
NATURALLY OCCURRING URANIUM LEADING TO
GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION
Jason Nolan
University of Nebraska
- Lincoln
2015
GEOCHEMISTRY AND DIAGENESIS OF GROUNDWATER
CALCRETES: IMPLIC ATIONS FOR CALCRETE-HOST ED
URANIUM MINERALIZATION,WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Justin Drummond
Queen's University
2016
GEOCHEMISTRY AND DIAGENESIS OF GROUNDWATER
CALCRETES, WES TERN AUSTRALIA: IMPLIC ATIONS FOR
CALCRETE-HOSTED URANIUM M INERALIZATION
Justin Drummond Queen's University
2017
RECONSTRUCTION OF CRETACEOUS
PROVENANCES OF
ABEOKUTA
GROUP OF THE EASTERN DAHOMEY BASIN SOUTHWESTER N
NIGERIA BASED ON THE FIRST URANIUM-LEAD
DETRITAL ZIR CON
GEOCHRONOLOGY
Fadehan Tolulope
Abosede University of Lagos
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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2018
NOT AWARDED by AAPG FOUNDATION - -
2019 GEOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF THE MISSISSIPPIAN LIMESTONE,
ANADARKO SHELF, OKLAHOMA Oyeleye Adeboye Oklahoma State University
2020 TRACE METAL AND URANIUM ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY OF
ORGANIC-RICH SEDIMENTARY DEPOSITS Michelle Abshire Oklahoma State University
The EMD co-sponsored Journal: Natural Resources Research has published the bi-annual
Unconventional Energy Resources: 2017 Review. Chairman Campbell, Henry M. Wise Vice-
Chair (Industry), and James R. Conca (Advisory Group) of UCOM served as co-authors in the
section entitled: Uranium, Thorium, and Rare-Earth Elements: Availability and Development
Time for Recovery. (Article, see PDF pages: 35-50). Earlier versions of the NRR articles include:
the 2015 version (here); 2013 version (here); 2011 (here); 2009 (here); and 2007 (here) and all
(here). The EMD contribution to the JNRR 2019 Review on The Unconventional and Alternative
Energy Resources was also cancelled.
With input from older and younger members of EMD, the two-part article has been published in
AAPG’s The Explorer:
Part 1 covers EMD activities from 1968 through mid-2000, with links (here). December Issue.
Part 2 covers the years 2000 through 2018, as published (here), w/links (here). January Issue.
For the original version in manuscript form (Parts 1 and 2), with links, (here).
As a reminder, The AAPG-EMD Memoir 101: Energy Resources for Human Settlement in the
Solar System and Earth's Future in Space was released in mid-2013 (more). The EMD’s Uranium
(Nuclear and REE Minerals) Committee and members of I2M Consultants, LLC, contributed the
final Chapter entitled: Nuclear Power and Associated Environmental Issues in the Transition of
Exploration and Mining on Earth to the Development of Off-World Natural Resources in the 21st
Century (more). Forbes.com has highlighted Memoir 101 emphasizing the coverage of Chapters
8 and 9 (more).
James Conca, Ph.D., a member of the UCOM Advisory Group, continues to contribute popular
articles to Forbes.com on many nuclear and associated energy topics. To review the chronological
list of Dr. Conca’s Forbes’ contributions to date, see (here).
UCOM Publications and Nuclear Outreach
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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UCOM Monitoring and Coverage
UCOM management modified the format of the UCOM report a few years ago to provide greater
coverage and more timely information in a more concise reporting format. To accomplish this, the
UCOM members continue to examine certain topics as we have in the past, such as the issues
behind the current uranium mining industry conditions and activities, and their driving forces, e.g.,
yellowcake prices, nuclear power plant construction, uranium reserves and world-wide
exploration, especially new uranium discoveries. To support this coverage, the I2M Web Portal
was upgraded and improved a few years ago, both in response speed and layout, plus it now allows
multi-word searches, whereas the previous version only permitted one-word searches (more). The
UCOM can now focus on particular issues covered by the I2M Web Portal by conducting and
presenting search-results that are automatically updated even after we have published the UCOM
reports each year so each report is in some parts at least dynamic in nature.
We draw on the I2M Web Portal database, which now contains (to May 18, 2020) almost 9,600
abstracts, some comments, with links to current technical reports and media articles from sources
in the U.S. and around the world, (see the Index to all commodity and associated fields covered in
the I2M Web Portal (here)). The primary emphasis of the I2M Web Portal also reflects the interests
and objectives of the UCOM as a whole (2017: more) and (2019: more).
UCOM reports will be further simplified and reduced in length in the future. Beginning with this
report, text reductions will be augmented by adding additional links to provide the reader with
follow-on reading, should the reader wish to have additional information on the subject. It should
be noted here that many links will provide direct Internet sources as well as search results from
the I2M Web Portal that include summaries, some with comments on the article(s) cited in the
text. This provides multiple records of historical development without selection bias.
If the search result returned a date-arranged list of summaries, the “What’s New” result will
continue to be updated as new entries are submitted to the database. The reader can also conduct
a multi-word search of the database for related or associated topics of interest (more).
As illustrated in the summary of the 2020 UCOM Annual Report, the UCOM focus generally
covers:
a) uranium prices (more);
b) uranium geology (more);
c) uranium exploration (more);
d) uranium mining and processing (more);
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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e) uranium recovery technology (more);
f) nuclear-power economics (more);
g) reactor designs (more); SMRs (more);
h) operational aspects that drive uranium prices (more);
i) historical factors affecting plant shutdowns (more), and
j) related environmental and societal issues involved in such current topics as energy
resource selection and climate change (more). The latter have direct and indirect
impact on the costs, mining, and utilization of uranium, thorium, and rare-earth
resources.
UCOM also monitors, assesses, and reports on the status of thorium and rare-earth exploration
(and development) because both are often encountered in some types of hard-rock uranium
deposits, and the presence of both impact the economics of recovering uranium and rare earths,
often with revenue credit for both.
UCOM coverage also includes summaries of reviews of the current developments in research on:
a) thorium (more),
b) helium-3 (more), and fusion research (more), and
c) nuclear used fuel (waste) storage and handling (more).
d) current research developments in the rare-earths (more).
Executive Summary (Summary presented to the 2020 Annual EMD Zoom Conference (here)).
A significant rise in uranium prices is underway since the first of the year (2020).
Click on Figure to Enlarge
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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Senior U.S. uranium industry personnel indicate that recent activities concerning Section 232
requesting protection of the U.S. uranium mining industry has gained traction in the White
House.
Many uranium companies are beginning to resume drilling properties, especially in Wyoming and
Texas.
Numerous discoveries of high-grade uranium deposits have been made in Canada and new low-
grade deposits are under development in Argentina and Peru.
The main Australian uranium mines in South Australia have resumed operations and mines in
WA are preparing to resume operations.
An undeveloped, new uranium “roll front” district has been identified in the eastern Seward
Peninsula of Alaska with nearby alkaline source rocks containing high concentrations of uranium,
thorium and rare-earth elements.
Many hard-rock uranium deposits also contain associated REEs to the extent that co-production
of raw REEs, thorium, and other critical metals are underway for stockpiling, awaiting shipment
to processing sites around the world (more).
Discoveries of a new uranium mineral occurring like calcrete have been made in west Texas.
There is general agreement that substantial uranium (and thorium) will be available to fuel the
U.S. as the world's largest fleet of nuclear power and producing more than 30% of worldwide
nuclear generation of clean electricity.
Some 98 nuclear power plants in the U.S. remain in operation, a few more are scheduled for
retirement on the grounds of economics and low-priced natural gas, but two new reactors are
being completed in Georgia.
Following a 30-year period during which no new reactors were built in the U.S., it is expected
that the two reactors will come online soon after 2021; others resulting from 16 license
applications made since mid-2007 are proposing to build 24 new nuclear reactors, most of which
are of the new small modular reactor (SMR) design.
The U.S. produced about 4,015 billion (kWh) of electricity at utility-scale facilities in the U.S. in
2019. Currently, about 63% of the U.S. electricity generation is from fossil fuels (coal, natural
gas, petroleum, and other gases). About 20% was from uranium providing nuclear energy, and
about 17% (and rising) was from renewable energy sources of solar and wind, including
hydroelectric power plants.
Coal production and burning is falling off rapidly; but coal may be useful without burning.
Uranium production cuts were made in 2019 in the U.S. by the world’s largest uranium
producers, but uncovered utility demand is expected to reach ~24% by 2021 and 62% by 2025.
Hence, production should resume in the foreseeable future as the uranium price continues to rise.
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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A number of mines in the U.S. (Texas, Wyoming, etc.) are either on stand-by or are available for
rapid development.
China (99 reactors by 2030), Russia (7 by 2028), Japan (now upgrading nuclear fleet), and India
have aggressive nuclear power plant building programs underway.
Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and UAE are also building nuclear power plants, some will be
incorporating the new SMR designs, and “fast breeder” designs (Russia and India) that consumes
most used fuel (waste), and a Russian floating nuclear power plant for use along the coast of
Siberia and in the Arctic (using SMR designs).
The U.S. Navy operates more than 40 ships and submarines with SMR nuclear power plants.
Fusion research is progressing (more).
Numerous sources of REE have become evident recently, e.g., in coal, fly ash, and in sea-floor
deposits (more).
Research funding by university and industry remains low, but state geological surveys (e.g.,
Wyoming and New Mexico) and the U.S. Geological Survey. are moving forward with robust
research projects on uranium and rare earths.
The Earth’s radiation environment protected by magnetic fields continue to be monitored; and
More medical applications in the use of radiation have emerged.
Nature and Impact of Radiation
As discussed near the end of this report, as in past reports, we have updated the information on
radiation, whether it relates to that arriving from deep space, mitigated by the strength of our Sun’s
radiation, or whether it relates to the changing characteristics of the Earth’s magnetic fields, which
serve to form barriers against solar and deep-space radiations coming into the Earth’s atmosphere.
The nature and impact of radiation, perceived and real, have been emphasized over the years by a
variety of anti-mining and nuclear-power adversaries. In an attempt to educate AAPG members
and the general public, UCOM has been addressing these important issues since the beginning in
2004, reporting within the UCOM on the fear of radiation (e.g., 2005), while continuing to address
the issues surrounding human-health issues in greater detail over the past few years (more) and
(more).
Because the effects of radiation are difficult to put into perspective by many, and even
misinterpreted or exaggerated by agenda-driven adversaries, UCOM portrays radiation in context
with our environment on Earth, in the atmosphere, in the orbital reaches, and in deep space (more).
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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And, like coal, there are beneficial uses of radiation in more than one medical field, even quite
possibly against the coronavirus.
With respect to other environmental issues involved in uranium exploration and mining, UCOM
also monitors, assesses, and reports on matters related to radiation in the environment on Earth.
This is based on the fact that one of the principal environmental issues surrounding the expansion
of nuclear power as an energy source is fear of radiation, the actual impact of which has been
exaggerated in the past in the media, and especially in movies and news reports of the 1970s and
1980s (more).
Also, of specific interest to geoscientists working in field conditions, UCOM reports include the
Alerts Program, from the I2M Web Portal. The editors monitor and select articles for review on
potentially hazardous field conditions. This illustrates that there are real hazards ranging from
earthquakes, tsunami, meteorological, natural and human-induced hazards (such as the
coronavirus) other than radiation that surrounds us all (Field Alerts: more).
There are other on-going monitoring programs underway at via the I2M Web Portal. These include
Security Alerts: (more), which covers computer-hacking warning events and cyber-security issues,
and media bias monitoring relating to uranium mining and nuclear power in general (more).
Historical Perspective
Now that we can look back and separate: a) the clear damage done by our use of atomic weapons
to end World War II in Japan from b) the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in harnessing
this energy for generating electricity, we also have learned that the actual impact of a nuclear-core
meltdown can be managed. For example, no one died or was irradiated as a result of the Three
Mile Island incident (more), nor as a result of the damage by the tsunami on the nuclear plants in
Japan (more).
The Chernobyl disaster is in a different class. Because of the Soviet Union’s expediency used in
designing reactors (as a result of “Cold War” competition with the rest of the world), safety issues
were largely ignored (more). This resulted in an over-reaction to contain the highly radioactive
fires of the cores after the explosions. Emergency personnel were rushed into service, which
irradiated and killed more than 30 brave emergency responders, such as fire-fighters, paramedics
security workers, and no doubt senior party members in charge of local politics, and inflicted
thyroid cancer on thousands of children. However, almost 99% of the children were quickly treated
and recovered (more).
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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The nuclear industry also now knows how to handle such core breaches, learned by the Japanese
and the rest of the on-looking world in 2011. Evacuations were largely safety measures; fear was
the main outcome, but no one was irradiated or died managing the core breach caused by the loss
of standby power. The other undamaged reactors at the plant site continued in operation (more).
The aerial extent of dangerous radiation turned out to be minimal, although the residual fear
prevented many nearby residents from returning to their homes. Counseling and education have
helped many to understand radiation and to gain a new perspective of radiation that surrounds us
all (more). As a result, new safety measures in plant design and in emergency response are being
implemented and many of the nuclear power plants in Japan are coming back on-line, driven by
the “all-clear” of minimal residual radiation and the high prices of imported natural gas, and by
the slow build-up and cost of renewable energy (more). The wastes from the incident are being
managed (more).
Germany and Austria remain anti-nuclear, but that resolve is weakening based on the growing
perception of nuclear power’s actual safety record, having new information on emissions, and
being made aware of the new, innovative ways of managing radioactive waste. As will be
discussed later in this report, the small, modular reactors (SMRs) will soon be available, which
will cut the construction costs considerably from that of previous large-scale nuclear reactors,
while maintaining safety, reliability and support of the power grid with minimal interruptions.
Nuclear Power Plants Demand Fuel
Uranium prices and exploration and mining are driven by nuclear-plant demand for fuel for the 96
reactors currently in operation in the U.S. and the 440 reactors worldwide (and for those under
construction/planned in the future). Plants also must plan for the storage of their own “used” fuel
in the U.S., (which is not all “waste” because some will likely be useful in the future). This is
because the U.S. federal government failed to provide the national storage facility mandated by
law decades ago while still charging nuclear plants billions of dollars to build Yucca Mountain
Facility (without success to date), and which also failed to manage the plants’ radioactive used
fuel, when alternative storage locations were available, e.g., the WIPP project in New Mexico
(more). Plants are currently storing their used fuel on site in dry casks approved by EPA (more),
which if they were collected and stored on one site would only require an area the size of an
American football field stacking the casks 10-feet high (more).
With 440 nuclear power plants in current operation worldwide, they require some 23 million
pounds of yellowcake to be available for processing to fuel pellets to meet the various 3-5 year
cycles of the plants. As each new plant construction is announced, an additional 50,000 pounds
will be needed 5-10 years in the future to fuel the new plant and then the same every 3 to 5 years
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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hence. This would stimulate new mine production or an expansion of existing mines, should the
mines have such capabilities. The world’s yearly uranium production (through 2018) has been no
more than 120 million pounds (U3O8) over the past 10 years (more).
Some mines in Canada, Australia, and perhaps Kazakhstan and others have significant expansion
capabilities, e.g., Cigar Lake, McArthur River in Canada, and Inkai in Kazakhstan. But new, large
deposits (some very high grade) have been discovered around the rim of the Athabasca Basin of
Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada, and in breccia pipe deposits in Arizona (more), and as roll-
front deposits in basins elsewhere in the world (i.e., Peru, Uruguay and Paraguay, India, Iran, and
Tanzania.
World nuclear power plant requirements for 2020 was indicated at 68,240 tonnes (or 80,472 tonnes
of U3O8 or 177 million pounds of U3O8) (more); any shortfalls were made up from the U3O8 held
by utilities, dealers, and governments. The White House has recently recognized the value of the
U.S. uranium mining industry (more).
The recent move by the WH to provide some protection to the U.S. uranium mining industry is
based on the fact that uranium has been purchased by U.S. utilities from potentially unstable
sources now that Russia no longer sends the U.S. its outdated nuclear war heads for down-grading
and fabrication into nuclear fuel for power plants (see Figure below). The program ended in 2013,
about the time Russia began showing signs of instability. Russia has ownership of some uranium
production in the U.S. and elsewhere, but it represents a small percentage of the whole in the U.S.
Figure 1 (Fission Uranium)
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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If the new WH program results in American-produced uranium replacing the 13.8% of the uranium
previously sold by Russia to the U.S., the remaining countries in the figure could be considered
stable sources for now. With a major expansion of American production in the U.S., 60% of the
uranium production currently coming from potentially unstable countries could be replaced with
American uranium, and if needed, from Canada and Australia.
U. S. Uranium Production
U.S. production of uranium concentrate (U3O8) in the first quarter of 2020 was 8,098 pounds, down
79% from the fourth quarter of 2019 and down 86% from the first quarter of 2019. During the first
quarter of 2020, four U.S. uranium facilities produced uranium, one less than in the fourth quarter
of 2019. Total production of U.S. uranium concentrate from all domestic sources in 2019 was 0.17
million pounds of U3O8, 89% less than in 2018, from six facilities: five in-situ leaching and one
underground mine.
U.S. uranium in-situ leach plants in production (state):
Lost Creek Project (Wyoming)
Nichols Ranch In-Situ Recovery (ISR) Project (Wyoming)
Ross Central Processing Plant (CPP) (Wyoming)
Smith Ranch-Highland Operation (Wyoming)
North Butte In-Situ Recovery (ISR) Project
Total 2019 U.S. Production
U.S. uranium mines produced 0.17 million pounds of uranium (aka triuranium octoxide) (U3O8),
or uranium concentrate in 2019, 76% less than in 2018. The production of uranium concentrate is
the first step in the nuclear fuel production process. The U3O8 is then converted into UF6 to first
enable uranium enrichment, then fuel pellet fabrication, and finally fuel assembly fabrication.
Total shipments of uranium concentrate from domestic producers were 0.19 million pounds U3O8
in 2019, 87% less than in 2018.
By the end of 2019, Shootaring Canyon Uranium Mill in Utah and Sweetwater Uranium Project
in Wyoming were on standby with a total capacity of 3,750 short tons of material per day. The
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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White Mesa Mill in Utah, which had a capacity of 2,000 short tons of material per day, was not
producing uranium. In Wyoming, one heap leach plant was in the planning stages (Sheep
Mountain).
EIA personnel (2020) estimated the U.S. uranium reserves were 31 million pounds U3O8 at a
maximum forward cost of up to $30 per pound. At up to $50 per pound, reported estimated reserves
were 206 million pounds U3O8. At up to $100 per pound, reported estimated reserves were 389
million pounds U3O8. These reserves are a fraction of likely total domestic uranium reserves
because EIA personnel did not include inferred resources that were not reported because of a lack
of cost estimates or because the reserves were not located on actively managed properties.
The uranium reserve estimates presented here cannot be compared with the much larger historical
data set of uranium reserves published in the July 2010 report U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates.
EIA estimated those reserves based on data they collected and data the National Uranium Resource
Evaluation (NURE) program developed, which is based on speculation. The EIA data include
about 200 uranium properties that have reserves, collected from 1984 through 2002. The NURE
data include about 800 uranium properties with reserves, developed from 1974 through 1983.
Although the data collected on the Form EIA-851A survey covers a much smaller set of properties
than the earlier EIA data and NURE data, EIA personnel now conclude (2020) that within its scope
the Form EIA-851A data provide more reliable estimates of the uranium recoverable at each
forward cost than the estimates derived from 1974 through 2002. In particular, the Form EIA-
851A data are more reliable because the NURE data have not been comprehensively updated in
many years and are no longer considered a current data source for such purposes, although very
useful in frontier and trend exploration projects by the uranium industry in the past and future.
Value of World-Wide Uranium Supplies
Uranium occurrences are common in a number of areas in the U.S. Some are located in remote
areas and some occur within known aquifers below populated areas (see pages 14-19). Aside from
the very large, undeveloped uranium deposit in Virginia, the top uranium mines and new
discoveries are in Canada, Australia, Kazakhstan, South America and others, there will be no
shortage of fuel supplies from producing mines for many decades at least and from the new
anticipated production to come (more).
With a plethora of sources available, uranium production may be controlled for the purpose of
supporting production costs in the U.S. and elsewhere. As indicated to date, 35 countries account
for U3O8 resources in the ground (equivalent to about 10 billion pounds U3O8), which would
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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provide utilities with fuel for some 100 years based on a worldwide consumption rate of 50 million
pounds U3O8/year over a 3-year fuel cycle for 450 reactors (more).
Nuclear power is now expected to expand in the coming years (as the large-scale solar and wind
projects’ operation and maintenance costs drive up electricity costs), the number of reactors are
expected by some experts to rise from the current 450 to 1,400 operational reactors by 2050. By
2075, large fusion power plants will likely be on the rise to supply the all-electric power grid
worldwide. Both fission and fusion plants will likely co-exist over the next 100 years as fusion is
perfected as the principal power source on Earth but also for use off-world as new fusion-powered
ships begin to be capable of approaching light speed.
Based on recent discoveries in Canada alone, its percent of acknowledged world reserves will
increase considerably. One condition that could develop is a long-term over supply of uranium to
be produced from a plethora of high- and low-grade deposits that would keep prices even below
$50.00/ pound, below that required for some of the in-situ mines in the U.S. to operate
economically. Some grades reported in Canadian deposits are so high that the beginning of robotic
mining could well be in the offing. This could raise the cost to mine and transport such high-grade
ore in the beginning, but costs would decrease as the technology settles in (more).
Substantial investment money is coming into the new Canadian uranium discoveries to support
the development of these high-grade deposits (more), including the Chinese who are buying into
mines in Canada (more) and in Namibia (more); mine development is also available with Russian
funding (more). But what will the demand be in the foreseeable future to fuel the expanding fleet
of nuclear power plants in the U.S. and worldwide? If Chinese and Indian projection come to pass,
fuel needs will rise significantly over the next 10 years and beyond as will the uranium price.
Drilling within uranium prospects is very active in Africa, and South America, in China, and in
Australia and Asia; although the latter has substantial uranium potential, it is still suffering from
political fatigue in all uranium states, although discussions are currently under way about
encouraging nuclear power to replace coal and some new renewables with increasingly expensive
electricity costs (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland, and even South Australia)
(more). The emphasis on nuclear power by China is reflected by numerous frontier uranium
exploration projects being conducted by Chinese geologists, as reported by Steven Sibray, Vice-
Chair, UCOM (University) later in this report.
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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FUEL COMPETITION
Updated citations on topical issues:
1. Coal vs. Nuclear Power and Natural Gas (here)
2. Renewable Energy vs. Nuclear Power (here)
3. Industry Bias: Google Search Results: (here)
4. Academic Bias: Google Search Results: (here)
Thorium Activities Summary
Thorium-Based Reactors continue development in the U.S., but especially in China and India
(more). The WNA presented a 2017 status review of thorium resources and engineering experts
opine on reactor development to date.
Updated citations topical issues related to thorium research:
1. I2M Web Portal: Search Results: Thorium (more)
2. University Research: Google Search: Thorium (more)
3. Industry Research: Google Search: Thorium (more)
Rare Earth Activities Summary
1. I2M Web Portal: Search Results “Rare Earth” REE (more)
2. University Research: Google Search Results (more)
3. Industry Research: Google Search Results (more)
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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Click on Above Figure to Enlarge
1. Industry Media Bias (more)
2. Academic Bias (more)
ADVERSARIES of URANIUM MINING and NUCLEAR POWER DEVELOPMENT
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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URANIUM and RARE EARTH UNIVERSITY RESEARCH
By Steven S. Sibray, P.G., C.P.G., (Vice-Chair: University), University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE
Interest in uranium and thorium research has decreased since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear
accident in 2011 with very few grants and new sources for funding. Interest in Rare Earth Elements
[REE] research has also decreased somewhat due weak market conditions. Lack of career
opportunities in the uranium mining might also be a factor in the apparent absence of student
interest in pursuing research related to uranium exploration. News on the recent increases in the
spot price of uranium is probably not enough to offset the extreme pessimism concerning the future
of the uranium mining industry among geology students looking at future employment in mineral
exploration.
The Society of Economic Geologists Foundation (SEGF) and the SEG Canada Foundation
(SEGCF) recently announced the Student Research Grant awards for 2019. These grants assist
students with field and laboratory expenses for thesis research on mineral deposits as required for
graduate degrees at accredited universities. Grants are awarded on a competitive basis and are
available to students worldwide. Of the 51 grants awarded, only one was granted for the study of
Rare Metals [RM] which includes uranium and thorium as well as Li, Be, Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta. None of
the grants were awarded for the study of REE deposits. The one grant was from the Timothy Nutt
Fund which was established as a memorial to Timothy Nutt. Mr. Nutt was a world-renowned
economic geologist who specialized in the study of ore deposits of Africa.
Timothy Nutt Grant:
Colorado School of Mines
John DeDecker completed his doctoral thesis on the fluid-rock interactions responsible for forming
the unconformity-related uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin. The tile of his thesis is
“Alteration and mineral paragenesis of the McArthur River and Fox Lake uranium deposits,
Athabasca Basin: a new model for the formation of unconformity-related uranium deposits.” This
work presents a re-visit to the subject reported in 2007 by Jefferson, et al., (see Reference).
Dr. DeDecker is a post-doctoral Fellow researching Au-rich VMS deposits near the Eskay Creek
Mine in British Columbia (more). At the present time, there are no graduate students at the
Colorado School of Mines conducting research on either uranium or REE deposits.
Godfrey
Chagondah
US$4,600 University of Johannesburg
(South Africa)
Ph.D. Petrogenesis and Metallogenesis of Rare-Metal
Granitic Pegmatites Along the Southern Margin
of the Zimbabwe Craton
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Dr. Virginia McLemore at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology has been active in
uranium and REE research and has provided a list of publications and abstracts published in 2019.
McLemore, V.T., 2019, Critical minerals in New Mexico: SME Annual Meeting, Preprint 19-132, 6 p.,
https://geoinfo.nmt.edu/staff/mclemore/projects/documents/19_132.pdf
McLemore, V.T., 2019, Preface to the MME Special Issue on Critical Minerals Part I: Mining, Metallurgy &
Exploration, p. 1-3, DOI 10.1007/s42461-019-00128-1 URL:
https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s42461-019-00128-1.pdf
University of Regina [Canada]
Morteza Rabiei, graduate student in geology, won the 2019 "Saskatchewan Innovation and
Excellence Graduate Scholarship". The scholarship was awarded to him for his effort in
understanding the origin of the recently discovered deep-seated uranium deposits in the Patterson
Lake corridor in the western Athabasca Basin, northern Saskatchewan.
Supported by the Geological Survey of Canada Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI) program and
an NSERC-Discovery Grant (to his supervisor Dr. Guoxiang Chi), Morteza’s research focuses on
characterization of the ore-forming fluids and comparison with those from the eastern part of the
basin. Morteza also won this scholarship in 2018 for his innovative research on the hydrothermal
rare earth element (REE) mineralization of the Maw Zone deposit in the Athabasca Basin. This
research was published in 2017:
Rabiei M., G. Chi, C. Normand, W. J. Davis, M. Fayek, and N. J. F. Blamey, 2017,Hydrothermal Rare
Earth Element (Xenotime) Mineralization at Maw Zone, Athabasca Basin, Canada, and Its Relationship to
Unconformity-Related Uranium Deposits,” Economic Geology, 112 (6): pp. 1483–1507.URL:
http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/Rabiei2017AthabascaU.pdf
Reply: http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/ChiReply.pdf
Research by Dr. Guoxiang Chi and former Ph.D. student Haxia Chu (now with China University
of Geosciences, Beijing), based on LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions entrapped in quartz
overgrowths in sandstones, revealed that the diagenetic fluids within the Athabasca basin
contained up to 27 ppm U. This is two orders of magnitude higher than most naturally occurring
geologic fluids. The research results, published by Scientific Reports, provide the key to
understand why the Athabasca Basin is so rich in uranium deposits. This suggests there is potential
of finding more world-class uranium deposits underneath the basin. The paper is open access and
can be downloaded here: https://rdcu.be/bulW0
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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Dr. Chi was the lead author of an interesting paper
in Ore Geology Reviews comparing the
hydrothermal uranium deposits at the Beaver-
lodge district in Canada with hydrothermal
uranium deposits in South China. The authors of
this paper proposed a genetic model that explains
the origin of these granite related hydrothermal
vein uranium deposits. The model emphasizes the
coupling of shallow (extensional red bed basin)
and deep-seated (asthenosphere upwelling and
related extensional faulting and magmatism) as
the primary controls of the uranium
mineralization. The source of oxidizing fluids is
related to red bed deposition. A diagram of this
model is shown in Figure 3:
Figure 3 (Chi, et al., 2020)
Chi, G., K. Ashton, T. Deng, D. Xu, Z. Li, H. Song, R. Liang, and J. Kennicott, 2020, “Comparison of
granite-related uranium deposits in the Beaver Lodge district (Canada) and South China A common
control of mineralization by coupled shallow and deep-seated geologic processes in an extensional setting,
Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 117, article 103319, ISSN 0169-1368. URL:
http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/1-s2.0-S0169136819308042-main.pdf
University of Wyoming
An important paper on the results of a sulfur isotope study of pyrite from the Lost Creek and the
Willow Creek Mine roll-front deposits was published in Economic Geology in 2019 by researchers
at the University of Wyoming. This study revealed that both deposits had both abiogenic and
biogenic redox mechanisms as active contributors to ore formation. However, the Lost Creek
deposit was reportedly propagated largely through abiogenic pyrite recycling in a buffered solution
at near-neutral pH. Sulfur isotope trends from abiogenically derived pyrite indicated that ore
precipitation was predominantly driven by an Eh drop across the roll under conditions of buffered,
near-neutral pH.
In contrast, the Willow Creek Mine [Unit #10] mineralization was controlled by biogenic redox
where the sulfur isotopes of framboidal pyrite indicated rapid bacterial sulfate reduction and
prolific bacterial activity. Strong Eh/pH gradients in the Willow Creek Mine Unit 10 were
confirmed by the presence of marcasite and other minerals indicative of low pH. The chemical
conditions of these deposits strongly influenced the resultant ore assemblages. Willow Creek Mine
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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Unit 10 is dominated by tyuyamunite mineralization and is the consequence of biogenic redox.
Lost Creek, which formed through abiogenic redox, contains primarily coffinite, uraninite, and
brannerite. The roll-front deposits where hexavalent uranium minerals such as carnotite and
tyuyamunite are dominant are obviously less soluble and are less desirable for in situ recovery
mining. The citation for this paper is as follows:
Hough, G., Swapp, S., Frost, C., Fayek, M. (2019) Sulfur isotopes in bacterially and chemically controlled
roll-front deposits. Econ. Geol., 114: pp. 353-373.URL: http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/
Hough2019RollU.pdf
Ore Geology Reviews
A few noteworthy research papers on the geology and mineralogy of the Bayan Obo Fe-REE-Nb
deposit which is the world’s largest resource of REE. To understand the genesis of this unique
deposit, the authors conducted detailed mineralogical observations using scanning electron
microscope (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL) and in-situ micro-analyses on chemical
compositions of the dolomite and apatite by EPMA and LA-ICPMS techniques. The primary
source of REE was a carbonatite intrusive which has undergone multistage hydrothermal
metasomatism when Sr-rich, Na-depleted and REE-poor metamorphic fluid flowed into the
deposit and resulted in REE remobilization. The reference is found here:
Yisu Ren, Xiaoyong Yang, Shuangshuang Wang, Hüseyin Öztürk, 2019, Mineralogical and geochemical
study of apatite and dolomite from the Bayan Obo giant Fe-REE-Nb deposit in Inner Mongolia: New
evidence for genesis, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 109, pp. 381-406, ISSN 0169-1368. URL:
https://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/
Mineralogicalandgeochemicalstudyofapatiteanddolomitefromthe.pdf
Articles on the uranium deposits of China were prominent in the 2019 issues of Ore Geology
Reviews. Below are the references for these studies:
Qiang Zhu, Reng'an Yu, Xiaoxi Feng, Jianguo Li, Xianzhang Sima, Chao Tang, Zenglian Xu, Xiaoxue Liu,
Qinghong Si, Guangyao Li, Sibo Wen, 2019, Mineralogy, geochemistry, and fluid action process of
uranium deposits in the Zhiluo Formation, Ordos Basin, China, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 111, article
102984, ISSN 0169-1368, URL: http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/1-s2.0-S0169136818303846-
main.pdf
Zenglian Xu, Jianguo Li, Qiang Zhu, Jialin Wei, Hongliang Li, Bo Zhang, 2019, Late Cretaceous
paleoclimate change and its impact on uranium mineralization in the Kailu Depression, southwest
Songliao Basin, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 104, pp. 403-421, ISSN 0169-1368 URL:
http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/1-s2.0-S0169136818303214-main.pdf
Yanyan Li, Chengjiang Zhang, Guoxiang Chi, Ji Duo, Zenghua Li, Hao Song, 2019, Black and red
alterations associated with the Baimadong uranium deposit (Guizhou, China): Geological and geochemical
characteristics and genetic relationship with uranium mineralization, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 111,
article 102981, ISSN 0169-1368, URL: http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/1-s2.0-
S0169136818310692-main.pdf
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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Long Zhang, Chiyang Liu, Kaiyu Lei, 2019, Green altered sandstone related to hydrocarbon migration
from the uranium deposits in the northern Ordos Basin, China, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 109, pp.
482-493, ISSN 0169-1368
Chengyong Zhang, Fengjun Nie, Yangquan Jiao, Wei Deng, Yunbiao Peng, Shuren Hou, Mingjian Dai,
Tengfei Ye, 2019, Characterization of ore-forming fluids in the Tamusu sandstone-type uranium deposit,
Bayingobi Basin, China: Constraints from trace elements, fluid inclusions and C–O–S isotopes, Ore
Geology Reviews, Volume 111, article 102999, ISSN 0169-1368, URL:
http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/1-s2.0-S0169136818303664-main.pdf
Liang Yue, Yangquan Jiao, Liqun Wu, Hui Rong, Huili Xie, Qianyou Wang, Qianqian Yan, 2019, Selective
crystallization and precipitation of authigenic pyrite during diagenesis in uranium reservoir sand bodies in
Ordos Basin, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 107, pp. 532-545, ISSN 0169-1368, URL:
http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/1-s2.0-S0169136818303597-main.pdf
Jiangnan Zhao, Shouyu Chen, Renguang Zuo, Mi Zhou, 2019, Controls on and prospectivity mapping of
volcanic-type uranium mineralization in the Pucheng district, NW Fujian, China, Ore Geology Reviews,
Volume 112, article103028, ISSN 0169-1368, URL: http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/1-s2.0-
S0169136818307431-main.pdf
Fei Hu, Jianguo Li, Zhaojun Liu, Dingming Zhao, Tao Wan, Chuan Xu, 2019, Sequence and sedimentary
characteristics of upper Cretaceous Sifangtai Formation in northern Songliao Basin, northeast China:
Implications for sandstone-type uranium mineralization, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 111, article
102927, ISSN 0169-1368, URL: http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/1-s2.0-S0169136818304669-
main.pdf
Lulu Chen, Yin Chen, Xiaoxi Feng, Jian-guo Li, Hu Guo, Peisen Miao, Ruoshi Jin, Chao Tang, Hualei
Zhao, Gui Wang, Shuguang Li, 2019, Uranium occurrence state in the Tarangaole area of the Ordos
Basin, China: Implications for enrichment and mineralization, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 115,
article103034, ISSN 0169-1368.URL: http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/1-s2.0-
S0169136818303676-main.pdf
Zhi-Qiang Yu, Hong-Fei Ling, John Mavrogenes, Pei-Rong Chen, Wei-Feng Chen, Qi-Chun Fang, 2019,
Metallogeny of the Zoujiashan uranium deposit in the Mesozoic Xiangshan volcanic-intrusive complex,
southeast China: Insights from chemical compositions of hydrothermal apatite and metal elements of
individual fluid inclusions, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 113, article 103085, ISSN 0169-1368, URL:
http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/1-s2.0-S0169136819303592-main.pdf
Yin Chen, Ruoshi Jin, Peisen Miao, Jianguo Li, Hu Guo, Lulu Chen, 2019, Occurrence of pyrites in
sandstone-type uranium deposits: Relationships with uranium mineralization in the North Ordos Basin,
China, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 109, pp. 426-447, ISSN 0169-1368, URL:
http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/1-s2.0-S0169136818305651-main.pdf
URANIUM & RARE EARTH GOVERNMENT RESEARCH
By Robert W. Gregory, P.G., (Vice-Chair: Government), Wyoming State Geological Survey,
Laramie, WY
The WSGS continues to focus much of its field mapping efforts on REE and other critical minerals
as outlined by the USGS (Fortier and others, 2018):
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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Fortier, S.M., Nassar, N.T., Lederer, G.W., Brainard, Jamie, Gambogi, Joseph, and McCullough, E.A., 2018,
Draft critical mineral listSummary of methodology and background information—U.S. Geological Survey
technical input document in response to Secretarial Order No. 3359: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File
Report 2018–1021, 15 p., URL: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2018/1021/ofr20181021.pdf
Current mapping and sampling projects are in the planning stages for both igneous and
sedimentary deposits of critical minerals. The USGS’s Earth MRI (Mapping Resources Initiative)
seeks to enhance our knowledge of potential of certain focus areas throughout the United States in
an effort to decrease our dependence on foreign suppliers of REE and other critical minerals. For
more information on the Earth MRI program visit their website (https://www.usgs.gov/science-
explorer-results?es=earth+mri).
The WSGS is also using handheld x-ray fluorescence (HXRF) to survey cores from ISR uranium
operations to gain a better understanding of subtleties in the occurrences of uranium and vanadium
(as well as REE and other critical minerals).
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published several uranium-related articles recently. Their
efforts to assess critical minerals has pulled much of their personnel away from uranium resource
projects. In June, the USGS uranium resource project (Susan Hall) will publish a paper describing
the genetic deposit model for calcrete uranium in the Southern High Plains. The Southern High
Plains uranium province is the first new type of uranium occurrence identified in the U.S. in at
least 30 years. This area was first explored for its uranium potential by Kerr McKee in the late
1970s and early 1980s, but the yellow mineralization that was observed in outcrop was presumed
to be superficial. Carnotite and finchite [a new yellow mineral composed of strontium, hexavalent
uranium, and vanadium] was likely precipitated by the evaporation of uranium- and vanadium-
rich groundwater in discharge areas in the eastern portion of the southern High Plains. The source
of the uranium may have been from the underlying Triassic Dockum Formation sediments.
Historic resources of known calcrete-uranium deposits in the Southern High Plains were estimated
at 1.4 to 2.7 million pounds U3O8 using a cutoff grade of 250 ppm U3O8. The USGS has completed
an assessment of the region, a compilation of known grade and tonnages of other world calcrete
deposits, and description of the geology of known deposits in the Southern High Plains and work
in this area is now complete:
Hall, S.M., Van Gosen, B.S., Paces, J.B., Zielinksi, R.A., Breit, G.N., 2019, Calcrete uranium deposits in
the Southern High Plains, USA, Ore Geology Reviews, v. 109, June 2019, p. 50-
78https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.03.036
Hall, S.M., Mihalasky, M.J., and Van Gosen, B.S., 2017, Assessment of undiscovered resources in calcrete
uranium deposits, Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma, 2017: U.S.
Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2017–3078, 2 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20173078
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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Van Gosen, B.S., and Hall, S.M., 2017, The discovery and character of Pleistocene calcrete uranium
deposits in the Southern High Plains of west Texas, United States: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific
Investigations Report 2017–5134, 27 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20175134.
Hall, S.M. and Mihalasky M.J., 2017, Grade, tonnage, and location data for world calcrete-type surficial
uranium deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release. https://doi.org/10.5066/F7MS3RQS
The USGS uranium resources project is now focused on developing a genetic model for the giant
Coles Hill uranium deposit in Virginia, first discovered by the Duke Energy’s uranium exploration
team in the early 1970s (more). For the current work, the USGS has partnered with the VA
Museum of Natural History, who own and curate historic cores recovered at Coles Hill, and are
working with geoscientists with VA Tech, and Virginia Uranium. Through some micro-structural
work, mineral microscopy and geochronology, the USGS has just published dates of minerals
associated with mineralization at the Southeast section of the GSA meeting in March 2019. The
following abstracts address the Coles Hill deposit:
Aylor, J., Beard, J.S., Bodnar, R.J., Potter, C.J., Hall, S.M., 2018, Veins, fractures and paragenesis, Coles
Hill uranium deposit, Pittsylvania County, Virginia, (abs.), SE Section GSA Abstracts with Programs, Vol.
50, No. 3. https://doi.org/10.1130/abs/2018SE-311784
Hall, S.M., Breit, G.N., Zielinski, R.A., 2018, Mineral paragenesis of the Coles Hill uranium deposit,
Pittsylvania County, VA, (abs.), SE Section GSA Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 50, No. 3.
https://doi.org/10.1130/abs/2018SE-311606.
The USGS uranium resources project is also hoping to examine in some detail the development of
a uranium deposit and mineralogy database with Simone Runyon and following up on an abstract
published in 2018:
Runyon, S.E., Hall, S.M., Perry, S.N., Eleish, A., Prabhu, A., Morrison, S.M., Liu, C., Golden, J., Pires, A.,
Smith, M.L., Wendlandt, R.F., Zhong, H., Fang, H., Burns, P.C., Hazen, R.M., 2018, U-bearing mineral
chemistry and its relation to uranium ore deposit types, (extended abs.) Deep Time Data-driven Discovery
Workshop, Washington DC, 4-6 June, 2018, https://www.4d-workshop.net/
Also in 2017, Hall, Mihalasky, Tureck, and Hannon released a study entitled: Genetic and grade
and tonnage models for sandstone-hosted roll-type uranium deposits, Texas Coastal Plain, USA.
The paper examines geologic and climatic factors which led to the development of about 160
million pounds of eU3O8, about 60 million pounds of which remains in mineable deposits.
Also with the USGS, Tanya Gallegos and her colleagues examined drill-core samples from an ISR
mining operation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming to determine the nature of uranium
occurrences following mining and restoration. The paper is entitled: Persistent U(IV) and U(VI)
following in-situ recovery (ISR) mining of a sandstone uranium deposit, Wyoming, USA
(https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159787).
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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The study examined tetravalent (IV) and hexavalent (VI) uranium occurrences and their
relationships to the type of host strata and found that both forms remain after mining and
restoration, and they are not homogenously distributed. The team is hoping to gain insight into the
mobility of uranium after establishing reducing conditions.
The Wyoming State Geological Survey (WSGS) has recently published a summary of the geology,
mining/production history, and remaining minable uranium resources of the Gas Hills district in
central Wyoming in open file or information circular format (Gregory, R.W., (2019), Uranium
Geology and Resources of the Gas Hills District, Central Wyoming.
The WSGS is also in the early stages of collaboration with the University of Wyoming, Department
of Geology and Geophysics (UWGG) and the UW School of Energy Resources (SER) to examine
the nature of REE occurrences in the roll-front environment. Dr. Simone Runyon of UWGG will
head that project. Along with those efforts, the WSGS also plans to examine the occurrence and
potential of critical minerals/elements in association with roll-front uranium deposits, in support
of the REE work.
In April 2019, the WSGS published an open file report detailing the work of Jesse R. Pisel and
Charles P. Samra which presents a model from over 40,000 samples analyses. The goal is to
identify areas of interest for future mineral and elemental investigations, both with higher potential
for mineralization, and by surveying areas where analytical data are lacking.
The study uses geochemical analyses of sediment samples from the National Uranium Resource
Evaluation (NURE) and uses geostatistical to filter data. See more at the WSGS website:
Pisel, J.R., and Samra, C.P., 2019, Regional-scale geochemical investigations from legacy rock and
sediment datasets: Wyoming State Geological Survey Open File Report 2019-2, 20 p. URL:
https://www.wsgs.wyo.gov/
For information on current and older research projects at the USGS, visit their comprehensive
website (more). Additional uranium research subjects investigated by the U. S. Geological Survey
and other state and overseas geological surveys are available for review via the I2M Web Portal
and its multi-word search facility (more) Additional rare-earth research subjects investigated by
the U. S. Geological Survey and other State and National Surveys are also available for review
(more).
Ambient Radiation and Other Potential Hazards from Space
UCOM reports include discussions of the radiation occurring offworld in space and of that coming
into our atmosphere, some of which making it to the Earth, for the purpose of informing AAPG
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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members and the general public that radiation is not only emitted by naturally occurring
radioactive minerals containing uranium, radium, and thorium (that emit alpha, beta, and gamma
radiation), but also by energy sources in our Sun (emerging as sunlight but also as coronal mass
ejections (CMEs) containing various types of radiation), from other stars in our galaxy and beyond
as gamma rays (from GRBs), ultraviolet and infrared rays, some X-rays, high-speed neutrinos and
neutrons, and other particles. Some of the latter strike Earth and all of the life exposed, including
humans. However, humans and life in general have evolved and dealt with this radiation, with
some periods in geologic history of high radiation causing gene mutations as part of evolving,
some life surviving, some being extinguished.
Although the Earth’s magnetic shield and atmosphere normally block some of the radiation, some
reach the Earth with humans responding by avoiding excessive exposure, or by applying sun-block
ointments, etc. As we begin to explore offworld, astronauts also need to be shielded while spending
time on the ISS conducting research, and while exploring for life and for minerals of economic
interest (uranium, helium-3, thorium, and REE) on the Moon, and on nearby asteroids, the moons
of Jupiter (e.g., Europa, etc.), the moons of Saturn (Enceladus) (Titan), and other sites within our
solar system.
To investigate how much gamma and neutron radiation reaches humans on Earth, approximately
once a week, Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus have been releasing
space-weather balloons to the stratosphere over California and other states. These balloons are
equipped with radiation sensors that detect cosmic rays, a form of space weather. Cosmic rays
can seed clouds, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Furthermore, there are
studies ( #1, #2, #3, #4) linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in
the general population. Our latest measurements show that cosmic rays are intensifying, with an
increase of more than 18% since 2014 (see Figure 4):
Figure 4 (Spaceweather)
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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The data points in the graph above correspond to the peak of the Reneger-Pfotzer maximum, which
lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays enter the Earth's atmosphere,
they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere.
Physicists Eric Reneger and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930s
and it is what we are measuring today (see plot: more).
On route to the stratosphere, their sensors also pass through aviation altitudes (see Figure 5) In the
plot below, dose rates are expressed as multiples of sea level. For instance, they observed that
boarding a plane that flies at an altitude of 25,000 feet exposes passengers to dose rates ~10x
higher than sea level (more). At 40,000 feet, the multiplier is closer to 50x. The radiation sensors
onboard their helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20
MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners
(more).
Cosmic rays are intensifying because of the Sun’s reduced output. Solar storm clouds such as
coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays when they pass by Earth. During Solar
Maximum, CMEs are abundant and cosmic rays are held at bay. Now, however, the solar cycle is
swinging toward Solar Minimum, allowing cosmic rays to return. Another reason could be the
weakening of Earth's magnetic field, but this field surrounds Earth and helps to protect us from
deep-space cosmic and other radiation (more).
Figure 5 (Spaceweather)
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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For a dynamic viewing of the northern lights (Aurora Borealis aka Earth’s magnetic field in
action)), see Figure 6, which illustrates a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the Sun, which, but
for the magnetic shield, the Earth would be devoid of life as we know it (more).
There continues to be widespread discussions by geologists, geophysics and astronomers regarding
the pending magnetic pole reversal and the migration of the north pole from northern Canada
toward Russia (more).
Figure 6
Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Heading for Earth and the Earth’s Defense
Also, red lightning has only recently been confirmed in detail above distant thunderheads as
momentary flashes, and Smith (2019) caught a group over two big storms in Kansas (see Figure
7). These atmospheric phenomena are termed “sprites” and constitute an exotic form of electricity
that appears to shoot up from major storm clouds, instead of down like ordinary lightning.
Figure 7
Observable Sprites over Kansas in 2019 (Smith, 2019).
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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Although sprites have been reported for at least a century, many scientists did not believe they
existed until after 1989 when sprites were accidentally photographed by researchers from the
University of
Minnesota and confirmed by video cameras onboard the space shuttle (more).
Smith
(2019) has been observing and photographing sprites for years in the stormy U.S.
Great
Plains around Oklahoma and Kansas. Here are
two examples
of clusters he caught simultaneously
with
direct visual observation and camera.
The jellyfish shapes he observed had a fiery orange/red
color, likely reflecting ionized nitrogen and/or a form of oxygen (ozone?) in the upper
atmosphere. The
underlying physics of sprites are
still not fully understood. Some models hold
that
cosmic rays help them get started by creating conductive paths in the at
mosphere. If cosmic
rays do indeed spark sprites,
Tony Phillips (2019) suggests that they could be explained
because
cosmic rays are nearing
a Space Age high. See Figure 8 viewing sprites.
Figure 8 (Smith, 2019)
More examples of sprites may
now be found at Smith (2019).
Monitoring for Hazardous Asteroid/Comet Arrivals
After years of prodding by astronomers and others, U.S. government and NASA, JPL, etc. are
finally beginning to support and implement a well-funded and meaningful program to monitor
asteroids and comets within the orbital reaches of Earth, and to determine what to do if one comes
our way (more). CNEOS is NASA's center for computing asteroid and comet orbits and their odds
of Earth impact (more).
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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Human Hazards in Zero Gravity and Orbital and Deep-Space Radiation
Recent medical reports on astronauts returning from long stays in zero gravity on the ISS show
that serious damage occurs to brains (more) and tissues (more). This will require rotation and
shielding in ships built for space travel and advanced robotics to minimize exposure to astronauts
(more). Exposure in near-zero gravity while on bases on the Moon, Mars, Europa, Titan, etc. is
currently under intense research. With China forging ahead in the 2nd Space Race, their experiences
will no doubt be closely monitored by the U.S., Europe, Japan, Israel, India, and other space-faring
nations (more).
Research into all types of known ionizing and other radiation will allow the radiation issues
surrounding uranium mining, nuclear power plant operations, and the associated nuclear waste to
be placed into the proper perspective of managing any risks involved.
Historical and Reading List (pp. 48) of Links:
Both in Alphabetical Order
Ambrose, William A., James F. Reilly II, and Douglas C. Peters (eds), 2013, "Energy Resources for Human Settlement
in the Solar System and Earth's Future in Space," EMD-AAPG Memoir 101: Nine Chapters, 2013 p.,:
http://i2massociates.com/downloads/Memoir101-T0fC2016.pdf
BBC News, 2011, "India: 'Massive' Uranium Find in Andhra Pradesh," July 19:
http://www.bbc.com/ news/world-south-asia-14196372
Bagley, Katherine, and Naveena Sadasivam, 2015, "Climate Denial's Ugly Side: Hate Mail to
Scientists," Dec 11: https://insideclimatenews.org/news/11122015/climate-change-global-
warming-denial-ugly- side-scientists-hate-mail-hayhoe-mann
Brennan Weiss, 2015, "Nuclear energy may have big future in Virginia: study," June 10:
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2015/jun/10/nuclear-energy-may-have-big-future-in-virginia-stu/
Brett Burk, "Radiation Risk in Perspective - Position Statement of The Health Physics Society," July 2010:
http://hps.org/documents/risk_ps010-3.pdf
Campbell, M. D., and Kevin T. Biddle, 1977, "Chapter 1: Frontier Areas and Exploration Techniques," in Geology
[and Environmental Issues] of Alternate Energy Resources in the South-Central United States, Published by the
Houston Geological Society, 364 p. Introduction, pp. v-xiv, and Chapter 1, pp. 3-44: URL;
http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/CamBidd77A.pdf
Campbell, M. D., et al., 2005, "2005 EMD Uranium (Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee: Recent Uranium
Industry Developments, Exploration, Mining and Environmental Program in the U.S. and Overseas," Energy
Minerals Division AAPG March 25, 2005: http://www.mdcampbell.com/EMDUraniumCommittee2005Report.pdf
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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Campbell, M. D., H. M. Wise, and R. I. Rackely, 2007, “Uranium In-Situ Leach Development and Associated
Environmental Issues,” Proc. Gulf Coast Geological Societies Conference, Fall, Corpus Christi, Texas, 17 p.,
Accessed Internet January 28, 2018: URL: http://mdcampbell.com/CampbellWiseRackleyGCAGS2007l.pdf
Campbell, M. D., et al., 2010, “EMD Uranium (Nuclear Minerals) Mid-Year Report,” 32 p., URL:
http://i2massociates.com/downloads/UraniumAAPG-EMD2010Midyear.pdf
Campbell, M. D., J. D. King, H. M. Wise, B. Handley, J. L. Conca, and M. David Campbell, 2013, “Nuclear Power
and Associated Environmental Issues in the Transition of Exploration and Mining on Earth to the Development of
Off-World Natural Resources in the 21st Century,” in Chapter 9, Energy Resources for Human Settlement in the
Solar System and Earth’s Future in Space, (eds)W. A. Ambrose, J. F. Reilly II, and D. C. Peters, AAPG-EMD
Memoir 101, pp. 163 –213. URL: http://i2massociates.com/downloads/Memoir101-CHAPTER09Rev.pdf
Campbell, M. D., M. David Campbell, Jeffrey D. King and Henry M. Wise, 2014, "Coal, Just Not for Burning,"
AIPG Journal: The Professional Geologist 2014, pp. 21-25:
http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/CampbellJustNotforBurning-July19-2014Col.pdf
Campbell, M. D., 2014, "A Perspective on Nuclear Power, Uranium, and the Post-Fukushima Revival," EMD
Uranium (Nuclear and Rare-earth Committee): http://i2massociates.com/downloads/NUCLEARPOWER-
November1-2014.pdf
Campbell, M. D., et al., 2014, "2014 EMD Uranium (Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee Mid-Year Report,"
Nov 18: http://i2massociates.com/downloads/EMDUranium2014MidYearReportVer1.4.pdf
Campbell, M. D., et al., 2015, "2015 EMD Uranium(Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee Annual Report," May
20: http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/2015-05-30-EMD-AnnualMeeting- Committee-Uranium.pdf
Campbell, M. D., et al. 2015, "2015 EMD Uranium Committee Mid-Year Report," Dec 29:
http://i2massociates.com/downloads/EMDUranium2015Mid-YearReport.pdf
Campbell, M. D. and J. L. Conca, 2015, “Energy Competition in the Uranium, Thorium, and Rare- earth Industries
in the U.S. and the World,” Report of the EMD Uranium (Nuclear and Rare-earth Minerals) Committee, in Natural
Resources Research, Vol. 4, pp. 8-16, December:
http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/NRR2015Unconv_Review_online11.25.15.pdf
Campbell, M. D., et al., 2016, "2016 EMD Uranium Committee Annual Report," June 18:
http://i2massociates.com/downloads/2016EMDUraniumAnnualReport.pdf
Campbell, M. D., et al., 2016, 2016 EMD Uranium Committee Mid-Year Report,” December 18:
https://i2mconsulting.com/downloads/uranium-nuclear-and-rare-earth-committee-of-the-energy-minerals-division-
aapg-releases-2016-mid-year-report/
Campbell, M. D., et al., 2017, “2017 EMD Uranium Committee Annual Report,” April 1:
https://i2mconsulting.com/downloads/campbell-presents-ucom-2017-uranium-committee-report-to-emd-annual-
meeting-in-houston-texas/
Campbell, M. D., et al., 2017, “2017 EMD Uranium Committee Mid-Year Report,” November 27:
https://i2mconsulting.com/downloads/uranium-nuclear-and-rare-earth-committee-releases-2017-mid-year-year-end-
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report/
Campbell, M. D., H. M. Wise, and M. David Campbell, 2017, “An Update: Nuclear Power and Uranium Markets,
Ownership and Uranium One (Russian Government) and Other Ownership of Uranium Resources in the World,”
Journal Geology and Geoscience, Vol. 2, No.1, 4 p., Accessed Internet February 1, 2018: URL:
http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/JGG-1-009.pdf
Campbell, M. D., et al., 2017, “2018 EMD Uranium Committee Annual Report,” May 19:
https://i2mconsulting.com/downloads/uranium-nuclear-and-rare-earth-committee-of-the-energy-minerals-division-
aapg-releases-2018-mid-year-year-end-report/
Campbell, M. D., H. M. Wise, and M. David Campbell, 2018, “Confronting Media and Other Bias against Uranium
Exploration and Mining, Nuclear Power, and Associated Environmental Issues,” Journal Geology and Geoscience,
Vol. 2, No.1, 4 p., Accessed Internet February 1, 2018: URL:
http://i2massociates.com/downloads/ConfrontingBias.pdf
Campbell, M. D., R. I. Rackley, R. W. Lee, M. David Campbell, H. M. Wise, J. D. King, and S. E Campbell, 2018,
“Characterization of the Occurrence of Uranium, Thorium, Rare Earths and Other Metals in Basement Rocks as a
Source for New Uranium Roll-Front District in the Tertiary Sediments of the McCarthy Basin and Death Valley and
Associated Metallogenic Areas in the Eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska,” Journal Geology and Geosciences, Vol.
2(1), 2018, 65 p., URL: http://www.i2massociates.com/downloads/JGG-2-023.pdf
CERN Accelerating Science, "Could there be a link between galactic cosmic rays and cloud formation? An
experiment at CERN is using the cleanest box in the world to find out,": http://home.cern/about/experiments/cloud
Colburn, J., 2015, "NRC's Expected Supplemental EIS for Yucca: New Information?", Feb 19:
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Colorado State University, Department of Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences Department of
Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences:
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Conca, J., 2013 "Beyond Earth's Atmosphere : Energy Needs For Space Colonization," May 5:
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Conca, J., 2014, "Absurd Radiation Limits Are A Trillion Dollar Waste,"Jul 13:
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Conca, J., 2015, "Choking Our Health Care System With Coal,"Nov 5:
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Conca, J., 2016, "World-Wide Risk From Radiation Very Small," Jun 24:
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Christopher, P. A., 2007, "Technical Report on the Coles Hill Uranium Property Pittsylvania County, Virginia,"
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Gayathri V., 2015, "Nuclear Power Must Make a Comeback for Climate's Sake," Dec 4:
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (118), 2017, "Futurism,": https://futurism.com/chrome-frame/
I2M Web Portal Search Result (119), 2017, "Discussion by Hartmann and Fingleton,":
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8QPDdydC2c
I2M Web Portal Search Result (12), 2017, "Reactor Designs,":
http://web.i2massociates.com/search_resource.php?search_value=%22Reactor+Designs%22#page=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (120), 2017, "Discussion by Hartmann and Fingleton2,":
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3klabW-pptk
I2M Web Portal Search Result (121), 2017, "Division of Environmental Geosciences,":
http://www.aapg.org/divisions/deg
I2M Web Portal Search Result (122), 2017, "Radiation,":
http://web.i2massociates.com/search_resource.php?search_value=Radiation&sort=date#page=1
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (123), 2017, "Health & Safety - Mining, Environmental, Cyber,":
http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/radiation-poses-little-risk-to-the-world.asp
I2M Web Portal Search Result (124), 2017, "Chernobyl Accident 1986,": http://www.world-
nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/safety-of-plants/chernobyl-accident.aspx
I2M Web Portal Search Result (125), 2017, "Journal of Leukemia,":
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1000202.php?aid=65327
I2M Web Portal Search Result (126), 2017, "Spaceweather.com,": http://www.spaceweather.com/
I2M Web Portal Search Result (127), 2017, "Earth to Sky Calculus,": https://www.facebook.com/
earthtoskycalculus/
I2M Web Portal Search Result (128), 2017, "Radiation Dose Chart,": http://www.ela iet.com/EMD/radiation.jpg
I2M Web Portal Search Result (129), 2017, "Can You Believe They Can Do This,":
http://beforeitsnews.com/science-
and-technology/2013/11/he-who-controls-the-weather-rules-the-world-campaign-
blue-jets-lightning-haarp-and-red-
sprites-videos-2651790.html
I2M Web Portal Search Result (13), 2017, "Operational Aspects that Drive Uranium Prices,":
http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/default.asp?QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=desc&OrderField=cod
efixerlp_tblLink_flddateadded&SearchValue=nuclear+power&PageNumber=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (130), 2017, "X-Ray,": https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray
I2M Web Portal Search Result (14) about climate change, 2017,: http://web.i2massociates.com/
categories/default.asp?QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=desc&OrderField=codefixerlp_tblLink_flddateadded
&SearchValue=Climate+Change&PageNumber=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (15), 2017, "Thorium,":
http://web.i2massociates.com/categories
/default.asp?QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=desc&OrderField=codef
ixerlp_tblLink_flddateadded&Search
Value=thorium&PageNumber=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (16), 2017, "Helium 3,": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/
default.asp?QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=desc&OrderField=codefixerlp_tblLink_flddateadd
ed&SearchV
alue=Helium-3&PageNumber=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (17), 2017, "Fusion Research,"URL:
http://web.i2massociates.com/search_resource.php?search_value=Fusion#page=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (18), 2017, "Environmental and Societal Issues Related to Nuclear
Waste Storage and Handling,": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/environmental-
impact%20-%20cases- nuclear
wastes.asp?QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=desc&OrderField=codefixerlp_tblLink_fldd
ateadded
I2M Web Portal Search Result (19), 2017, "Current Research Developments in the Rare-Earth
Commodities,":http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/default.asp?QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=des
c&OrderField=codefixerlp_tblLink_flddateadded&SearchValue=Rare+earth&PageNumber=1
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (2), 2017, "Uranium Committee-EMD - Steven Sibrary,":
http://www.aapg.org/about/aapg/overview/committees/emd/articleid/26353/committee-emd-uranium
I2M Web Portal Search Result (20), 2017, "The Index to All Fields in the I2M Web Portal,":
http://web.i2massociates.com/
I2M Web Portal Search Result (21), 2017, "Human Health Issues in Greater Details,":
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issues.asp?QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=desc&OrderField=codefixerlp_tblLink_flddateadded
I2M Web Portal Search Result (22), 2017, "EMD UCOM 2016 Annual Report":
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the-
emd.asp
I2M Web Portal Search Result (23), 2017, "EMD UCOM 2015 Mid-Year Report"
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report.asp
I2M Web Portal Search Result (24), 2017, "Trump Administration Seeking to Save Nuclear Power Plants?":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (25), 2017, "Advanced Nuclear Power Reactors,":
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ge=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (26), 2017, "Small Nuclear Power Reactors,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (27), 2017, "Generation IV Nuclear Power Reactors,":
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C%22%3A+#page=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (28), 2017, "Nuclear Fuel Cycle,":
http://web.i2massociates.com/search_resource.php?search_value=%22Nuclear+Fuel+Cycle%2C%22#page=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (29), 2017, "Nuclear Power Reactors,":
http://web.i2massociates.com/search_resource.php?search_value=%22Nuclear+Power+Reactors%2C%22%3A+#pa
ge=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (3),2017, "Uranium Committee-EMD - Robert Gregory,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (30), 2017, "Fukushima,": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/
default.asp?QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=desc&OrderField=codefixerlp_tblLink_flddateadded&SearchV
alue=Fukushima&PageNumber=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (31), 2017 , "Uranium Mining,":
http://web.i2massociates.com/search_resource.php?search_value=%22Uranium+Mining%22#page=1
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (32), 2017 , "Nuclear Power In China,":
http://web.i2massociates.com/search_resource.php?search_value=%22Nuclear+Power+In+China%22&sort=date#pa
ge=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (33), 2017, "Uranium Energy Corp,": http://www.uraniumenergy.com/
projects/paraguay/
I2M Web Portal Search Result (34), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - USA,": http://www.wise-
uranium.org/uousa.html
I2M Web Portal Search Result (35), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - Kazakhstan,": http://www.wise-
uranium.org/uokz.html
I2M Web Portal Search Result (36), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - Russia,": http://www.wise-
uranium.org/uoru.html
I2M Web Portal Search Result (37), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - Uzbekistan,": http://www.wise-
uranium.org/uoasi.html#UZ
I2M Web Portal Search Result (38), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - Australian,": http://www.wise-
uranium.org/uoaus.html#GEN
I2M Web Portal Search Result (39), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - Canada,": http://www.wise-
uranium.org/uocdn.htmlI2M Web Portal Search Result (4), 2015, "AAPG Foundation - Jay M. McMurray,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (40), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - Europe,": http://www.wise-
uranium.org/uoeur.html
I2M Web Portal Search Result (41), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - Czech Republic," http://www.wise-
uranium.org/uoeur.html#CZ
I2M Web Portal Search Result (42), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - Malawi,": http://www.wise-
uranium.org/upmw.html
I2M Web Portal Search Result (43), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - Namibia,": http://www.wise-
uranium.org/uona.html
I2M Web Portal Search Result (44), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - Niger,": http://www.wise-
uranium.org/uoafr.html#NE
I2M Web Portal Search Result (45), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - South Africa,": http://www.wise-
uranium.org/uoza.html
I2M Web Portal Search Result (46), 2017, "Uranium Mining Overview,": http://www.world-
nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/mining-of-uranium/uranium-mining-overview.aspx
I2M Web Portal Search Result (47), 2017, "Virginia,": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/
default.asp?QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=desc&OrderField=codefixerlp_tblLink_flddateadded&SearchV
alue=Virginia&PageNumber=1
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (48), 2017, "Nuclear Power in Virginia,": http://www.virginiaplaces.org/
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (49), 2017, "Uranium Mining by Country,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (51), 2017, "U.S. Department of Energy,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (52), 2017, "Arizona,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (53), 2017, "Uruguay Mining News,": http://www.mining.com /tag/uruguay/
I2M Web Portal Search Result (54), 2017, "Mantra to Start Uranium Mining in Tanzania,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (55), 2017, "List of Countries by Uranium Reserves,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (56), 2017, "Increasing Productivity, Efficiency, and Safety in Mining with Robotics
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in-mining-with-robotics-and-internet-technology.asp
I2M Web Portal Search Result (57), 2017, "China CGN Mining Buys Stake in Canadian Fission Uranium,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (58), 2017, "Applications can be accepted from,": https://www.itu.int/ ITU-
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (59), 2017, "EIA Sees Strong Growth in Nuclear Generation to 2040?":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (6), 2016, "The Chronological List of Dr. Conca's contributions to
date,":http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/default.asp?QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=desc&OrderFi
eld=codefixerlp_tblLink_flddateadded&SearchValue=Conca&PageNumber=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (60), 2017, "Have Uranium Prices Finally Turned a Corner,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (61), 2017, "I2M Index,": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/ default.asp
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (62), 2017, "Japan and Their Nuclear Restart,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (63), 2017, "Japan,":
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QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=desc&OrderField=code
fixerlp_tblLink_flddateadded&SearchValue=Japan
&PageNumber=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (64), 2017, "Uranium Mergers and Acquisitions,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (65), 2017, "Uranium Exploration,": http://web.i2massociates.com/
categories/default.asp?QS=True&resources=10&OrderDirection=desc&OrderField=codefixerlp_tblLink_flddateadded
&SearchValue=uranium+exploration&PageNumber=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (66), 2017, "Exploration,": http://web.i2massociates.com/
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (67), 2017, "Coles Hill,": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (68), 2017, "Uranium Mining in the United States,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (69), 2017, "Uranium Mine Ownership - China,": http://www.wise-
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (7), 2016, "About the I2M Web Portal," : http://i2massociates.com/web- portal/
I2M Web Portal Search Result (70), 2017, "Cameco Yeelirrie Uranium Mine in Western Australia
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (71), 2017, "Operations": https://www.energyres.com.au/operations/
I2M Web Portal Search Result (72), 2017, "Nuclear Winner - The Case for South Australia Storing Nuclear Waste":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (73), 2017, "NexGen": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (74), 2017, "A Major Uranium Discovery in Patterson Lake Area":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (75), 2017, "World-Class Uranium - Types of Uranium Deposits":
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2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (76), 2017, "Can Uranium be a Great Investment Again?":
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efixerlp_tblLink_flddateadded&SearchValue=Kazakhstan&PageNumber=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (77), 2017, "Australia": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (78), 2017, "Niger": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (79), 2017, "Nambia":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (8), 2017, "Uranium Exploration,": http://web.i2massociates.com/
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&SearchValue=uranium+EXPLORATION&PageNumber=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (80), 2017, "Economics": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (81), 2017, "Graphene": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (82), 2017, "Shutter": http://web.i2massociates.com/categories/
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (83), 2017, "Shuttering Nuclear Power Plants,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (84), 2017, "Chinese,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (85), 2017, "Russia,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (86), 2017, "Nuclear Power Plant Construction,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (87), 2017, "SMR,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (88), 2017, "TVA Way Ahead of the Pack With Nuclear and Solar?,":
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and+Solar%3F#page=1
2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (89), 2017, "Small Modular Reactor List,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (9), 2017, "Mining and Processing,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (90), 2017, "Small Nuclear Power Reactors,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (91), 2017, "Nuscale Power,": http://www.nuscalepower.com/why-smr
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (93), 2017, "Yucca Mountain,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (94), 2017, "Yucca,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (95), 2017, "Rep. Dina Titus Critical of Congressional Effort to Push Yucca
Mountain Project Forward,":
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+Effort+to+Push+Yucca+Mountain+Project+Forward%22#page=1
I2M Web Portal Search Result (96), 2017, "TVA Way Ahead of the Pack With Nuclear and Solar?,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (97), 2017, "Tennessee Solar Rebates and Incentives ,":
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I2M Web Portal Search Result (98), 2017, "Tennessee Solar Installers,":
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2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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International Energy Agency, 2016, "Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Japan," :
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2020 EMD Uranium ( Nuclear Minerals and REE) Committee An nual Report
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