Technical ReportPDF Available

Collection of good practices and benchmark analysis on MAR solutions in the EU

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

This paper provides a logical approach and step-by-step introduces the reader with essential MAR topics, such as: · Definition and a brief history of Manager Aquifer Recharge · Objectives and criteria · Types of operation · Source of water used in MAR operation · Feasibility and performance factors · Manager Aquifer Recharge in Europe · Good practices Furthermore, within this paper, existing MAR projects in five Central European countries are presented in order to provide visualization for the reader regarding how MAR operation works and why is it required. This project report was implemented through financial assistance from ERDF funds of the CENTRAL EUROPE and reflects the authors' view. The Interreg Central Europe authorities are not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. We are looking forward to hearing from you in the comments. DEEPWATER-CE project
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Article
In the paper, a comparison of the efficiency of riverbank treatments is outlined for the Krajkowo well field, where different methods of water abstraction are used. The water is extracted from 29 vertical wells that are located at a distance of 60–80 m from the channel of the River Warta and from a horizontal well with radial drains located 5 m below the bottom of the river. The results of a two-year water-quality investigation indicate that the water quality in both types of abstraction system is influenced by the quality of river water. The water quality observed in the horizontal well is closely similar to that of the river water, with similar concentrations of sulphates, nitrates and micropollutants, but a reduction in bacteriological contamination and plankton is clearly seen. The reduction in contaminants is mainly the result of physical processes, such as mechanical entrapment of suspended material and colloids as well as bacteria and plankton. In the vertical wells, the influence of contamination from river water is also visible, but the reduction in contamination is more significant, especially in cases of bacteria, plankton, micropollutants and nitrates, and is determined by both physical and chemical processes, such as sorption, dissolution, red-ox processes and denitrification. The present research shows that river water treatment is more effective in the case of vertical wells. The most favourable distance of a well from the channel of the river, from the perspective of water quality, is 150–200 m, which corresponds to a residence time of about six months.
Full-text available
Article
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a technique used worldwide to increase the availability of water resources. We study how MAR modifies microbial ecosystems and its implications for enhancing biodegradation processes to eventually improve groundwater quality. We compare soil and groundwater samples taken from a MAR facility located in NE Spain during recharge (with the facility operating continuously for several months) and after 4 months of no recharge. The study demonstrates a strong correlation between soil and water microbial prints with respect to sampling location along the mapped infiltration path. In particular, managed recharge practices disrupt groundwater ecosystems by modifying diversity indices and the composition of microbial communities, indicating that infiltration favors the growth of certain populations. Analysis of the genetic profiles showed the presence of nine different bacterial phyla in the facility, revealing high biological diversity at the highest taxonomic range. In fact, the microbial population patterns under recharge conditions agree with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). Moreover, DNA sequence analysis of excised denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band patterns revealed the existence of indicator species linked to MAR, most notably Dehalogenimonas sp., Nitrospira sp. and Vogesella sp.. Our real facility multidisciplinary study (hydrological, geochemical and microbial), involving soil and groundwater samples, indicates that MAR is a naturally based, passive and efficient technique with broad implications for the biodegradation of pollutants dissolved in water.
Full-text available
Article
The aim of this article is to evaluate the removal of natural organic matter and micropollutants at a riverbank filtration site in Krajkowo, Poland, and its dependence on the distance between the wells and the river and related travel times. A high reduction in dissolved organic carbon (40–42%), chemical oxygen demand (65–70%), and colour (42–47%) was found in the riverbank filtration wells at a distance of 60–80 m from the river. A lower reduction in dissolved organic carbon (26%), chemical oxygen demand (42%), and colour (33%) was observed in a horizontal well. At greater distances of the wells from the river, the removal of pharmaceutical residues and pesticides was in the range of 52–66% and 55–66%, respectively. The highest removal of pharmaceutical residues and pesticides was found in a well located 250 m from the river and no micropollutants were detected in a well located 680 m from the river. The results provide evidence of the high efficacy of riverbank filtration for contaminant removal.
Full-text available
Article
The last 60 years has seen unprecedented groundwater extraction and overdraft as well as development of new technologies for water treatment that together drive the advance in intentional groundwater replenishment known as managed aquifer recharge (MAR). This paper is the first known attempt to quantify the volume of MAR at global scale, and to illustrate the advancement of all the major types of MAR and relate these to research and regulatory advancements. Faced with changing climate and rising intensity of climate extremes, MAR is an increasingly important water management strategy, alongside demand management, to maintain, enhance and secure stressed groundwater systems and to protect and improve water quality. During this time, scientific research—on hydraulic design of facilities, tracer studies, managing clogging, recovery efficiency and water quality changes in aquifers—has underpinned practical improvements in MAR and has had broader benefits in hydrogeology. Recharge wells have greatly accelerated recharge, particularly in urban areas and for mine water management. In recent years, research into governance, operating practices, reliability, economics, risk assessment and public acceptance of MAR has been undertaken. Since the 1960s, implementation of MAR has accelerated at a rate of 5%/year, but is not keeping pace with increasing groundwater extraction. Currently, MAR has reached an estimated 10 km³/year, ~2.4% of groundwater extraction in countries reporting MAR (or ~1.0% of global groundwater extraction). MAR is likely to exceed 10% of global extraction, based on experience where MAR is more advanced, to sustain quantity, reliability and quality of water supplies.
Full-text available
Article
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is the umbrella term for a range of technologies that enable the integrated use and management of surface water and groundwater to achieve a wide and growing range of social, economic and environmental benefits. The extent and variety of its applications and benefits have mushroomed in recent years as demonstrated in the suite of papers contained within this Special Issue of Sustainable Water Resources Management. This paper introduces the Special Issue and draws together some insights arising from the findings of these papers. Managed aquifer recharge projects normally evolve through a development cycle that covers planning, investigations, pilot scale trials and then implementation of full-scale projects. This Special Issue starts with four papers that synthesize information from a large number of MAR sites, to demonstrate the scope and geographic distribution of international efforts in MAR, factors affecting the economics of MAR projects, and efforts to find metrics to compare their performance among sites and over time. Then there are four papers describing some significant and widely contrasting completed MAR projects in four continents covering their development, what has been learned and some operational issues. Given this context, the next five papers explore the implementation and evaluation of pilot projects in three countries. These papers address issues ranging from hydrogeological characterization, evaluating impacts on groundwater-dependent ecosystems to community participation. All papers to this point give context to the final five papers that show the planning and preliminary studies performed to select MAR sites, to design pilot projects or to explore the feasibility of large-scale MAR programs. Arranging the sequence of papers in this way is intended to yield an understanding of the need for the investigations and modelling to produce viable projects, and to help readers to consider some important practical questions. What steps are needed for any given project to: define objectives; build partnerships; engage with communities; assemble evidence of technical viability, sustainability and safety; secure funding; design and construct efficiently; streamline operations; and finally to monitor the extent to which a completed project met its goals? These papers were developed out of a broader selection of papers presented at the 9th International Symposium on Managed Aquifer Recharge (ISMAR9), Mexico City, June 2016. They are a companion to another Special Issue arising from ISMAR9, published in the journal Water on the complementary theme “Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems” edited by Prof. Dr. Pieter Stuyfzand and Dr. Niels Hartog (2017). These Issues are a contribution of the International Association of Hydrogeologists Commission on Managing Aquifer Recharge (IAH-MAR) to the advancement and dissemination of knowledge for wise application of MAR.
Full-text available
Article
River bank filtration (RBF) is a system that enriches groundwater resources by induced infiltration of river water to an aquifer. Problematic during operation of RBF systems is the deterioration of infiltration effectiveness caused by river bed clogging. This situation was observed in the Krajkowo well field which supplies fresh water to the city of Poznań (Poland) during and after the long hydrological drought between the years 1989 and 1992. The present note discusses results of specific hydrogeological research which included drilling of a net of boreholes to a depth of 10 m below river bottom (for sediment sampling as well as for hydrogeological measurements), analyses of grain size distribution and relative density studies. The results obtained have allowed the recognition of the origin of the clogging processes, as well as the documentation of the clogged parts of the river bottom designated for unclogging activities.
Full-text available
Article
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is an important technique for improving groundwater recharge and maintaining aquifer levels. There are many examples from around the world that demonstrate the advantages of managed aquifer recharge. Despite the numerous benefits and demonstrated advantages of MAR, uptake has been lower than expected. The financial and economic performance of MAR is a key determinant of its global uptake. There are few studies of the financial characteristics and performance of different kinds of MAR schemes. This study contains an analysis of financial data from 21 MAR schemes from five countries. Although MAR schemes are highly heterogeneous, it is possible to draw some conclusions about factors that affect the costs of storing water underground and recovering it for use. The costs of MAR schemes vary substantially. Schemes using infiltration and spreading basins using untreated water are relatively cheap. Schemes using recharge wells, bores and expensive infrastructure are relatively costly. When advanced water treatment is needed, this involves significant extra costs. Other key factors that affect MAR scheme costs include the range of objectives to be met, frequency of use of the scheme, hydrogeological conditions that affect infiltration rates and well yields, and the source and end use of water stored underground. Priorities for further research include additional disaggregation of capital and operating costs and inclusion of a wider range of scheme types, sources of water and countries.
Full-text available
Article
The article presents analyses of long-term water quality data from the Warta River between 1958 and 2016. A clear increasing trend in nitrate concentrations was observed from 1958 to the early 1990s. This trend was mainly related to the increasing use of fertilizers in Poland in this period. Then, after the early 1990s, a slow decreasing trend related to improvements in water and sewage management and more rational fertilizer use was observed after political and economic changes in Poland. The influence of long-term hydrological droughts on nitrate concentrations was also investigated. Sharp increases in the nitrate concentration in surface water were related to the accumulation of contaminants in the soil and aeration zone during drought periods and the subsequent transport of these contaminants to groundwater and surface water via recharge infiltration after each drought period. The presented results highlight the importance of surface water–groundwater interactions and suggest that groundwater protection in an entire catchment area is essential for surface water quality protection.
Article
Improving degradation rates of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) in groundwater is still a challenge. Although their degradation is not fully understood, it has been observed that some substances are preferably degraded under specific redox conditions. The coupling of Managed Aquifer Recharge with soil aquifer remediation treatment, by placing a reactive layer containing organic matter at the bottom of the infiltration pond, is a promising technology to improve the rate of degradation of EOCs. Its success is based on assuming that recharged water and groundwater get well mixed, which is not always true. It has been demonstrated that mixing can be enhanced by inducing chaotic advection through extraction-injection-engineering. In this work we analyze how chaotic advection might enhance the spreading of redox conditions with the final aim of improving degradation of a mix of benzotriazoles: benzotriazole, 5-methyl-benzotriazole, and 5-chloro-benzotriazole. The degradation of the first two compounds was fastest under aerobic conditions whereas the third compound was best degraded under denitrification conditions. We developed a reactive transport model that describes how a recharged water rich in organic matter mixes with groundwater, how this organic matter is oxidized by different electron acceptors, and how the benzotriazoles are degraded attending for the redox state. The model was tested in different scenarios of recharge, both in homogenous and in heterogenous media. It was found that chaotic flow increases the spreading of the plume of recharged water. Consequently, different redox conditions coexist at a given time, facilitating the degradation of EOCs.