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Natural history of the Processionary Moths (Thaumetopoea spp.): New insights in relation to climate change

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La partie est intégrée dans le Chapter 2: Natural history of the Processionary Moths (Thaumetopoea spp.): New insights in relation to climate change
... The cedar processionary moth, Thaumetopoea bonjeani (Powel) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) is one of the damaging defoliators of Atlas cedar forests in North Africa (Démolin 1988;Mouna 2013;Battisti et al. 2015;Rahim et al. 2016;El Mokhefi et al. 2021). Thaumetopoea bonjeani is known to be monophagous on Atlas cedar which is adapted to high elevation/altitude. ...
... Halperin (1990) reported that Drino imberbis (Wied.) was the main parasitoid developing in the mature larvae of T. solitaria. The solitary wasp, C. vestalis is a solitary endoparasitoid that attacks the larvae of T. pityocampa (Battisti et al. 2015), T. herculeana and T. processionea (Abdinbekova et al. 2017). The parasitoid Heterospilus sp. was found for the first time from pupae of Thaumetopoea species. ...
... Of the predators and entomopathogens observed as natural enemies of T. bonjeani in this study, the ground beetle C. sycophanta is known to be a major enemy of the many processionary moth species. This species was reported to feed on larvae and pupae of T. pityocampa, T. wilkinsoni, T. processionae (Avci 2000;Battisti et al. 2015). Ocypus olens, H. thoracicus, S. sanguineus and Lygaeus sp. were observed for the first time as predators of Thaumetopoea species. ...
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Outbreaks of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffer-müller, 1775), a forest pest from the Palearctic, are thought to induce a behavioral response of bats, but up to now the moth has been seldom identified as bats' prey. Studies on bat diets suggest moths with cyclical outbreaks attract a wide array of bat species from different foraging guilds. We test whether bats feed upon T. pityocampa in the Iberian Peninsula irrespective of the predator's ecological and morphological features. We found that seven out of ten bat species belonging to different foraging guilds contained T. pityocampa DNA in their faeces and no difference was found in the foraging frequency among foraging guilds. A different size of the typical prey or the lack of fondness for moths can explain the absence of the pest in some bat species. Moreover, the intraspecific foraging frequency of T. pityocampa also changed with the sampling site likely representing differential availability of the moth. Lack of information on flight and dispersal behavior or the tympanate nature of the adult moth complicates understanding how different foraging guilds of bats prey upon the same prey. Our data suggests that T. pityocampa is a remarkable food source for many thousands of individual bats in the study area and we anticipate that more bats besides the species studied here are consuming this moth.
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Turkey is the second country with 21.000,000 bearing pistachio trees and 64.000 tons of production per year. Amount of production per tree is not very high compare to the bearing pistachio tree figures. Pest and disease are one of the main reasons for this low production. In various studies, 40 injurious and benefical species were determined. Among these injurious pests, twelve of them could be reached economically injurious levels. Chemical, mechanical, cultural and biological control methods are used for these main pests in the approach of IPM concept.
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This chapter presents the evolutionary history of Thaumetopoea species associated with pines, at different temporal and spatial scales. It corresponds to recent discoveries and ongoing works using sequencing technologies and population genetics. Most of the subchapters focus on the winter pine processionary moths T. pityocampa/T. wilkinsoni including a population with a shifted life cycle. Results concerning the summer pine processionary moth T. pinivora and the evolution of the whole genus are also presented. This chapter gives insights about the effects of Quaternary climate changes in different regions, and allow to study the contemporary changes due to the present climate warming.
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1 The oak processionary moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontidae) is presently distributed in almost all European countries and in part of the Middle East. In the North, its range limit passes through the Netherlands and Germany, and the southern part of Poland and Ukraine. In the South, the species is present in all the countries located on the northern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, in Anatolia, and in the mountains surrounding the Dead Sea Transform. 2 Using information from museum and personal collections, the available literature and other relevant datasets, we show that the species was already largely distributed throughout Europe before 1920. The available data do not provide any evidence of any long‐term latitudinal shift of the species betwen 1750 and 2010. 3 In the northernmost part of its range, the population dynamics of the species is characterized by important fluctuations. We studied their pattern in Belgium, the Netherlands and part of Germany, after the apparent regional disappearance of the species during the first half of the 20th Century. The data suggest a continuous extent of the apparent distribution of the insect between 1970 and 2009, at a rate of approximately 7.5 km per year. 4 To explain the present distribution of the species, we discuss possible improvements of environmental conditions that could have triggered local population increases and favoured dispersal to adjacent areas. In addition, human activity, including the commercial movements of infested nursery trees, was recently suspected to be another source of spread over geographical barriers.
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Allochrony that is reproductive isolation by time may further lead to divergence of reproductive adaptive traits in response to different environmental pressures over time. A unique "summer" population of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, reproductively isolated from the typical winter populations by allochronic differentiation, is here analyzed. This allochronically shifted population reproduces in the spring and develops in the summer, whereas "winter" populations reproduce in the late summer and have winter larval development. Both summer and winter populations coexist in the same pine stands, yet they face different climatic pressures as their active stages are present in different seasons. The occurrence of significant differences between the reproductive traits of the summer population and the typical winter populations (either sympatric or allopatric) is thus hypothesized. Female fecundity, egg size, egg covering, and egg parasitism were analyzed showing that the egg load was lower and that egg size was higher in the summer population than in all the studied winter populations. The scales that cover the egg batches of T. pityocampa differed significantly between populations in shape and color, resulting in a looser and darker covering in the summer population. The single specialist egg parasitoid species of this moth was almost missing in the summer population, and the overall parasitism rates were lower than in the winter population. Results suggest the occurrence of phenotypic differentiation between the summer population and the typical T. pityocampa winter populations for the life-history traits studied. This work provides an insight into how ecological divergence may follow the process of allochronic reproductive isolation.
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Larvae of the processionary moths of the Palaearctic region bear urticating setae that are released against vertebrate predators, especially insectivorous birds. A few species are pests of forest and urban trees and consequently may threaten human and animal health during outbreaks, causing dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress. Although some studies provide detailed information about the setae, particularly those of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller), there is little knowledge about morphological traits of the setae and their release by the larvae. We here identify the major traits of the setae of three species of processionary moth, namely Thaumetopoea pityocampa, T. pinivora (Treitschke), and T. processionea (Linnaeus), potentially helpful in understanding of setae dynamics in the environment: (i) diameter and length of setae; (ii) analysis of dynamical properties of the setae in the airborne state. Setae are highly variable in size, with bimodal distribution in T. pityocampa and T. pinivora; in these two species short and long setae are interspersed within the integument fields where they occur. The difference in the seta size has important consequence in dispersion, as smaller setae can spread 5 times further than their bigger counterparts. This information is relevant to a full understand of the defensive importance of larval setae against natural enemies of the processionary moths, as well as to understanding the importance of the processionary setae as air pollutants, both close to the infested trees and at longer distance.
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In 2000 and 2001, in Northeast Bulgaria, in a thirty-year-old Quercus cerris L.1753 (Fagaceae) and Q. frainetto Tenn.1813 (Fagaceae) offshoot forest, 67 oak processionary moth clusters were collected. The clusters were found in cerris oak trees only, located on branches from 3 to 10 mm thick, in the lower part of the crown. The average number of eggs in the clusters was 134.3 - min 62, max 196. The percentage of hatching of caterpillars was between 93.2 and 94.3 %. The mortality rate at the egg stage - due to various factors, without the impact of parasitoids and predators - was 2.1% - 4.5 %. From 1.0 % to 3.8 % of the eggs were destroyed by predators, and 0.2 - 0.9 % were parasitised. Two parasitoids were isolated - Anastatus bifasciatus (Fonscolombe, 1832) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) and Ooencyrtus sp. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).
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Egg parasitoids and egg parasitism were studied in 48 egg batches of the pine processionary moth collected near Ohrid, the Republic of Macedonia in July 2000 and October 2004, after the pest larvae had hatched. Directly after collection, the batches were singled in test tubes, closed with cotton stoppers and stored under laboratory conditions at 20-22°C. All batches were wrapped around a pair of needles of P. nigra. The eggs were deposited from the base to the top of the needles; only one egg batch was prepared in the opposite direction. The hatching rate of caterpillars was relatively high (84.4 % in the sample of 2000 and 76.1 % in the sample of 2004). A large part of host eggs were destroyed by parasitoids, the percentage of the eggs from which no caterpillars had been hatched, without effect of parasitoids, was over twice lower than the part of impact of parasitoids. Five species of parasitoids were identified: Baryscapus servadeii (Dom.) Pediobius bruchicida (Ron.), Ooecyrtus pityocampae (Mercet), Anastatus bifasciatus (Geof.) and Trichogramma sp. The most frequent egg parasitoid was B. servadeii followed by O. pityocampae. P. bruchicida was found in very low numbers, the parasitization rate of Trichogramma sp. was higher. A. bifasciatus was established only in the sample of 2004. The grade of parasitism of the various egg batches varied from zero to 45.1 %. A part of the egg parasitoids died in the eggs, mainly from O. pityocampae.
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Samples of 34egg clusters of Thaumetopoea solitaria were collected on April 13, 2011 in a region near the town of Ivaylovgrad (Eastern Rhodope Mountains, Southern Bulgaria). It has been found 5.6% of newly hatched caterpillars dead of mycosis caused by the entomopathogenic fungus Beaveria bassiana. This is the first report of natural fungal infection concerned young larvae of pistachio bud moth and the first announcement for Bulgaria about T. solitaria as a new host of the fungal species B. bassiana.
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The differences between Pimpla processioneae and P. rufipes are discussed, based on reared and collected specimens in The Netherlands. lt is argued that P. processioneae is a distinct species and a specialist pupal parasitoid of Thaumetopoea. processionea (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae). Pimpla processioneae is recorded here for the first time from The Netherlands. Entomologische Berichten 65(I): 4-16 Key words: oak processionary caterpillar, Thaumetopoea processionea, parasitoid .Introduction Ratzeburg 6A49) described a pimpline species that had been reared from Thaumetopoea processionea (Linnaeus) (Lepido-ptera: Notodontidae) on oak: Pimpla processioneae (figure l). In the description Ratzeburg emphasised the yellowish-white marked scutellum. Due to its close resemblance to the very common polyphagous pupal parasitoid P. rufipes (Mll-ler) (synonlms: P hypochondriaca (Retzius), P instigator (Fabricius)) subsequent authors have treated this taxon in various ways. Schmiedeknecht (1934) considers it to be a variety of P. rufipes. Using the white marked scutellum as distinguishing character Aubert (1959) explains P. processio-neae to be a form of P. rufipes on the basis of specimens reared from pupae of the Lepidoptera Malacosoma neustria (Linnaeus) and Aglais urticoe (Linnaeus). Oehlke (1967) tre-ats P processioneae as a synonym of P rufipes. The first author who treated P processioneae in an identification key as a distinct species seems to have been Kasparyan (1974). His view has been adopted by Yu & Horstmann (1997).Ka-sparyan presents in his key the white pubescence on face and propodeum as the main character for the separation of P. processioneae and P rufipes. The lectotype of P processio-neae, a male specimen, is present in the collection of the Deutsches Entomologisches Institut (DEI), Muncheberg (previously in Eberswalde), Germany (Fitton l97B).I had the opportunity to study the specimen and it shows indeed a striking white pubescence on face and propodeum.
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Long-term data sets, covering several decades, could help to reveal the effects of observed climate change on herbivore damage to plants. However, sufficiently long time series in ecology are scarce. The research presented here analyzes a long-term data set collected by the Hungarian Forest Research Institute over the period 1961-2009. The number of hectares with visible defoliation was estimated and documented for several forest insect pest species. This resulted in a unique time series that provides us with the opportunity to compare insect damage trends with trends in weather patterns. Data were analyzed for six lepidopteran species: Thaumetopoea processionea, Tortrix viridana, Rhyacionia buoliana, Malacosoma neustria, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, and Lymantria dispar. All these species exhibit outbreak dynamics in Hungary. Five of these species prefer deciduous tree species as their host plants, whereas R. buoliana is a specialist on Pinus spp. The data were analyzed using general linear models and generalized least squares regression in relation to mean monthly temperature and precipitation. Temperature increased considerably, especially over the last 25 years (+1.6°C), whereas precipitation exhibited no trend over the period. No change in weather variability over time was observed. There was increased damage caused by two species on deciduous trees. The area of damage attributed to R. buoliana decreased over the study period. There was no evidence of increased variability in damage. We conclude that species exhibiting a trend toward outbreak-level damage over a greater geographical area may be positively affected by changes in weather conditions coinciding with important life stages. Strong associations between the geographical extent of severe damage and monthly temperature and precipitation are difficult to confirm, studying the life-history traits of species could help to increase understanding of responses to climate change.
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The behavioral response of processionary males (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) to the natural pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate (1) and structurally related analogs in a wind tunnel is presented. Stereomerically pureZ-1 and a mixture with theE isomer in 80:20 ratio elicited similar attraction responses at 1 µg and higher. The activity was dose-dependent, being optimum at 1 µg with 90% and 80% of males contacting with the source in the presence of theZ-1 andZ/E-1, respectively. 11-Hexadecynyl acetate (2) functioned as a pheromone mimic, being able to induce the complete mate-finding behavioral sequence, although its activity was much lower than that of the pheromone. (Z)-13-Hexadecen-11-ynyl alcohol (3) and, particularly, (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynal (4) were potent inhibitors of the upwind flight response in mixtures withZ-1 in 99:1, 95:5, and 91:9 ratios. (Z)-1,1,1-Trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one (5) also inhibited the response of males to pheromone, particularly in the source contact behavior. Comparison with activity displayed by analogs in field tests is also reported.
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Forest pest populations can fluctuate dramatically in relation to climate and density-dependent factors. Although the distributional range of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera Notodontidae) appears to be expanding northward and upslope with climate warming, the relative importance of climate and endogenous, density-dependent factors has not been clearly documented. We analyzed the population dynamics of the moth using long-term data from two provinces in the Southern Alps (Trento: 1990–2009, Bolzano/Bozen: 1975–2011) to evaluate the relative importance of climate and density-dependent factors as regional drivers. Both summer temperatures and rainfall significantly affected population growth rate, with different outcomes depending on the local conditions. Although previous studies indicated that low winter temperatures have negative effects on insect performance, our analyses did not show any negative effect on the population dynamics. A negative density dependent feedback with a 1-year lag emerged as the most important factor driving the population dynamics in both regions. Potential mechanisms explaining the observed negative density feedback include deterioration of host quality, increased mortality caused by pathogens, and increase of prolonged diapause as an adaptive mechanism to escape adverse conditions.
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A number of organisms, especially insects, are extending their range in response of the increasing trend of warmer temperatures. However, the effects of more frequent climatic anomalies on these species are not clearly known. The pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, is a forest pest that is currently extending its geographical distribution in Europe in response to climate warming. However, its population density largely decreased in its northern expansion range (near Paris, France) the year following the 2003 heat wave. In this study, we tested whether the 2003 heat wave could have killed a large part of egg masses. First, the local heat wave intensity was determined. Then, an outdoor experiment was conducted to measure the deviation between the temperatures recorded by weather stations and those observed within sun-exposed egg masses. A second experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to simulate heat wave conditions (with night/day temperatures of 20/32°C and 20/40°C compared to the control treatment 13/20°C) and measure the potential effects of this heat wave on egg masses. No effects were noticed on egg development. Then, larvae hatched from these egg masses were reared under mild conditions until the third instar and no delayed effects on the development of larvae were found. Instead of eggs, the 2003 heat wave had probably affected directly or indirectly the young larvae that were already hatched when it occurred. Our results suggest that the effects of extreme climatic anomalies occurring over narrow time windows are difficult to determine because they strongly depend on the life stage of the species exposed to these anomalies. However, these effects could potentially reduce or enhance the average warming effects. As extreme weather conditions are predicted to become more frequent in the future, it is necessary to disentangle the effects of the warming trend from the effects of climatic anomalies when predicting the response of a species to climate change.
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Field observations on egg hatch of Thaumetopoea processionea suggest that temporal asynchrony with Quercus robur budburst leads to starvation, retarded neonate development and mortality. However, T. processionea neonates are generally well adapted to variable between-tree and within-tree budburst phenology reflecting the species' close bond to its host. They are able to withstand starvation periods of up to 3 weeks while searching extensively for suitable buds to feed on. Feeding and movements of young larvae frequently occur during daytime presumably taking advantage of higher day temperatures when night temperatures are below the species' thermal threshold. Due to the specific adaptations, we assume precise temporal synchrony to play a minor role regarding its influences on T. processionea population dynamics. However, if hatching precedes budburst for more than 2-3 weeks, temporal asynchrony may become a significant mortality factor for the neonates particularly when other adverse events (e.g. unfavourable weather conditions) during that period are involved. Therefore, future studies should try to reveal further details of this interaction and focus on the impact of global warming on T. processionea-oak budburst synchronisation.
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Many forest pest species strongly depend on temperature in their population dynamics, so that rising temperatures worldwide as a consequence of climatic change are leading to increased frequencies and intensities of insect-pest outbreaks. In the Mediterranean area, the climatic conditions are strongly linked to the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The aim of this work is to analyze the dynamics of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a severe pest of Pinus species in the Circunmediterranean, throughout a region of southern Spain, in relation to NAO indices. We related the percentage of forest plots with high defoliation by pine processionary moth each year with NAO values for the present and the three previous winters, using generalized linear models with a binomial error distribution. The time series is 16-year long, and we performed analyses for the whole database and for the five main pine species separately. We found a consistent relationship between the response variable and the NAO index. The relationship is stronger with pine species living at medium-high altitudes, such as Aleppo (P. halepensis), black (P. nigra), and Scots (Pinus sylvestris) pine, which show the higher defoliation intensities up to 3 years after a negative NAO phase. The results highlight, for the first time, the usefulness of using global drivers in order to understand the dynamics of pest outbreaks at a regional scale, and they open the window to the development of NAO-based predictive models as an early-warning signal of severe pest outbreaks.
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A 3-year study was conducted in a Pinus halepensis reforestation of Apulia Region (Southern Italy) injecting IJs (infective juveniles) of Steinernema feltiae , S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in aqueous and gel suspensions (Idrosorb SR 2002 [Nigem ® ], and Compex) into the nests of Thaumetopoea pityocampa caterpillar. This study showed that the gel suspensions do not percolate and that slow release of water from the gels allowed nematodes to survive and complete their life cycle in the host. Results demonstrate the feasibility of reducing overwintering larval populations by injecting gel suspension of S. feltiae . We found no negative effects on the endoparasite Phryxe caudata .
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The susceptibility of larvae ofThaumetopoea solitaria Freyer (Lepidoptera; Notodontidae, Thaumetopoeinae), fed on treated pistachio foliage, to three commercial control products derived fromBacillus thuringiensis (Bt), was evaluated in the laboratory. Both Dipel DF and Delfin WG were highly effective against 1 st and 2 nd instar larvae at relatively low concentrations (LC50: 0.01–0.04%), whereas mortality of the 3 rd instar larvae reached 50% only at a Dipel DF concentration of 0.2%. The third formulation, Foray 48B, was significantly less toxic toward all tested larval instars. The susceptibility ofT. solitaria toBr decreased progressively between molts, and then increased steeply during the first days following each molt. Use of the film-forming polymer Nu-Film as a wetting agent and spreader-sticker for the commercial formulation of Dipel DF improvedBt adhesion to extremely hydrophobic youngPistacia foliage, and significantly increasedBt persistence under ambient conditions. Addition of Nu-Film improved the leaf surface coverage and extended the duration of rainproofing.
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Th e work reported here analyzes the eff ects of temperature on host consumption and preference of eastern pine processionary caterpillar Th aumetopoea wilkinsoni (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae). Nest censuses were taken in the fi eld and food choice tests were conducted in the laboratory. Two pine species (Pinus nigra and P. brutia) were considered. Caterpillars hatched on both pine species were collected and included in experiments that were conducted under 4 diff erent temperature regimes (15, 20, 25, and 30 °C). Needles of both pine species were off ered as food. Results showed that increasing the temperature caused an increase in the feeding amount of the caterpillars and also a blurring eff ect on preference. Early instar diet was found to have eff ects on late instar diet. Sıcaklığın çam kese böceği tırtılı Th aumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams, 1924 (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae)'nin besin tercihi üzerindeki etkileri Özet: Burada özetlenen çalışmada doğu çam kese böceği Th aumetopoea wilkinsoni'nin (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) besin tüketimi ve tercihine sıcaklığın etkisi araştırılmıştır. Arazide kese sayımları ve laboratuarda besin seçme deneyleri yapılmıştır. İki çam türü (Pinus nigra ve P. brutia) ele alınmıştır. Her iki ağaç türünde de yumurtadan çıkan tırtıllar toplanmış ve dört farklı sıcaklık koşulunda (15, 20, 25, 30 °C) yürütülen deneylere dahil edilmişlerdir. Tırtıllara besin olarak her iki ağaç türünden toplanmış yapraklar verilmiştir. Sonuçlar sıcaklık arttıkça tırtılların beslenme miktarının da arttığını ve aynı zamanda besin tercihinde bir belirsizleşme olduğunu göstermiştir. Erken evrelarde alınan besin tipinin ileri evrelerdeki besin tercihini etkileyebildiği görülmüştür. Anahtar sözcükler: Th aumetopea, çam kese böceği, besin tercihi, sıcaklığın etkileri
Article
Since 1991 the urticating hairs of the oak processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea processionea L.) have caused a lot of nuisance to the population and animals in a growing number of provinces in the Netherlands from June to August. Favourable climatic and nutritional factors may contribute to the mass gradation of this caterpillar. Larvae develop their urticating hairs from the third larval stage. The poisonous hairs serve as a defence mechanism against predators such as birds and small rodents. Human contact with these hairs (setae) induces dermatitis, strong cutaneous reactions (weal and flare reaction), ocular lesions and upper respiratory tract reactions by a mechanic and toxic mechanism (lepidopterism). When animals, like dogs and horses, are in direct contact with the urticating hairs due to ingestion and inhalation, the most important complaints are labial angiooedema, ptyalism, sloughing, tongue swelling, stomatitis, conjunctivitis and respiratory distress. This article describes three cases, in wich animals are possibly exposed to the urticating hairs of the oak processionary caterpillar.
Article
This study was conducted to determine the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the larvae of Thaumetopoea solitaria in the search for an alternative control method with minimal undesirable side effects. Four larval stages were tested with various concentrations of the bacterium under controlled conditions by dipping pistachio saplings in relevant suspensions and feeding larvae on their leaves. The effect of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki was significantly higher on the 1(st) instar larvae than on the 2(nd) and the 3(rd) instar larvae, and the effect was significantly higher on the 2nd instar larvae than on the 3(rd) instar larvae. LC50 for the 4(th) instar larvae was also greater than that for all the other larval stages and its confidence limits did not overlap with those of the other stages. High larval mortality (78%-100%) was attained in the first week after the treatment especially for the first 3 larval stages with the application of the highest 3 concentrations (10(4), 10(5), and 10(6) mu g 1(-1)). The results show that B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki is a good candidate for suppressing T. solitaria populations in pistachio orchards and could be used as a biological control agent against the pest.
Article
The two monophagous species Carcelia illiaca and Pales processioneae are common parasitoids in processionary moth caterpillars, whereas the two more polyphagous species Zenillia libatrix and Bondelia nigripes are reared in smaller numbers from the caterpillars. Carcelia iliaca reproduces slowly and has only one generation each year, whereas P. processioneae has a much higher reproduction rate and two generations yearly.
Article
The major and minor insect pests attacking pistachio trees in Greece are described. Capnodis tenebrionis has been observed in roots of non irrigated trees. On branches and twigs of weakened trees the coleoptera Acrantus (=Chaetoptelius) vestitus, Esteneborus perisii and Sinoxylon sexdentatum might be found. On leaves, the leaf folders Archips rosanus and Teleiodes decorella are endemic in some regions. Taumetopoea solitaria has been reported only once feeding on leaves. Leaf feeding coleoptera, mainly Chrysomelidae, are widespread but are of minor importance. Pseudocoeliodes rubricus attacks the inflorescence of male trees only. The psyllid Agonoscena sp. may cause premature defoliation. Idiocerus stali, when in large populations, causes withering of leaves and blight of young panicles. The most serious pests of pistachios are the microlepidoptera Palumbina guerinii and the seed chalcid Eurytoma plotnikovi. Both attack fruits every year causing up to 90% infestation. The scale insects Anapulvinaria pistaciae, Saissetia oleae, Ceroplastes rusci, Melanaspis inopinata and Lepidosaphes pistaciae have been observed in small populations. Apomyelois ceratoniae has been found on split fruits remaining on the trees after harvest. This species and Ephestia sp. may infest stored nuts. For most of these pests sanitation measures are the primary means of control. Annual spray applications are necessary against P. guerinii and E. plotnikovi. Sprays against other pests are applied only in cases of heavy infestations.
Article
Although the aim of this chapter is to address all processionary moth species, the information provided is almost exclusively based on the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa. References to other species are provided whenever available. Attempt to control the pine processionary moth quickly developed in Europe since the end of the nineteenth century because of both the risks related to the urticating larvae and the defoliation threatening pine forests and plantations. Indeed, the massive afforestation campaigns replanting Austrian black pines, Pinus nigra, on deforested mountains of southern Europe had led to large moth outbreaks in this region. Later, in the middle of the twentieth century, North Africa faced similar outbreaks following the plantation of pure stands of Aleppo pines to serve as a barrier to desertification. In these young plantations, control methods generally consisted in a manual removal of the larval tents. Forest General Inspector Julien Calas mentioned such removal operations carried out during winters 1894–1896 on 1,000 ha of pine forests in the French department of the Pyrénées–Orientales during which 1,275,000 winter tents of pine processionary moth were destroyed for a budget of approximately 5,000 French Francs of that period (Calas 1897, 1900). Then, spraying of large forest surfaces with DDT was commonly used until the late 1950s in Spain and France (Grison et al. 1959), being still considered by forest managers as an efficient, easy to implement and cheap control method (Dafauce 1970). However, large concerns quickly arose about the environmental impact of this pesticide as well as about the development of insect resistance. Therefore, research turned towards the possibilities of using entomopathogenic bacteria and viruses to control T. pityocampa, and the first studies started during the same period in France.
Article
Cyprus, an island located in the eastern Mediterranean Basin, was heavily forested prior to human settlement. Human influence since about 6000 BC has significantly changed the area and composition of the island's forests. Approximately 40% of the Island is presently occupied by forest, maquis and garigue vegetation. The dominant tree species in Cyprus' forests is Pinus brutia, which has been planted extensively on abandoned agricultural lands and areas burned by wildfire. P. brutia forests are subject to periodic wildfire episodes. In addition, young plantations are subject to defoliation by the pine processionary caterpillar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Pityocampidae), and older forests are subject to attack by several species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). A policy of extensive planting of pines will, most likely, result in continued problems with wildfire, pine processionary caterpillar and bark beetles in the foreseeable future. Long-term measures to effectively manage these problems include examination of opportunities to plant alternative tree species and to manage the vegetation to increase the diversity of the Island's wildland ecosystems.
Article
Solar radiation can affect the performance of insect herbivores directly by increasing body temperature, or indirectly through alteration of either host plant quality or natural enemy activity.To test for the direct effect of solar radiation on larval performance, young Pinus sylvestris trees growing on the island of Gotland (Sweden) were assigned to one of four shading treatments for the whole duration of the first larval instar of the northern pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pinivora.There was a strong, linear relationship between shading and the temperature of the first-instar colonies of T. pinivora, resulting in higher growth of the larvae exposed to full sunlight, but there were no effects on developmental rate or larval mortality. Putative negative effects of UV radiation on the larvae are not consistent with higher growth in full sunlight, but it is possible that UV effects might have modulated the response.Thaumetopoea pinivora has a strong preference for light and open pine stands, i.e. habitats with frequent intense incoming solar radiation. The data in the present study suggest that the opportunity for young larvae to bask in the sun during cold spring weather is an important determinant of the spatial distribution of T. pinivora.
Article
The synthesis of the major component of the sex pheromone of the processionary mothThaumetopoea pityocampa is described. The synthesis uses the carbocupration of acetylene, followed by the coupling with the appropriate 1-iodoalkyne. This synthetic pheromone was shown to be of 98.8%Z purity.
Article
The pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is an important defoliating insect of native cedar stands in Northern Africa. In 2002 and 2003, we studied the size of needles of Atlas cedar trees that had been defoliated or not in the previous year, and compared the oviposition preference and larval performance of processionary moth on these two types of trees in cedar stands of central Algeria. Needle length and their number per needle cluster were twice as high on non-defoliated trees than on defoliated trees. There were about ten times fewer egg batches on defoliated than on non-defoliated trees in both study years. Young larvae raised in the laboratory on the foliage of previously defoliated trees were smaller compared to those fed on the foliage from healthy trees. Larval colonies transferred to trees in the field showed two times higher mortality on defoliated trees. It was concluded that the decline in population density in defoliated stands often observed after outbreaks results both from the fact that the female moths avoid laying their eggs on defoliated trees and the lower performance of larvae which later feed on the new-grown needles.
Article
Zusammenfassung Das erste Stadium der Darminfektion derTh. pityocampa-Raupen durch cytoplasmatische Polyeder wird in vitro studiert und der Abbau dieser Einschlusskörper in mehrere Stufen von Kokkenartigen Gebilden gezeigt.
Article
Urticating hairs of Thaumetopoea pityocampa caterpillars cause cutaneous reaction in men and animals. This contact dermatitis is known as erucism. Conjunctivitis, sometimes keratitis and even uveitis can be associated with the contact dermatitis. Asthma and anaphylactic shock require admission to intensive care unit. The urticating hairs are located on 8 abdominal ‘mirrors’. A morphological study of the urticant apparatus was undertaken using scanning electron microscope during the last three larval stages (L3, L4, and L5). The urticating hair, hollow inside, carries pointed spikes directed towards its distal end. There is no hole or pore on the hair. It is really a bulb which must be broken, for example in the skin, in order to release its urticant. An urticating gland, inside the thin cuticle of the ‘mirror’, produces hairs and urticant. Histological and immunological methods were used to study cellular differentiation of the urticating gland during larval development. Only trichogen cells form it. These cells form an irregular cluster, which seems to be multilayered, although there is only one layer of cells. This gland is present early in the 1st instar and becomes thicker during further development. Only in the 3rd instar does this gland begin to produce urticating hairs and the thin cuticle in which the hairs are implanted. It also produces urticating substance. The urticating substance, extracted from hairs, contains soluble proteins which were separated by various electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic techniques. Some of these proteins are present also in cuticle and haemolymph. One protein of 28000 daltons, formed of two subunits, is hair specific and causes a reaction in guinea-pig skin (histamine-releasing effect) identical to that produced by hair extract. It is, therefore, an urticating protein which we have named Thaumetopoein. It is present in large quantity in the gland which produces urticating hairs. So, the combination of a mechanical phenomenon (penetration of the hair) and a chemical phenomenon (hair broken in skin to release thaumetopoein which produces histamine-liberating effect) accounts for the pathological symptomatology induced by the pine processionary caterpillar. The oak processionary caterpillar (T. processionea L.) like pine processionary caterpillar, provokes a cutaneous reaction in men and animals. The urticating apparatus, the urticating gland (which produces hairs), the urticating protein: a thaumetopoein-like protein, and urticating mechanism, all are similar to those of the T. pityocampa caterpillar. Durch Prozessionsspinnerraupen (Genus Thaumetopoea) erzeugte Kontaktdermatitis (Hautreizung) Brennhaare der Raupe von Thaumetopoea pityocampa verursachen bei Menschen und Tieren eine Reaktion, die zu einer Rötung der Haut führt. Diese Hautentzündung tritt besonders als Konjunktivitis auf, die manchmal mit einer Keratitis und sogar Uveitis verbunden sein kann. Asthma oder ein anaphylaktischer Schock können hinzutreten. Die Brennhaare sind an 8 Abdominalsegmenten lokalisiert. Die morphologischen Strukturen des Brennhaarapparates wurden mit Hilfe eines Rasterelektronenmikroskopes während der letzten drei Larvalstadien untersucht. Die Brennhaare sind innen hohl und tragen zum distalen Ende gerichtete Stacheln. Die Haare besitzen weder Löcher noch Poren. Sie bestehen aus einem Bulbus, der gebrochen werden muß, was z. B. in der Haut geschehen kann, um die Brennsubstanz freizusetzen. Eine Brenndrüse, die sich in der dünnen Kutikula der Tergitplatten befindet, produziert Haare und Brennsubstanz. Zur Untersuchung der zellulären Differenzierung der Brenndrüsen während der Larvalentwicklung wurden histologische und immunologische Methoden angewendet. Es werden nur trichogene Zellen gebildet. Diese Zellen bilden einen irregulären Verband, der nach ultrastrukturellen Untersuchungen nur eine Zellschicht bildet. Die Drüse ist bereits im ersten Stadium vorhanden und schwillt während der Larvalentwicklung an. Im 3. Stadium beginnt sie, Brennhaare zu bilden. Zusammen mit der dünnen Kutikula, in der die Haare entstehen, produziert sie Brennsubstanzen. Die Brennsubstanz, die aus Haaren extrahiert wurde, enthält lösliche Proteine, die durch verschiedene elektrophoretische und immuno-elektrophoretische Techniken aufgetrennt werden konnten. Einige dieser Proteine waren auch in der Kutikula und Hämolymphe vorhanden. Ein Protein von 28000 Dalton, das aus zwei Untereinheiten besteht, ist haarspezifisch und verursacht auf Meerschweinchenhaut eine Reaktion, die auch mit Haarextrakten erzeugt werden kann (Histamin-Freisetzungseffekt). Demnach handelt es sich um ein Brennprotein, das Thaumetopoein genannt wurde. Es ist in der Drüse, die Brennhaare produziert, in großer Menge vorhanden. Die pathologischen Symptome werden somit durch die Kombination einer mechanischen (Eindringen des Haares) und einer chemischen Wirkung (Abbrechen des Haares in der Haut und Freisetzen von Thaumetopoein) induziert. T. processionea L. erzeugt bei Menschen und Tieren eine ähnliche Hautreaktion. Brennapparat, Brenndrüse, die die Haare produziert, Brennhaare, Brennprotein, ein dem Thaumetopoein ähnliches Protein, und der Brennmechanismus sind denen von T. pityocampa-Raupen sehr ähnlich.
Article
Three indigenous species of Thaumetopoea occur in Israel: T. wilkinsoni Tams [T. pityocampa (Den. & Schiff.)] feeds on pines and is a major pest of forests and ornamentals; T. solitaria (Frr.) feeds mostly on indigenous Pistacia spp.; and T. jordana (Stgr.) develops on Rhus tripartita, a thorny shrub of arid areas. Common characters are outlined, e.g. flight period in September-October, oviposition in a single cluster of ca. 150–200 eggs, relatively long incubation period, urticant hairs and gregarious habit of the larvae, long prepupation period and prolonged diapause of the pupae. Specific habits of each of the species are also emphasized: function of the common nest and up to 9-year-long prolonged diapause in T. wilkinsoni; hibernation of the embryo and short period of larval development in T. solitaria; and variation in shape of egg clusters and moulting together of various instar larvae in T. jordana. Zur Lebensweise von Thaumetopoea spp. (Lep., Thaumetopoeidae) in Israel In Israel existieren drei einheimische Thaumetopoea-Arten: T. wilkinsoni Tams (T. pityocampa Den. & Schiff.), befällt Kiefern und richtet im Forst sowie in Parkanlagen großen Schaden an; T. solitaria (Frr.) lebt vorwiegend auf einheimischen Pistacia spp.; and T. jordana entwickelt sich auf Rhus tripartita, einem Dornstrauch der ariden Zone. Charakteristisch ist für alle drei Arten, daß die Flugzeit im September-Oktober stattfindet. Die daraufhin folgende Eiablage führt zu Gelegen von ca. 150–200 Eiern, die eine relativ lange Entwicklungszeit haben. Gemeinsam ist den drei Arten weiterhin, daß die älteren Larven Brennhaare besitzen; die Larven haben ein gregäres Verhalten; die Vorpuppenphase ist relativ lang, und die Puppe macht eine lange Diapause durch. Die einzelnen Arten unterscheiden sich durch spezielle Verhaltensweisen: Bei T. wilkinsoni fertigen die Larven ein Nest an, in dem sie tagsüber leben, und die Puppendiapause kann bis zu neun Jahren verlängert sein. Bei T. solitaria überwintert der Embryo, und die Larvalzeit ist relativ kurz. Dies ist bei T. jordana zwar auch der Fall, jedoch unterscheiden sich beide in der Form der Eigelege, und bei T. jordana häuten sich verschiedene Larvenstadien zur gleichen Zeit.
Article
Studies were carried out on the egg material ofTraumatocampa ispartaensis Doganlar & Avcı (Lep.: Notodontidae) collected onCedrus libani A. Rich. A total of 95 egg-batches were sampled over two annual generations ofTr. ispartaensis. The number of eggs in each egg-batch varied between 39 and 245 and the length of the batches varied between 7 and 36 mm. The mean number of eggs per batch was found to be 119 and 122 in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Based on field data the oviposition period continued from mid August to mid September. The mean hatching rate of the host was found to be 85.8% and 88.9%, whereas the impact of egg parasitoids accounted for 11.3% and 7.4%, respectively in the 2 years.Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet) was observed as the most abundant egg parasitoid, followed byOoencyrtus sp. nearmasii (Mercet) andTrichogramma brassicae Bezdenko. Based on the emergence dynamics of the egg parasitoids in the laboratory, it seems thatO. pityocampae emerged mainly in June whereasO. sp. nearmasii andT. brassicae emerged mainly in May.
Article
Behavioral assays show that the steroid 5β-cholestan-3-one, isolated from the abdomen of the larva of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria), constitutes the chemical basis of trail following in this insect. Caterpillars follow artificial trails prepared from solvent dilutions of the compound at rates as low as 10−11 g∙mm−11 of trail, though the true threshold sensitivity is likely to be one or two orders of magnitude lower than this. Fourth-instar caterpillars store an average of 58 ng of the pheromone. Field and laboratory studies indicate that the compound is fully competitive with their authentic trails. The caterpillars are highly sensitive to differences in the concentration of the pheromone, preferring stronger trails to weaker trails. The caterpillars also respond to 5β-cholestane-3,24-dione, a chemical not found in M. disstria but known to be a component of the trail pheromone of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum.
Article
1 We investigated how modifications in winter and spring temperature conditions may affect the survival of a spring‐hatching Lepidoptera, the oak processionary moth Thaumetopoea processionea. 2 Supercooling and chilling injury experiments indicate that eggs are especially cold hardy at the start of the winter period, although this ability is reduced later in the season. In the spring, young larvae are sufficiently cold hardy to ensure no direct mortality as a result of late frosts. 3 A comparison of phenological models shows that neonate larvae may await the unfolding of new oak leaves for relatively long periods (e.g. 1–30 days). Under both low (4°C after 5 days at 16°C) and high temperature experimental scenarios (constant 16°C), the majority of neonate larvae can survive starvation for more than 2 weeks. 4 Larvae may also suffer from food depletion once their development has been initiated (e.g. during cold springs) if the threshold temperature for feeding is not reached for several consecutive days, or in the case of late frosts affecting foliage availability. When temperature is reduced to 4°C, developing larvae become inactive and do not feed anymore; their starvation survival capability is reduced to approximately 2 weeks (cold spring hypothesis). At 16°C, developing larvae that are deprived of food can only survive for 10 days (late frost hypothesis). 5 We conclude that, in the oak processionary moth, neonate larvae are relatively well adapted to early hatching relative to budburst, ensuring them the highest foliage quality for development. In some years, however, phenological asynchrony or cold spring conditions may affect the persistence of populations at the limits of the species' range.