ArticlePDF Available

Job Anxiety and Occupational Stress among Employees of IT Sector: Impact on their Attitude towards Management

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Information technology is the fastest growing sector in the country and the highest employer in the private sector. The fast-paced technological changes, the need to keep up with it and the huge workload puts enormous demands on the employees. They experience anxiety and stress at the workplace which affects, positively and negatively, their attitude towards their job and management. Hence, the study investigated the relationship between anxiety and stress experienced by the employees at the workplace and how each factor affects their attitude towards their management respectively. Since the study covered both male and female employees, hence similar nature of relationship between the variables was also examined separately for each gender For this ex-post facto research, a convenience sample of 200 respondents through stratified sampling technique was chosen in 2019 from various IT firms in Hyderabad. The age of the respondents was between 24-36 years. The data for analysis was collected through 3 scales/ index viz. 1) Job Anxiety Scale by Dr. A. K. Srivastava 2) Occupational Stress Index by A K Srivastav and A P Singh 3) Attitude Scale for Measuring Employee Attitude Towards Management Attitude Scale for Measuring Employee Attitude Towards Management by Dr. K D Kapoor and a personal information sheet. Statistical tool of Pearson was applied to analyse the data. The results of the study confirmed that occupational stress significantly and negatively predicted attitude towards management of the employees. But, on the contrary for job anxiety the relationship with employee attitude was found to be insignificant. The attitude towards management of female employees was found to be more significantly and negatively related to job anxiety and occupational stress respectively as compared to their male counterparts. This result belied the expectations. However, no interaction effect was observed between job anxiety and occupational stress while predicting attitude towards management. It is recommended that IT companies must design general and gender based intervention strategies to reduce job anxiety and occupational stress among employees.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-10, Issue-3 (June 2020)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.10.3.6
37
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Job Anxiety and Occupational Stress among Employees of IT Sector:
Impact on their Attitude towards Management
Kamal Karamchandani1 and Dr. V. K. Dubule2
1PhD Scholar, Department of Psychology, Vasantrao Naik Govt. Institute of Arts and Social Sciences, Nagpur, Maharashtra,
INDIA
2Retd. Assistant Professor and Ex- HOD, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, VNGIASS, Nagpur,
RTMNU, Nagpur, Maharashtra, INDIA
1Corresponding Author: kanak73.2000@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Information technology is the fastest growing sector
in the country and the highest employer in the private sector.
The fast-paced technological changes, the need to keep up with
it and the huge workload puts enormous demands on the
employees. They experience anxiety and stress at the
workplace which affects, positively and negatively, their
attitude towards their job and management. Hence, the study
investigated the relationship between anxiety and stress
experienced by the employees at the workplace and how each
factor affects their attitude towards their management
respectively. Since the study covered both male and female
employees, hence similar nature of relationship between the
variables was also examined separately for each gender
For this ex-post facto research, a convenience sample
of 200 respondents through stratified sampling technique was
chosen in 2019 from various IT firms in Hyderabad. The age
of the respondents was between 24-36 years. The data for
analysis was collected through 3 scales/ index viz. 1) Job
Anxiety Scale by Dr. A. K. Srivastava 2) Occupational Stress
Index by A K Srivastav and A P Singh 3) Attitude Scale for
Measuring Employee Attitude Towards Management Attitude
Scale for Measuring Employee Attitude Towards Management
by Dr. K D Kapoor and a personal information sheet.
Statistical tools of Pearson was applied to analyse the data.
The results of the study confirmed that occupational
stress significantly and negatively predicted attitude towards
management of the employees. But, on the contrary for job
anxiety the relationship with employee attitude was found to
be insignificant. The attitude towards management of female
employees was found to be more significantly and negatively
related to job anxiety and occupational stress respectively as
compared to their male counterparts. This result belied the
expectations. However, no interaction effect was observed
between job anxiety and occupational stress while predicting
attitude towards management. It is recommended that IT
companies must design general and gender based intervention
strategies to reduce job anxiety and occupational stress among
employees.
Keywords-- Job Anxiety, Occupational Stress, Attitude
towards Management
I. INTRODUCTION
Information Technology (IT) sector in India today
has innumerable achievements and milestones to its credit.
It is the biggest employer in the private sector providing
direct employment to over 40 lac and indirect livelihoods to
approximately 1 crore people. This includes both the IT
services and BPO (Business Process Outsourcing). The
country is 2nd only to USA in terms manpower employed
and in the coming years, looking at the outlook of 60 lac
people required for cybersecurity by 2022 as per
NASSCOMM (National Association of Software and
Services Companies), India will be no 1 country in terms of
manpower employed. The industry is currently the highest
employer in the private sector with four companies in the
top ten in terms of the manpower employed.
It is the single most preferred sector for
employment among the fresh engineering graduates. The
sector witnesses’ huge recruitments every year but layoffs
also. The rapid technology changes, disruption at times, the
increasing level of customization, long working hours,
serving clients in different time zones and tight deadlines
have brought in churnings within the industry. The sector
definitely has seen huge successes as today, through its
services and products, it touches all aspects of our lives.
The fast growth and expectations does not come without its
cost for the employees: anxiety and stress at the workplace.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Job Anxiety
Workplace, as in personal life, gives continuous
stimuli for anxiety which provides the daily impetus to
employees to do their work for the day. On a continuous
basis, we keep on adapting and overcoming the anxiety
with each small or big assignment maintaining our normal
behavior. But it becomes a matter of concern when the
worrying and apprehension due to work pressure is
persistent. The changes in our interaction with the people
we work with is not noticeable to us but visible to all else:
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-10, Issue-3 (June 2020)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.10.3.6
38
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
over analysis, irritation, micro management, non-
delegation, mistrust, usage of harsh words are some of the
behaviours which indicate anxiety. Besides adversely
impacting the performance of the employee, the
interpersonal relationships within the work environment
also get strained. Quite frequently, the displayed behavior
exhibits a dread and emotional tension, arising out of the
person’s imaginary involvement in his or her situational
contexts. In psychological parlance, this is known as job
anxiety (Srivastava & Sen, 1995).
The understanding of anxiety as a trait is
comparatively recent one. Each of us are affected by the
condition in our day to day work. It is not as if the construct
is detrimental to us. It has its positive impact also as it
propels us to do our work. The Yerkes-Dodson Law (1908)
states that physiological or mental arousal pushes up the
performance only up to a certain point. When the level of
stress becomes too high, performance decreases (Gino,
2016).
Figure I: Impact of Anxiety on Performance
(@HBR.ORG)
In their research, based on the British Workplace
Employment Relations Survey (WERS) data of 2004-2011,
the relationship between job anxiety, psychological illness,
and work related performance Jones, Latreille, & Sloane
(2011) have discussed the strong relationship between these
three aspects. As per the researchers, while this association
maybe causal, the employers do need to look at the costs
involved in reducing job anxiety at the workplace. There is
a threshold of anxiety to which an employee can be
subjected to without having adverse impact on the
individual or the organisation as a whole. The negative
impact of strong anxiety at the workplace may result in
various physiological and psychological problems for an
employee. While anxiety is seen to affect job performance
and productivity, there is the possibility of the reverse also
happening. The researchers conclude with further stress
upon the positive correlation of job anxiety with bigger job
role, increasing responsibilities and tenure of an employee.
The younger generation of employees today is not
only more aware but also more concerned about working
conditions and how it impacts their lifestyle. The kind of
commitment and loyalty to an organization displayed by
older workers can no longer be expected from this new crop
of employees. The world is full of immense opportunities
and options these days. The new generation including the
millennials do not tolerate for long what they find lacking
in the workplace. They are mobile and harbour no wrong
impressions of life-long commitment. Syed & Tappin
(2019) have concluded in their research on 279 IT
professionals in USA that new age workers show a
markedly low tolerance for job insecurity and consequently
for organizational commitment as compared to the older
workers On the positive side anxiety may heighten the
cognitive abilities, improve focus and attention, enhance
motivation & sharpen decision making and analytical
ability (Strack et al., 2017). On the negative side it can
adversely impact the physical and mental health of the
individual. A WHO report (2017) pegs the cost of
depression and anxiety burden on the world economy at 1
Trillion USD in form of lost productivity.
Occupational Stress
An emotion is a response to an external stimuli
impacting one’s physical state through bio chemical
reactions (Sourkes, 1962). Emotions lead to mental
experiences known as feelings. Stress is a state of mind, a
feeling, and is generally associated, in Psychology, with
one of the core emotions of fear. In our day to day life, the
word “stress” is used generally to indicate the effect of
work, mental or physical or both on an individual indicating
towards adverse impact on the body resulting in health
issues. Stress does result in the health issues as has also
been reported by the UN in its report in 1992 calling it the
“The 20th Century Disease” and subsequently by the WHO
which has termed it as a “World Wide Epidemic.”
Sabbarwal et al. (2017) in their study have defined
occupational stress as a strain which develops due to the
conflict between the employee and his/her environment.
Due to the work pattern and increasing complexity at the
job, it is not possible for an employee in the IT sector to
avoid stress. As per the study, within the job role of an
employee, there are various factors, with varying degree of
impact, which have been identified as the root cause of job
stress. This has also resulted in various other physical
ailments for the employees which could affect the work
productivity. The authors have observed that in almost all
the selected IT organizations management has come
forward with several employee engagement programmes
for tackling the issue. The authors have concluded by
observing that since job stress is a phenomenon which
cannot be completely eradicated, hence organisations must
continuously work towards ensuring that the impact is
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-10, Issue-3 (June 2020)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.10.3.6
39
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
minimized through various initiatives including mentoring,
coaching and learning programmes. One big fallout of high
stress has been found out to be job satisfaction (George &
Zakaria,2015) which impacts the attrition rate in the
industry (Purohit,2016).
Laptop/computer usage is common these days with
employees across sectors. Unlike the IT professional, they
require it off and on. For IT employees, the major source of
output is the computer/laptop on which they need to work
the maximum hours on the job. The continuous usage with
specific and limited movement of limbs leads to
complications like back pain (Sabbarwal et al., 2017). Such
problems interfere with the regular work, leading to further
build-up of stress resulting in more complications both
physical and psychological. In such a mental and physical
state, the employee may develop a certain attitude towards
his/her supervisors, seniors and overall towards the
organization (McKenzie 2015).
Attitude towards Management
A huge body of knowledge and insights have ben
amassed over the years related to attitude, still the
definitions of the concept offered by various experts reveal
an amazing diversity of understanding of what the term
denotes (Strauss, 1945).
As per Allport(1935) attitude is “a mental and
neural state of readiness, organized through experience,
exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the
individual’s response to all objects and situations with
which it is related.
Yanjuan Zhang (2016) studying employee
turnover has explored the various facets of the work viz job
satisfaction, job stress, and commitment. These are
comprised of many sub factors and get impacted by the
attitude of the employee which contribute significantly to
the decision of the employee to stay committed to the
organization or leave it as and when there is an opportunity.
Goswami (2015) underlines the impact of stress on
the thinking and working of employees in any organization.
Besides the physical impact, the mental wellbeing may also
get impacted. Stress largely increases the level of fear,
anger, and nervousness. Simultaneously it reduces the level
of satisfaction and confidence among employees which
causes behavioural and physiological consequences. There
should be adequate counselling and role alignment for the
employee to get adjusted to the demands of the work. The
author concludes that to get the best out of the employees it
imperative to take certain employees centric initiatives
which give them support, provide direction & guidance, and
empower them enough to perform their job roles
effectively.
III. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The corporate world is often described as a VUCA
ecosystem where volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and
ambiguity rule. For employees, managers, and even the top
brass operating in such an atmosphere, stress can quickly
turn to distress and lead to anxiety and depression (Nair,
2016). IT industry is no different from the others when it
comes to issues related to job stress. A survey covering
3,000 employees from sectors such as IT, manufacturing,
financial sector and startups has found that 1 out of 5
employees suffers from depression (ET, 2019).
The anxiety of the outcomes and stress of the
working schedule impacts the employee attitude towards
his/her work and shows in the work output. Keeping the
above in perspective, the present study is a humble attempt
to gauge how anxiety and stress of employees in IT industry
affects their attitude towards their management. This study
also looks at the relationship between the dependent and the
independent variables for both male and female employees
plus investigates the interaction between the two
independent variables. The study is significant as it gives
insight on the level and direction of the employees’ attitude
towards management vis-à-vis job anxiety and occupational
stress respectively. The concerned stakeholders can use the
findings to formulate new methods and develop
competencies to better handle anxiety and stress at the
workplace.
IV. HYPOTHESIS
1. There is a significant negative correlation between job
anxiety among employees and their attitude towards
management.
2. There is a significant negative correlation between
occupational stress among employees and their attitude
towards management.
3. Job anxiety among female employees impacts their
attitude towards management more than that of their male
counterparts.
4. Occupational stress will manifest a greater influence the
attitude towards management of women worker vs the male
employees.
IV. OBJECTIVES
1. To study the influence of job anxiety and occupational
stress respectively among employees on their attitude
towards management.
2. To investigate the difference in the impact of job anxiety
and occupational stress on the attitude towards management
of male and female employees.
V. METHODOLOGY
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-10, Issue-3 (June 2020)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.10.3.6
40
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Research Design: This is an Ex-post facto study
wherein the impact of the IVs is already existing
Sampling Technique: Purposive-strata sampling
technique is used.
Sample Size: Data was collected through the
above mentioned 3 scales / index and personal information
sheet for a total of 200 IT professionals from various IT
firms based at Hyderabad. Out of this 144 respondents are
male and 56 are female. All employees are in the age group
of 24-36 years and have worked in the current organization
for at least a year.
Variables: Independent variables job anxiety
and occupational stress; Dependent variable attitude
towards management
Tools Used
The Job Anxiety Scale constructed by Dr. A K
Srivastava (1979)
Occupation Stress index of Dr. A. K. Srivastav and
Dr. A P Singh (1984
Attitude Scale towards Pro and Anti Management
(1979) of Dr. K.D. Kapoor has been administered
to measure and determine the Attitude towards
Management.
Personal Information sheet by the researcher
Statistical Tests: Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation.
V. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND
RESULTS
Correlation coefficients were calculated to indicate
the correlations between the independent variables and the
dependent variable respectively for overall number of
respondents, low and high groups (each consisting 100
respondents), and separately for gender. The significance
value at a 95% confidence interval level (p 0.05) was
The breakup of the respondents for gender is as below:
Table I
Total no of Respondents
A. The Pearson Correlation coefficient for the scores of the
total sample on factors Job Anxiety and Attitude towards
Management is -.14 (df 198, p<.05) which is found to be
ve and not significant as it is equal to the rcrit (.14). Hence
hypothesis 1 is rejected.
The scatter plot (Figure 2) gives an overall view
of the relationship between the two variables. The X axis
represents the score of 200 employees for Job Anxiety
while the Y axis denotes the score on obtained through the
Attitude scale.
Figure 2: Negative correlation between JA and ATM for 200
Employees
B. Correlation coefficient between the scores of the total
sample on Occupational Stress and Attitude towards
Management is -.47. It’s found to be negatively significant
as it higher than the rcrit (.14). and proves hypothesis 2.
The scatter plot in Figure 3 gives an overall view
of the relationship between the two variables. The X axis
represents the score of 200 employees for Occupational
Stress while the Y axis denotes the score on obtained
through the Attitude scale.
Figure 3: Negative correlation between OS and ATM for
200 Employees
C. Correlation coefficient for low and high groups:
1. The respondents were segregated into 2 categories, low
and high group, based on their scores on Job Anxiety Scale
(JA). Correlation value for each group on the Attitude Scale
was calculated separately as given in Table II.
CAT
NOS
MALE
144
FEMALE
56
TOT
200
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-10, Issue-3 (June 2020)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.10.3.6
41
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Table II
Correlation vales of Employees in Low & High JA Group
2. The respondents were also segregated into 2 categories,
low and high, based on their scores on Occupational Stress
scale. Correlation value for the scores on the Attitude Scale
of each group was calculated separately as given in Table
III:
Table III
Correlation vales of Employees in Low & High OS Group
D. The respondents were segregated into gender groups on
their scores on job anxiety as shown below:
Table IV
“r” values for Male & Female Employees on Job Anxiety
& Attitude Scale
The “r” value for female employees is moderately
significant while the same for male employees is
insignificant. Hence the third hypothesis is accepted.
E. The respondents were segregated into gender groups on
their scores on occupational stress as below:
Table V
“r” values for Male & Female Employees on Occupational
Stress & Attitude Scale
The “r” value for female employees show a
stronger and more significant relationship between the
variable than for the male employees. Hence the fourth
hypothesis is accepted.
V. DISCUSSION
Pro, neutral or anti (positive or negative) attitude
shapes the engagement level, job satisfaction and
commitment for the organization (Jagdish,1987; Dasari &
Subrahmanyam,2019). For the organization this has
implications on the product quality, productivity, conducive
environment for growth and team bonding. While for the
employee, the impact is seen on job performance and
attrition rate (Kumar & Kavitha, 2018). In a worst case
scenario, dis-satisfaction and disillusionment may also lead
to dangerous and destructive behavior by the employees
(Spector, 1997).
The current study covering 200 respondents from
the IT sector has highlighted the impact of job anxiety and
occupational stress of employees on their thinking about
their management. The study has investigated the strength
and direction of the relationships between the considered
factors at the gender level also. Additionally, for each
independent variable the respondents were divided into low
and high groups of 100 respondents each to see the
difference in the correlation with the dependent variable
and try to get some more insights for better understanding.
The scatter plot in Figure II shows that job
anxiety experienced by the respondents is negatively
correlated with their attitude towards their management.
But the scatter plot also reveals that the relationship is
insignificant (r=-.14, p<.05; rcrit =.14). The inference
derived from this is that anxiety after at the workplace after
a certain level does not influence the respondents’
perception about their managers or organization. Even
though the influence is negatively correlated, it being
insignificant, any increase or decrease in job anxiety will
have a minimal impact on their attitude at the job. This
finding is not in line with studies done earlier on the impact
of job anxiety on job satisfaction or employee engagement
or productivity or attrition or commitment. But as per Jones
et al., (2011) there is a threshold of anxiety to which an
employee can be subjected to without having adverse
impact on the individual or the organisation as a whole. The
increasing level of anxiety is also an indicator of the level
of engagement of an employee (Srivastava & Sen ,1995).
There could be many reasons for result obtained in the
study, like the level of job security, role clarity, delegation,
and leadership. This could be a subject for further research.
But, as will be discussed further, there is a marked
difference in the level of interaction (correlation between
the two factors) among the two genders.
Group
No of
employees
robserved
Interpretation
LOW
97
-.24
negative & moderately
significant
HIGH
103
.06
Insignificant
TOT
200
-.14
Insignificant
Group
No of
employees
robserved
rcrit
Interpretation
LOW
94
-.57
.19
negative & significant
HIGH
106
-.24
.19
negative & moderately
significant
TOT
200
-.47
.14
negative & significant
Gender
No of
employees
robserved
rcrit
Interpretation
Male
144
-.40
.15
negative & significant
Female
56
-.62
.25
negative & strongly
significant
Gender
No of
employees
robserved
rcrit
Interpretation
Male
144
-.40
.15
negative & significant
Female
56
-.62
.25
negative & strongly
significant
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-10, Issue-3 (June 2020)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.10.3.6
42
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The scatter plot in Figure III shows that the
occupational stress experienced by the respondents is
negatively correlated with their attitude towards their
management. It also depicts that the relationship between
the variables is significant (r=-.47, p<.05; rcrit =.14).
Workplace stress does strongly influence the perception of
the employees about their management and shape their on-
job attitude. One big fallout of high stress has been found to
be job satisfaction (George & Zakaria, 2015). The
relationship being negatively correlated and significant, any
increase or decrease in occupational stress will have an
inverse impact on the attitude at job of the employees. This
finding is supported by studies done earlier on occupational
stress. Stress has been a very popular topic for research
worldwide especially in the field of sociology, management
and psychology. The factor has also been of interest as it is
something which touches upon all aspects of life be it
personal or professional (Greenglass,2002) And the one big
reason is that a better understanding of the causes and
results of occupational stress have been known to lead to
improved job satisfaction and employee health, for both
young and old ones (Essays, UK, 2018). When we take into
consideration gender, we observe a difference in how
occupational stress is handled by male and female
employees. This is discussed subsequently.
Though the sample size of women employees
taken for the study is almost 1/3 that of male employees, it
is still pertinent enough to note the difference in the
correlation values for both the genders. In case of job
anxiety, while the “r” value for men is insignificant (r=-
.04, p<.05) the same for female employees is moderately
significant (r=-.36, p<.05) as shown in Table IV. At the
beginning of the study, we had hypothesized that female
respondents would be much more affected by anxiety than
the male workers. The results support the same. The results
are in consonance with the findings of earlier researches.
Kinrys & Wygant (2005) and Warnke (2018) have also
discussed women in their respective studies, the higher
prevalence of anxiety among. The findings agree with Chen
et al. (2017) and Srinivas et al., (2015) that workplace
anxiety impacts an employee’s thinking and perception
towards his/her job. As per Malhotra & Shah (2015),
gender is a critical determinant of mental health and illness
in India. The patterns of psychological distress and
psychiatric disorder afflicting women are different from the
ones seen among men. Women have a higher mean level of
internalizing disorders while men show a higher mean level
of externalizing disorders. Predominance of women can be
observed majorly for the rates of common mental disorders.
For occupational stress, just as has been seen for
job anxiety, “r” value for female employees is much higher
(r=-.62, p<.05) than the male workers (r=-.40, p<.05) as
shown in Table IV. Though stress at the workplace is
definitely a function of the attitude towards the organization
for both the genders it is much more so for the female
employees. The results are support the findings of earlier
researches. As per Narayanan et al., (1999) interpersonal
conflict has been reported as the biggest source of stress for
women at work as compared to men. Gyllensten & Palmer
(2005) in their search to identify studies investigating
gender and workplace stress found that much of the
literature they scanned indicated women having reported
higher levels of stress as compared to men.
As an additional analysis the respondents were
divided into two groups (low and high) based on their
scores on job anxiety scale and occupational stress index.
The scores for each group was treated for correlation with
the scores on attitude scale. As given in Table II, there is a
moderately significant negative correlation for low job
anxiety group (r=-.24, p<.05; rcrit =.19) while the same for
high anxiety group is insignificant (r=.06, p<.05; rcrit =.19).
The findings are in line with the studies mentioned in the
paper. A threshold level of anxiety is necessary to see us
through in our day to day work. For the low anxiety group,
as the anxiety increases the employees outlook towards
management becomes more negative. The anxiety in
respondents in the high group seem to have reached a
certain level where any further escalation of anxiety in their
job will have no impact on their attitude towards
management.
Table III shows the “r” values of the low and high
group of occupational stress. The group with low stress has
shown a significant but negative correlation (r=-.56, p<.05;
rcrit=.19). Employees in this group show a strong response
to changes in stress levels at the workplace. The attitude
towards management becomes positive or negative
accordingly. This finding is in line with the various earlier
studies (WHO, 2019; Michie,2002; Narban et al. ,2016).
The stress experienced by the respondents in the high group
is having a moderately negative relationship with their
attitude at the workplace (r=-.24, p<.05; rcrit=.19). But the
strength of the correlation is far lower as compared to the
low stress group. The employees in the high group are less
affected by changes in the stress levels at the workplace as
compared to the respondents in the low group.
V. CONCLUSION
The current study has attempted to look at how job
anxiety and occupational stress influence the employee
attitude towards their management in IT sector. Increasing
demand and intervention of information technology across
industries has led to high growth in the sector and has
consequently put enormous pressure on the employees to
deliver against tight schedules. Consistent stress and
anxiety arising from various factors of the job dimensions
tends to have a negative influence on the employees’
attitude and their favourable disposition towards the
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-10, Issue-3 (June 2020)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.10.3.6
43
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
management (Jagdish, 1987). This has been noted in many
other studies done on job satisfaction and employee
engagement (Andrew, 2017; Hewitt Associates, 2010;
Reisel et. al, 2010; Coetzee, 2005).
The attitude of the respondents is not getting
influenced by job anxiety in the current research as there is
insignificant correlation between the two factors. This could
also mean that the level of anxiety among the respondents is
already too high for any further increase to impact their
attitude. This may need to be probed further which is
beyond the scope of the current study. On the other hand,
occupational stress is seen to be significantly correlated
with the respondents’ attitude towards their job.
Female workers more than the male employees
have been found to be affected by anxiety and stress at the
workplace. IT sector of late has been attracting a lot of
women to its workforce (Bharathi & Gupta, 2017), hence
organisations need to identify the factors and issues at the
workplace which specifically impact the female employees.
These could be, among others, work timings, gender
discrimination, role clarity, responsibility, work-life
balance, and interpersonal issues. They could also look at
various gender specific measures and interventions to
bolster the confidence and trust of the female workers.
Though not a part of the main study, the influence
of anxiety and stress on respondents’ in the low and high
group for both the factors was also calculated. The results
for the factors support the already discussed findings that
employees having low job anxiety or occupational stress
show a more positive attitude than those in the high group.
The attitude of an employee is indicative of his/her
degree of engagement which is the state of emotional and
intellectual commitment to the organization (Hewitt
Associates, 2010). Every year thousands of young
engineers join the growing IT workforce in the country.
There is an ever growing demand for IT services across the
globe, and India is in the forefront today as a major supplier
of manpower and content. Information technology firms
need to not only retain talent but nurture them so that
quality output is ensured. Employees need to be generally
in a positive frame of mind to continuously remain engaged
and be productive. Anxiety and stress at work cannot be
wished away and are a permanent feature of an employee’s
daily work. Both the organization as well the workers need
to deal with it effectively. Anxiety and stress may lead to
fatigue and burnout and could also increase the possibility
of attrition (Arnold, 2016; Gupta 2013). Suitable
interventions must be designed and implemented by
organisations to continuously mitigate the negative
influence of anxiety and stress at the workplace.
REFERENCES
[1] Abel, M. H. (2002). Humor, stress, and coping strategies.
Humor. International Journal of Humor Research, 15(4), 365-
381. DOI: 10.1515/humr.15.4.365.
[2] Allport, G. (1935). Attitudes. In Handbook of social
psychology, pp. 789844. Worcestor: ed. C. Murchison.
Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
[3] Andrew, A. (2017). Influence of employee attitude on
employee readiness for organizational hange. Asian Journal of
Economics, Business and Accounting, 5(1), 1-11. DOI:
10.9734/AJEBA/2017/3712
[4] Arnold, L. R. (2016). Strategies for reducing high turnover
among information technology professionals. Walden
Dissertations and Doctoral Studies Collection. Minneapolis,
Minnesota, USA: Walden University.
[5] Bharathi, T. & Gupta, K. (2017). A study on job stress and
its influence on the productivity among women employees in it
sector. Sagar International Journal of Management and
Research, II(2), 221-231.
[6] Bharathi, T. & Gupta, K. S. (2017). Job stress and
productivity: A conceptual framework. International Journal
of Emerging Research in Management & Technology, 6(8),
393-399.
[7] Chen, Y., Li, S., Xia, Q., & He, C. (2017 Oct). The
relationship between job demands and employees' work
behaviours: The mediating effect of psychological detachment
and job anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 1-15. DOI:
10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01890
[8] Chowhan, S., Jha, S., & Malviya, V. (2011). Anxiety in
working women in Delhi: A survey. International Research
Journal for Management and Computer Science, 2(1).
[9] Coetzee, M. (2005). Employee commitment. Available at:
https://repository.up.ac.za:https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/
handle/2263/23942/05chapter5.pdf?sequence=6&isAllowed=y
.
[10] Dasari, K. & Subrahmanyam, D. (2019). Impact of job
satisfaction on employee job performance in information
technology industry A select study in Bangalore. Asian
Journal of Management, 49-52. DOI: 10.5958/2321-
5763.2019.00009.X.
[11] Essays, UK. (2018 Nov). Occupational stress and coping:
Age and gender differences. Available at:
https://www.ukessays.com/essays/psychology/occupational-
stress-and-coping-age-and-gender-differences-psychology-
essay.php?vref=1.
[12] ET. (2019 Jan). Workplace depression taking a toll on
India Inc employees. Available at:
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/jobs/workplace-
depression-taking-a-toll-on-india-inc-
employees/articleshow/67633549.cms?from=mdr.
[13] George, E. & Zakaria, K. A. (2015). Job related stress and
job satisfaction: A comparative study among bank employees.
Journal of Management Development, 316-329.
[14] Gino, F. (2016 April 14). Are you too stressed to be
productive? Or not stressed enough?. Available at:
https://hbr.org/2016/04/are-you-too-stressed-to-be-productive-
or-not-stressed-enough.
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-10, Issue-3 (June 2020)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.10.3.6
44
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
[15] Goswami, T. G. (2015). Job stress and its effect on
employee performance in banking sector. Indian Journal of
Commerce & Management Studies, VI(2), 51-56.
[16] Greenglass, E. (2002). Work stress, coping and social
support: Implications for women’s occupational well-being.
APA, 85-96.
[17] Gupta, V. (2013, Dec). An analysis of attrition: Retention
strategy for IT/BPO. International Journal of Advance
Research in Computer Science and Management Studies, 1(7),
434-442.
[18] Gyllensten, K. & Palmer, S. (2005). The role of gender in
workplace stress: A critical literature review. Health Education
Journal, 64(3), 271288. Available at:
https://doi.org/10.1177/001789690506400307.
[19] Hewitt Associates. (2010). Best employers in Canada and
best small & medium employers in Canada. Vancouver:
Canadian Business for Social Responsibility.
[20] Jagdish. (1987). Perceived occupational stress and
employee's attitude towards job and management. Indian
Journal of Industrial Relations, 8092. Available at:
https://www.jstor.org/stable/27766974.
[21] Jones, M. K., Latreille, P., & Sloane, P. J. (2011). Job
anxiety, work-related psychological illness and workplace
performance. BONN: IZA DP No 5809.
[22] Kinrys, G. & Wygant, L. E. (2005). Anxiety disorders in
women: does gender matter to treatment?. Brazilian Journal of
Psychiatry. Available at:
https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S151
6-44462005000600003.
[23] Kumar, T., & Kavitha, M. (2018). Employee retention- a
real time challenges in Indian IT sector - Review paper. Asian
Journal of Multidimensional Research, 83-95.
[24] Malhotra, S. & Shah, R. (2015). Women and mental
health in India: An overview. Indian Journal of Psychiatry,
57(Suppl 2), S205S211. Available at:
https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.161479
[25] McKenzie, D. M. (2015). The role of mediation in
resolving workplace relationship conflict. International
Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 52-59.
[26] Michie, S. (2002). Causes and management of stress at
work. BMJ Journals-Occupational and Environmental
Medicine, 67-72.
[27] Nair, D. (2016, Sept 24). Yourstory. Available at:
https://yourstory.com/2016/09/depression-corporate-india.
[28] Narayanan, L., Shanker. M., & Spector, P. E. (1999). A
comparison of gender and occupations. Journal of
Organisational Behaviour, 20(1), 63-73.
[29] Narban, J. S., Narban, B. P., & Singh, J. (2016). A
conceptual study on occupational stress (Job stress/work
stress) and its Impacts. IJARIIE, 2(1), 48-56.
[30] Purohit, M. (2016). A study on employee turnover in IT
sector with special emphasis on Wipro and Infosys. IOSR
Journal of Business and Management, 18(4), 47-51.
[31] Reisel, W. D., Probst, T. M., Chia, S.-L., M, C., Maloles,
III, & König, A. C. (2010). The effects of job insecurity on job
satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, deviant
behavior, and negative emotions of employees. International
Studies of Management & Organization, 40(1), 74-91.
[32] Sabbarwal, S., Singh, M. M., & Amiri, M. (2017).
Occupational stress on employees in information technology
organizations. Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities,
103-110.
[33] Sourkes, T. L. (1962). Biochemical changes in the
expression of emotion. Canadian Psychiatric Association
Journal, 7, S29-S34. Available at:
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0706743762007
01S05.
[34] Spector, P. E. (1987). Interactive effects of perceived
control and job stressors on affective reactions and health
outcomes for clerical workers. Work and Stress, 1(2), 155
162.
[35] Srinivas, P. S., Kumari, S., Akhilesh, K. B., & Nagendra,
H. R. (2015). Is job anxiety and perceived stress modifiable in
Indian IT professionals?. Journal of Health Research and
Reviews, 81-85.
[36] Srivastava, S., & Sen, A. K. (1995). Role stress, job
anxiety, job involvement, and job satisfaction among three
groups of organizational employees: A factor analytic study.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics,
1(3), 252-261.
[37] Strack, J., Lopes, P., Esteves, F. & Fernandez-Berrocal, P.
(2017). Why we suffer to succeed? When anxiety boosts
motivation and performance. Journal of Individual
Differences, 38, 113-124.
[38] Strauss, A. (1945). The concept of attitude in social
psychology. Journal of Psychology, 19, 329-339.
[39] Syed, J., & Tappin, R. M. (2019). IT professionals’
personality, personal characteristics, and commitment:
Evidence from a national survey. Computer and Information
Science, 58-71.
[40] Tredoux, C. & Durrheim, K. (2009). Numbers, hypotheses
and conclusions: A course in statistics for the social sciences.
Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.
[41] Warnke, M. B. (2018, May 17). WTF is going on these
days with millennial women and work anxiety? Available at:
https://www.girlboss.com/work/millennial-women-work-
anxiety.
[42] WHO. (2019, May 28). Burn-out an occupational
phenomenon: International Classification of Diseases.
Available at:
https://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/burn-out/en/
[43] Zhang, Y. (2016). A review of employee turnover
influence factor and countermeasure. Journal of Human
Resource and Sustainability Studies, 4, 85-89.
[44] https://yourstory.com/2016/09/depression-corporate-india.
[45] https://www.stress.org/workplace-stress.
... Therefore, employees will be more motivated to improve work productivity. Karamchandani, Kamal and Dubule, (2020) concluded that occupational stress signi icantly and negatively predicted attitude towards management of the employees. The attitude of women employees towards management was more signi icantly and negatively related to occupational stress respectively as compared to their male counterparts. ...
... The indings are consistent with the past research. Karamchandani, Kamal and Dubule, (2020) concluded that occupational stress signi icantly and negatively predicted attitude towards management of the employees. The attitude of women employees towards management was more signi icantly and negatively related to occupational stress respectively as compared to their male counterparts. ...
Article
This study was conducted to examine the marital status, role of gender and organizational ownership in occupational stress in the employees of different manufacturing industries. Occupational Role Questionnaire was used to collect the information from the participants. Sample was comprised of one twenty participants from POF Wah Cantt, Taxila and different industries of Haripur Hattar. Data was collected through purposive sampling technique and hypotheses were analyzed by using t test and Regression. Hypotheses of this study were supported. The findings shows that female employees significantly scored high as compared to their male counterparts. On occupational stress scores of married workers were signiϐicantly high as compared to unmarried workers. On occupational stress scores of private sector workers significantly high as compared to public sector workers. Marital status was the most prominent, gender was the secondary important, and organizational ownership was the third important predictor of occupational stress among the employees in the industrial units. The understanding of marital status, role of gender and organizational ownership in occupational stress in industries made this study valuable. Stress management programs in the workplace can be conducted for helping female employees to cope with occupational stress. Private organizations also needed to increase incentives so that they can get rid from occupational stress.
... Therefore, employees will be more motivated to improve work productivity. Karamchandani, Kamal and Dubule, (2020) concluded that occupational stress signi icantly and negatively predicted attitude towards management of the employees. The attitude of women employees towards management was more signi icantly and negatively related to occupational stress respectively as compared to their male counterparts. ...
... The indings are consistent with the past research. Karamchandani, Kamal and Dubule, (2020) concluded that occupational stress signi icantly and negatively predicted attitude towards management of the employees. The attitude of women employees towards management was more signi icantly and negatively related to occupational stress respectively as compared to their male counterparts. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to examine the marital status, role of gender and organizational ownership in occupational stress in the employees of different manufacturing industries. Occupational Role Questionnaire was used to collect the information from the participants. Sample was comprised of one twenty participants from POF Wah Cantt, Taxila and different industries of Haripur Hattar. Data was collected through purposive sampling technique and hypotheses were analyzed by using t test and Regression. Hypotheses of this study were supported. The findings shows that female employees significantly scored high as compared to their male counterparts. On occupational stress scores of married workers were significantly high as compared to unmarried workers. On occupational stress scores of private sector workers significantly high as compared to public sector workers. Marital status was the most prominent, gender was the secondary important, and organizational ownership was the third important predictor of occupational stress among the employees in the industrial units. The understanding of marital status, role of gender and organizational ownership in occupational stress in industries made this study valuable. Stress management programs in the workplace can be conducted for helping female employees to cope with occupational stress. Private organizations also needed to increase incentives so that they can get rid from occupational stress.
Article
Full-text available
Employee retention is most serious issue facing Indian IT sector due to shortage of skilled labour, economic growth and employee turnover. It is not only important to have the best and the most talented employees but it is equally necessary to be able to retain them for long period of time. There are many factors which affects the retention of employee. Today global explosion in business creates more opportunities and people are highly mobile not restricting to particular job. Human resources are the life-blood of any organization. Even though most of the organizations are now a days, found to be technology driven, yet human resources are required to run the technology. They are the most vital and dynamic resources of any organization. The recommendations mentioned include the need for norms on working hours, role models at the workplace, flexi work hours and arrangements, effective talent acquisition and training practices. Employee career advance aspects or promotion opportunities have significant relation with employee retention. The review of literature suggests that good retention is about more than what a company does once an employee has been hired and established within an organization. KEYWORDS: Employee retention, IT Industry, Retention Strategies, Retention Factors.
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on personality traits theory (Costa & McCrae, 1985) and organizational commitment theory (Mowday, Steers & Porter, 1979), the purpose of the present study was to investigate, through four separate hierarchical regression procedures, the effect of a set of independent variables (neuroticism, gender, and generational age) on four separate dependent variables (DV): overall organizational commitment (OC), affective commitment (AC), continuance commitment (CC), and normative commitment (NC). The sample consisted of responses from 279 IT professionals in the United States, drawn from a national sample from the merged cross-sectional GSS 1972-2014 Cross-Sectional Cumulative Data, Release 5, March 24, 2016. Results of multiple regressions analyses revealed that, among IT professionals, neuroticism did not predict overall OC, AC, CC, or NC. Generational age predicted OC, AC, and CC with statistical significance. Gender predicted CC; none of the independent variables (IVs) predicted NC. Directions for future research are offered.
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to explore the relation between job demands and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). A cross-sectional sample of 439 coal miners completed a self-report questionnaire that assessed their job demands, psychological detachment, job anxiety, and CWBs in a Chinese context. The conceptual model, based on the stressor-detachment model, was examined using structural equation modeling. The results suggest that psychological detachment mediates not only the relation between job demands and job anxiety but also that between job demands and CWBs. Furthermore, the relation between job demands and CWBs is sequentially mediated by psychological detachment and job anxiety. Our findings validate the effectiveness of the stressor-detachment model. Moreover, we demonstrate that the underlying mechanism of the relation between job demands and CWBs can be explained by psychological detachment and job anxiety.
Article
Full-text available
Now a days, the occupational stress is becoming an issue of concern for all types of organizations. Information Technology based organizations are not an exception in this regard. In Pune which is an IT hub, Information Technology (IT) sector is among the top ten workplaces in India where stress levels due to work are very high. Though, there is an adoption of modern technology and innovation in IT sector, employees have overload of work and are stressed out. Employees of IT sector are not able to cope with the new rapid changes in this sector which results in stress. Through this study, an attempt has been made to identify the causes of stress among the IT employees. This study highlights the impact of stress on the physical and psychological conditions of IT employees. Through this study an attempt has also been made to focus on the stress reducing programs (stress management) implemented by selected IT organizations. The result of the study shows that there are several causes of stress in spite of the efforts made to reduce occupational stress among the IT employees. This study indicates that, majority of employees faced physical as well as psychological stress due to heavy work load.
Article
Full-text available
Why do some people work best under pressure? In two studies, we examined whether and how people use anxiety to motivate themselves. As predicted, clarity of feelings moderated the relationship between trait anxiety and the tendency to use this emotion as a source of motivation (i.e., anxiety motivation). Furthermore, anxiety motivation mediated the relationship between trait anxiety and outcomes - including academic achievement (Study 1) as well as persistence and job satisfaction (Study 2). These findings suggest that individuals who are clear about their feelings are more likely to thrive on anxiety and eustress and possibly use these to achieve their goals and find satisfaction at work.
Article
The Indian IT industry has seen an increase of 1.3 million women employees in 2016. The study is about job Stress and employee productivity. From the various review of literature we have identified the factors affecting Job Stress and Productivity. The literature is collected from the year 1974 to 2016 on various areas like the definition of the concepts to various factors influencing the Job Stress and productivity. The various sectors covered on which job stress and productivity factors are studied include construction, banking sector, education institution, financial institution, IT, Call center, and Private hospital. The variables/indicators that can be identified in the existing literature to study job stress are workload, role ambiguity, gender discrimination, interpersonal relationship. The variables/indicators for measuring employee productivity are identified as work schedule/timings, competence of supervisor, compensation, systems and procedures, group dynamics, absenteeism and presenteeism. The paper also throws light on meaning of various indicators mentioned above. In addition, the conceptual framework models the relationship between job stress and productivity.