Anthropogenic activity in Antarctica has increased due to the various scientific expeditions and tourism. Lake water sampling was carried out during the 34th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) in the austral summer of 2014–2015. A total of 60 samples were collected from Grovnes & Broknes peninsula, Larsemann Hill, East Antarctica. The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), chloride (Cl−), total hardness (TH), nitrate (NO3−), nitrite (NO2−), phosphorus (P), sulphate (SO4−−), cyanide (CN−), chlorine (Cl), sulphide (S−−), and heavy metals like Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr in the collected samples. We also analysed indices like the potential ecological risk factor (Er) and potential ecological risk index (RI). We found pH (6.33–7.10), TDS (26.33–1128.0 mg/l), EC (0.06–2.25 μS/cm), Cl− (5.09–117.07 mg/l), TH (10.18–122.16 mg/l), NO3− (0.02–0.61 mg/l), NO2− (0.02–1.32 mg/l), P (0.29–3.27 mg/l), SO4−− (1.08–10.15 mg/l), CN− (0.01–0.26 mg/l), Cl (0.06–2.17 mg/l), S−− (0.01–0.84 mg/l), Al (0.01–0.79 µg/l), Fe (0.01–3.27 µg/l), Mn (0.14–12.83 µg/l), Zn (0.07–2.44 µg/l), Cu (0.01–5.37 µg/l), Ni (0.02–0.60 µg/l), and Cr (0.01–0.82 µg/l) in different ranges. We conclude that most of the parameters were found within the limits set by IS:10500 except some parameters like TDS was found higher in L6 NG, L7A NG, L7B NG, L1 SG, & L4 SG; Cl was found higher in L1E NG, P2 B, P3 B, P4 B, & Reid B; CN− was found higher in P2 B, & P4 B; S— was found higher in P2 B, P3 B, P4 B, & Reid B. In the future, the presence of new emerging pollutants like microplastics, and phthalate must be analysed in order to comprehensively assess the scale of environmental pollution in Antarctica.