Article

Nebenbei, mobil und ohne Ziel? Eine Mehrmethodenstudie zu Nachrichtennutzung und -verständnis von jungen Erwachsenen

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Abstract

Prozesse der Nachrichten- und Informationsnutzung haben sich in den letzten Jahren gewandelt - insbesondere bei jungen Erwachsenen. So suggerieren die Dominanz des Smartphones sowie die Popularität sozialer Medien in dieser Altersgruppe, dass die Nutzung von Nachrichten zunehmend durch den situativen und sozialen Kontext geprägt sowie abhängig(er) von „zufälligen“ Kontakten mit einzelnen Beiträgen wird. Derzeit fehlt es jedoch an Erkenntnissen dazu, ob und inwiefern sich Zusammenhänge zwischen den Charakteristika der Nachrichtenerfahrung in gegenwärtigen Informationsumgebungen und dem Stellenwert von Nachrichten im Alltag von Nutzer*innen zeigen. Insbesondere ist unklar, ob und inwiefern (neue) Nutzungspraktiken auch das grundlegende Verständnis von Nachrichten herausfordern. Die Studie untersucht daher, wie junge Erwachsene heute „Nachrichten“ definieren und welche Nutzungspraktiken und -gewohnheiten ihren Umgang mit tagesaktuellen Informationen kennzeichnen. Methodisch wird auf eine Kombination aus einer via WhatsApp realisierten Tagebuchstudie sowie qualitativen Interviews mit insgesamt 47 Studierenden im Alter von 18 bis 24 Jahren gesetzt. Die Ergebnisse verweisen auf den geringen Stellenwert, den Nachrichten im Alltag selbst hochgebildeter junger Menschen einnehmen. Sie zeigen zudem die Schwierigkeit, „Nachrichten(-nutzung)“ zu definieren, sowie die Divergenzen zwischen normativ geprägten Ansprüchen an „gute“ Nachrichten und eigenen Nutzungserfahrungen.

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... This finding corresponds to the findings of Antonis Kalogeropoulos (2019) and Anna Sophie Kümpel (2020), who showed that even younger audiences think about news as being tied to reading text published by established media institutions. In addition, interviewees consistently demonstrated a high awareness of the quality of news outlets. ...
... Alice (25) These statements reveal how many Swiss youth acknowledge that, on the one hand, they should aspire to be informed citizens, and, on the other hand, their own preferences and usage patterns do not make them informed citizens in the traditional sense (see also Kümpel, 2020). They also reveal how routinised news consumption may be a significant factor in individuals' news consumption, and how these routines have eroded over time. ...
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... Die auf den Digitalplattformen rezipierten Nachrichten konzentrieren sich dabei stark auf die individuellen Interessen der Nutzerinnen und Nutzer (Geers, 2020). Die Nutzung von Social Media über das Smartphone ist bei der jungen Zielgruppe be sonders populär, dabei nehmen Nachrichten allerdings einen geringen Stellenwert ein (Kümpel, 2020). ...
Chapter
Besonders bei den jungen Schweizerinnen und Schweizern ist der Social-Media-Konsum stark ausgeprägt, während klassische Medien immer seltener genutzt werden. Social Media dienen dabei vor allem der Unterhaltung und dem persönlichen Austausch, das dort aufzufindende journalistische Angebot ist dabei nicht in diesem Masse ausgeprägt. Die Gefahr einer «News-Deprivation», also einer Unterversorgung an Nachrichten, ist bei der jungen Zielgruppe daher besonders hoch. Im Rahmen dieser Studie gehen wir der Frage nach, wie die Medien- und Nachrichtennutzung von 20- bis 25-jährigen Schweizerinnen und Schweizern beschrieben werden kann. Mittels einer qualitativen Onlinestudie wurden 19 Personen dieser Zielgruppe untersucht. Durch den Einsatz unterschiedlicher Methoden konnten Ergebnisse gewonnen werden, die einen vertieften Einblick in die medialen Lebenswelten junger Schweizerinnen und Schweizer erlauben. Die starke Nutzung digitaler Plattformen spiegelt sich in der grossen Bedeutung des Smartphones als alltäglicher Begleiter wider. Die Nachrichtennutzung läuft so häufig «nebenbei» oder zufällig ab. Von hoher Relevanz sind zudem die persönlichen Kontakte, mit denen Informationen ausgetauscht und diskutiert werden, online wie auch offline. Am glaubwürdigsten für die Jungen gelten noch immer klassische Medien. Hier ist die Erwartung hoch, dass journalistische Standards eingehalten werden. Die junge Zielgruppe zeigt zudem eine hohe Affinität gegenüber mobilisierenden Themen, die die junge Generation betreffen. Die persönliche Betroffenheit und das individuelle Interesse motivieren die Jungen, sich stärker mit Nachrichten auseinanderzusetzen. Das Interesse an Nachrichten kann in diesem Fall sogar sehr stark ausgeprägt sein. Vom professionellen Journalismus wünscht sich die Zielgruppe, dass stärker auf ihre Bedürfnisse eingegangen wird. Nachrichten sollen ansprechend (z.B. audiovisuell) aufbereitet, leicht verständlich und gut in den Alltag integrierbar sein. Ein Mehrwert journalistischer Angebote ergibt sich für die Jungen laut Selbstauskunft vor allem dann, wenn Beiträge unterschiedlicher Medienmarken auf einer einzigen Plattform konsumiert werden können.
... Die auf den Digitalplattformen rezipierten Nachrichten konzentrieren sich dabei stark auf die individuellen Interessen der Nutzerinnen und Nutzer (Geers, 2020). Die Nutzung von Social Media über das Smartphone ist bei der jungen Zielgruppe be sonders populär, dabei nehmen Nachrichten allerdings einen geringen Stellenwert ein (Kümpel, 2020). ...
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... Vor allem bei der jungen Zielgruppe steigt der Social-Media-Konsum zu Nachrichtenzwecken von Jahr zu Jahr, während die Nutzung traditioneller Nachrichtenangebote abnimmt (Schneider & Eisenegger, 2019). Insbesondere der Anteil an «News-Deprivierten» steigt unter den Schweizer_innen järhlich (Schneider & Eisenegger, 2020), auch im internationalen Vergleich (Niederlande, Deutschland) zeigen sich analoge Tendenzen (Geers, 2020;Kümpel, 2020 (Schwaiger, 2020). ...
... Vor allem bei der jungen Zielgruppe steigt der Social-Media-Konsum zu Nachrichtenzwecken von Jahr zu Jahr, während die Nutzung traditioneller Nachrichtenangebote abnimmt (Schneider & Eisenegger, 2019). Insbesondere der Anteil an «News-Deprivierten» steigt unter den Schweizer_innen järhlich (Schneider & Eisenegger, 2020), auch im internationalen Vergleich (Niederlande, Deutschland) zeigen sich analoge Tendenzen (Geers, 2020;Kümpel, 2020 (Schwaiger, 2020). ...
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Advancing theory in media exposure and effects requires contending with an increasing level of complexity and contingency. Building on established theoretical concerns and the research possibilities enabled by large social datasets, we propose a framework for mapping information exposure of digitally situated individuals. We argue that from the perspective of an individual's personal communication network, comparable processes of "curation" are undertaken by a variety of actors-not only conventional newsmakers but also individual media users, social contacts, advertisers, and computer algorithms. Detecting the competition, intersection, and overlap of these flows is crucial to understanding media exposure and effects today. Our approach reframes research questions in debates such as polarization, selective and incidental exposure, participation, and conceptual orientations for computational approaches. © 2015 International Communication Association November 2015 10.1111/comt.12087 Original Article Original Articles
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Social network sites such as Facebook and Twitter have become a key part of online users’ news diets. On social network sites, even individuals who are not motivated to seek out news are believed to be exposed to news posts due to the sharing activities of friends or inadvertently witnessing discussions about current events. Research on this incidental news exposure (INE) has largely focused on its potential for positive effects on information gain or political participation, while simultaneously turning a blind eye to the inequalities in news exposure and engagement. This article aims to address this issue by proposing and explicating the existence of a ‘Matthew Effect’ in social media news use. It is argued that INE research needs to consider the unequal chances to both be exposed to news on social network sites and to actually engage (i.e. read and interact) with ‘accidentally’ encountered news content.
Article
Recent studies directing attention to how people perceive and define politics have provided valuable contributions to our knowledge of what people do and do not think of as politics. Taken together, the results suggest that individuals’ conceptualisations of politics tend to vary. Considerably less is known, however, about how conceptualisations are related to behaviour. This study aims to fill that gap, by testing the hypothesis that those with a wider conception of what constitutes politics are also more likely to participate in political activities. Drawing on data from a survey administered to students at a Swedish University, the key result shows a clear and positive correlation between conceptualisations of politics and political participation, suggesting that the more issues that people perceive as politics, the more likely it is that they are involved in varieties of political participation. Furthermore, the relationship was still present during analyses including other well-known predictors of participation. This indicates that conceptualisations of politics seem to capture variation in individual political participation better than traditional predictors such as political interest, internal political efficacy, and political awareness. It further suggests that perceptions of politics constitute a distinct political orientation, above and beyond these well-known important factors for understanding political participation. Overall, these results are a first indication that future studies of political participation should not neglect. We therefore suggest that the field of political participation should incorporate indicators of both conceptualisations of politics and political participation.
Article
This review delineates core components of the social media ecosystem, specifying how online platforms complicate established social psychological effects. We assess four pairs of social media elements and effects: profiles and self-presentation; networks and social mobilization; streams and social comparison; and messages and social connectedness. In the process, we describe features and affordances that comprise each element, underscoring the complexity of social media contexts as they shift to a central topic within psychology. Reflecting on this transitional state, we discuss how researchers will struggle to replicate the effects of dynamic social environments. Consequently, we outline the obstacles in isolating effects that reoccur across platforms, as well as the challenges—and opportunities—that come with measuring contexts across periods. By centering on the elements that define the online ecosystem, psychological research can establish a more durable foundation for replicating the effects of social media and chronicling the evolution of social interaction. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Article
A number of mobile news apps deploy push notifications that appear on users’ locked screens and alert users to breaking news. Push notifications are theoretically important because they transcend the traditional divide between purposeful and incidental news exposure. We analyze whether push notifications affect people’s reported use of a news app and what people learn about the news. In this paper, we report on the results of a 2 (install the CNN or BuzzFeed News app) × 2 (allow notifications, do not allow notifications) experiment. Approximately two weeks after installing the app, study participants were asked to answer questions about their news use and the topics covered by the mobile notifications. Results revealed that notifications increased self-reported use of the app. There also was evidence of learning from the notifications in some instances, but not all. The research provides empirical evidence of the effects of push notifications, adding to a growing literature on mobile news effects.
Article
Research indicates that using social network sites as a source for news increases perceived knowledge even if, objectively, people fail to acquire knowledge. This might result from the frequent repetition of topics in news posts caused by multiple news outlets posting about the same news topics and the algorithm that favors similar postings. These repeated encounters can have a positive effect on the perception of knowing more, even if actual learning hardly occurs. An experiment (N = 810, representative of German Internet users) tested these assumptions. Participants were assigned to one of four groups and received a news feed with no information, few news posts, many news posts, or a full-length news article. Results indicate that many news posts increased perceived knowledge that is not paralleled by a gain in factual knowledge. Perceived knowledge mediates effects of reading many news posts on more extreme attitudes and the willingness for discussions. Even if participants who read the news article gained factual knowledge, they did not feel more knowledgeable than participants who were exposed to a news feed containing news posts. The results emphasize the meaning of engaging with full news articles, both for learning facts and for more accurate knowledge assessments.
Article
Scholarly work argues that mobile technology facilitates serendipitous news consumption. This article examines how users understand serendipity in mobile news consumption and whether this leads to news diversity. Technology-mediated news encounters are argued to reduce news diversity, yet these theoretical filter bubbles cannot be found empirically. This paper investigates whether this might be explained by incidental news use. A mixed methods study (n = 20) was set-up, which involved interviews, on-device loggings and experience sampling data. Results show that incidental news differs in the level of user agency, ranging from responding to an unsolicited recommendation or alert; via monitoring, facilitated by a previous action (e.g. activated news notifications); to browsing or stumbling upon unexpected topics during news use. Incidental encounters become serendipitous when they provide new information or insights and consequently stick in one’s mind. Based on our findings, we further develop a conceptual model for (mobile) incidental news, which shows the interplay of news recommendations by peers, algorithms, and editors. Editorial recommendations result in topic diversity. Both peer and algorithmic recommendations lead to brand diversity, yet this remains unnoticed to audiences. Peer recommendations mostly do not lead to topic or viewpoint diversity, but are perceived as valuable when they do.
Article
With social media platforms becoming primary news sources, concerns about credibility judgments and knowledge grow. This study ( N = 233) experimentally tests the effects of multiple source cues on Facebook news posts on credibility and knowledge. Judgments of story credibility were directly influenced by media source cues, but not friend source cues. Involvement in the source topic moderated the effects of these source cues, such that particular combinations influenced credibility differently, and also influenced cognitive elaboration about the topic. Theoretical implications for cognitive mediation model of learning from the news and the heuristic-systematic model of information processing are presented.
Article
The visibility of news and politics in a Facebook newsfeed depends on the actions of a diverse set of actors: users, their friends, content publishers such as news organizations, advertisers, and algorithms. The focus of this paper is on untangling the role of this last actor from the others. We ask, how does Facebook algorithmically infer what users are interested in, and how do interest inferences shape news exposure? We weave together survey data and interest categorization data from participants’ Facebook accounts to audit the algorithmic interest classification system on Facebook. These data allow us to model the role of algorithmic inference in shaping content exposure. We show that algorithmic ‘sorting out’ of users has consequences for who is exposed to news and politics on Facebook. People who are algorithmically categorized as interested in news or politics are more likely to attract this kind of content into their feeds – above and beyond their self-reported interest in civic content.
Article
Coming across news on social network sites (SNS) largely depends on news-related activities in one's network. Although there are many different ways to stumble upon news, limited research has been conducted on how distinct news curation practices influence users' intention to consume encountered content. In this mixed-methods investigation, using Facebook as an example, we first examine the results of an experiment (study 1, n = 524), showing that getting tagged in comments to news posts promotes news consumption the most. Based on this finding, we then focus on actively tagging users by investigating news tagging motives/practices with interactive qualitative interviews centered on participants' Facebook activity logs (study 2, n = 13). Overall, the findings show how news tagging, albeit a strong catalyst for reading and interacting with news, mostly favors users already interested in news, thus challenging the optimistic assumption that SNS might foster incidental learning among less interested audiences.
Article
The measurement of media exposure is essential to not only traditional audience research, but also media effects research which relies on accurate estimates of media exposure. Even in the age of digital trace data and passive audience measurement, the workhorse of basically all communication research is self-report data. This article presents a meta-analysis of the reliability and temporal stability of media exposure self-reports in 33 panel studies. Results from a Bayesian multilevel analysis show that self-reported media exposure was moderately reliable (0.69, 90% HDI: 0.65, 0.72) and highly stable (0.90, 90% HDI: 0.88, 0.92). In line with previous studies, the reliability of media exposure measures was higher in adult samples (0.72, 90% HDI: 0.69, 0.76) compared to adolescents (0.60, 90% HDI: 0.53, 0.66). Rank-order stability of media exposure was comparable in adult (0.91, 90% HDI: 0.89, 0.93) and adolescent samples (0.85, 90% HDI: 0.81, 0.90). Moderation analyses showed that self-reported exposure to specific outlets was more reliable than general media use in adult samples. Media-specific differences in reliability were only found in adolescent samples. Overall, moderate reliability in combination with high temporal stability poses important challenges for scholars investigating causes and consequences of media exposure.
Article
Digital experiences capture an increasingly large part of life, making them a preferred, if not required, method to describe and theorize about human behavior. Digital media also shape behavior by enabling people to switch between different content easily, and create unique threads of experiences that pass quickly through numerous information categories. Current methods of recording digital experiences provide only partial reconstructions of digital lives that weave–often within seconds–among multiple applications, locations, functions, and media. We describe an end-to-end system for capturing and analyzing the “screenome” of life in media, i.e., the record of individual experiences represented as a sequence of screens that people view and interact with over time. The system includes software that collects screenshots, extracts text and images, and allows searching of a screenshot database. We discuss how the system can be used to elaborate current theories about psychological processing of technology, and suggest new theoretical questions that are enabled by multiple timescale analyses. Capabilities of the system are highlighted with eight research examples that analyze screens from adults who have generated data within the system. We end with a discussion of future uses, limitations, theory, and privacy.
Article
This study analyzes reinforcing spirals between online media usage and political interest among adolescents. By applying a two-dimensional conceptualization of online media usage that distinguishes between content and interactivity characteristics, the study focuses on the mechanisms and processes stimulating the long-term development of political interest during adolescence. Findings from a unique, six-wave panel study conducted in Sweden over a period of 5 years suggest that reinforcing spirals are driven primarily by non-interactive political information usages of online media. These results contribute to a better understanding of the factors leading to the development of political interest during a crucial life phase, as well as the growing body of literature that theorize media and selection effects as part of reinforcing processes during adolescence.
Chapter
Zunächst wollen wir algorithmisch personalisierte Nachrichtenkanäle eingehender definieren, ihre Relevanz begründen sowie einige Begriffe klären. Die kommunikationswissenschaftliche Literatur zu dem Thema scheint gespalten: Deutschsprachige Beiträge beziehen sich häufig auf Intermediäre als algorithmische Informationsvermittler (Neuberger, 2014; Lischka & Stöcker, 2017; Schmidt et al., 2017; Stark, Magin, & Jürgens, 2017). Die internationale Forschung betont hingegen den Aspekt der algorithmischen Personalisierung (z. B. Thurman & Schifferes, 2012; Beam, 2014; Napoli, 2014; Borgesius Zuiderveen et al., 2016).
Article
Despite the importance of news exposure to political outcomes, news consumption is notoriously difficult to measure, and misreporting news exposure is common. In this study, we compare participants’ news behaviors measured on a news aggregator website with their self-reported story selection immediately after exposure. We find that both individual and contextual characteristics—especially the presence of political cues in news headlines—influence reporting of news story selection. As a result, the news audience profiles differ using self-reported versus behavioral measures, creating two different pictures of news exposure. More attention is needed to improve news measurement strategies to address misreporting and to improve the accuracy of news audience profiles.
Article
Incidental exposure to shared news on Facebook is a vital but understudied aspect of how citizens get involved with politics. This experiment investigates the influence of recommender characteristics (tie strength, political knowledge, political similarity) and different media sources (tabloids, legacy, and digital-born outlets) including multiple mediators (e.g., social pressure, outlet credibility) on incidental exposure to political news on Facebook. A 3 × 3 multi-stimulus, between-subject experiment with two additional quasi-factors and 135 different stimuli was conducted using a representative sample (N = 507). Results showed that strong ties and recommenders with high knowledge increase news exposure, but the impact of knowledge is limited to recommenders with similar political opinions. Similar effects occur for different media types, which also have an independent impact on news exposure. Structural equation modeling reveals that media source effects are mediated through media perceptions, whereas recommender effects work via the desire for social monitoring and perceived issue importance.
Book
Anna Sophie Kümpel geht der Frage nach, welche Faktoren die Auseinandersetzung mit Nachrichteninhalten beeinflussen, die während der Facebook-Nutzung beiläufig entdeckt werden (Incidental News Exposure). Hierfür systematisiert die Autorin relevante Rahmenbedingungen sowie Einflussfaktoren und prüft deren Bedeutung mithilfe eines qualitativ-quantitativen Mixed-Methods-Ansatzes. Die Befunde zeigen, dass vor allem bestehende Themeninteressen die Zuwendung zu Nachrichten erklären können. Daneben spielen im Kontext von Facebook jedoch auch soziale Einflüsse sowie die Art des Nachrichtenerfahrens eine Rolle. Der Inhalt • Nachrichtennutzung auf sozialen Netzwerkseiten • Nachrichten auf Facebook: Vom beiläufigen Kontakt zur Auseinandersetzung • Wege zum Klick: Welche Merkmale beeinflussen die Auseinandersetzung mit Nachrichten auf Facebook? Die Zielgruppen • Dozierende und Studierende der Sozialwissenschaften sowie insbesondere der Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaft • Journalisten und Social-Media-Manager Die Autorin Anna Sophie Kümpel ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Institut für Kommunikationswissenschaft und Medienforschung der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
Article
Incidental consumption of news on social media has risen in recent years, particularly among young people. Previous studies have characterized what the main dimensions and effects of this phenomenon are. In this article, we complement that literature by looking at how this phenomenon unfolds. Inspired by practice theory, we aim to answer two questions: (1) what are the practices that subtend incidental news consumption on social media among young people? and (2) What are the social consequences of these practices? We draw upon 50 in-depth interviews with respondents aged 18–29 years from Argentina. Our findings show the existence of (1) strong connections between technology and content, “anywhere and anytime” coordinates, derivative information routines, and increasingly mediated sociability and (2) fragmentary reading patterns, loss of hierarchy of the news, and coexistence of editorial, algorithmic, and social filtering. We conclude by elaborating on the empirical and theoretical implications of these findings.
Book
Durch die Entwicklung eines theoretischen Modells des Kollektiven Gatekeeping und gestützt durch die empirische Untersuchung politischer Videoclips auf YouTube beschreibt der Autor die Herstellung öffentlicher Aufmerksamkeit in Social Media und zeigt fundamentale Unterschiede zu traditionellen Massenmedien auf. Er zeigt, dass Publizität in Social Media ein kontinuierlicher Kampf um Aufmerksamkeit ist, der zu ihrer starken Ungleichverteilung führt und dem Ideal einer Demokratisierung politischer Kommunikation in und durch Soziale Medien widerspricht. Der Inhalt • Wandel von Öffentlichkeits- und Thematisierungsprozessen • Medienlogik, Inklusion und die Rolle von Aufmerksamkeit in Social Media • Theorieansatz des Kollektiven Gatekeeping am Beispiel von Videoplattformen • Automatisierte Online-Beobachtung Die Zielgruppen • Dozierende und Studierende in den Kommunikations- und Sozialwissenschaften • Praktiker und Praktikerinnen in Public Relations, Marketing und Politik, Social-Media-Manager, Politiker Der Autor Till Keyling ist seit 2010 wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am IfKW der LMU München und beschäftigt sich insbesondere mit politischer Kommunikation online und Methoden der empirischen Sozialforschung.
Article
Scholars have questioned the potential for incidental exposure in high-choice media environments. We use online survey data to examine incidental exposure to news on social media (Facebook, YouTube, Twitter) in four countries (Italy, Australia, United Kingdom, United States). Leaving aside those who say they intentionally use social media for news, we compare the number of online news sources used by social media users who do not see it as a news platform, but may come across news while using it (the incidentally exposed), with people who do not use social media at all (non-users). We find that (a) the incidentally exposed users use significantly more online news sources than non-users, (b) the effect of incidental exposure is stronger for younger people and those with low interest in news and (c) stronger for users of YouTube and Twitter than for users of Facebook.
Article
We use a two-wave panel survey of parent-child dyads in the United States to connect online democratic divides with the unequal socialization of political interest in the home. We test a model connecting parent socioeconomic status to the amount of political communication in the home and the subsequent development of youth political interest over the course of an election cycle. We develop the theoretical concept of online civic infrastructure to foreground how interest-driven social media use in adolescence may shape future opportunities for civic and political engagement by building network connections and opening up flows of communication that carry news, political information, and opportunities for mobilization.
Article
Has the introduction of social media into the information landscape changed the heuristics individuals use when selecting news? Social media allow users to easily share and endorse political content. These features facilitate personal influence, possibly increasing the salience of partisan information, making users more likely to read endorsed content. To test this possibility, I utilize snowball sampling to conduct a survey experiment featuring mock Facebook News Feeds. These feeds contain different levels of social media activity attributed to different sources, varying from fictional individuals to subjects’ own friends and family members. I find that online endorsements and discussions serve as heuristics when deciding which content to consume, outweighing partisan selectivity. This effect is only significant when the activity comes from friends or family members, as social influence attributed to fictional individuals has no effect on information selectivity.
Article
Employing two studies, this paper investigates incidental exposure to news online in terms of its influence on individual learning about public affairs as well as its predictors in the social media environment. Study 1, using an experimental design, shows that incidental exposure to news has significant effects on an individual’s recognition and recall of information in news stories. The effects of incidental exposure on recall are mediated by actual exposure to information in the news (spending some time on reading), suggesting gateway effects of initial exposure by accident. Employing a national survey, Study 2 finds that social media network heterogeneity and proportion of weak ties are positively associated with likelihood of incidental exposure to news online, while most variables of individual characteristics are not. The significant effects of structural factors found suggest that incidental exposure can limit consequences of selective exposure. Further implications of the findings are discussed.
Chapter
Viele Öffentlichkeitstheorien basieren auf der Grundannahme, dass die Funktionsfähigkeit von Demokratien wesentlich davon abhängt, inwiefern Bürger die Möglichkeit und das Interesse besitzen, an gesellschaftspolitischen Entwicklungen teilzuhaben (Ferree/Gamson/Gerhards/Rucht 2002, Strömbäck 2005).
Article
In the changing news environment, young adult audiences, often dubbed ‘the Internet generation’, have increasingly gravitated toward online sources of news and information, raising questions about the nature and amount of news consumed. This study joins many others in looking at the emerging processes of news consumption among, in this case, college students, using focus group interviews to further examine how they go about obtaining news. Drawing upon literature in the areas of news consumption, media habits, generational change and news repertoire, this study identifies an emerging three-stage process of consumption that includes the following: routine surveillance, incidental consumption, and directed consumption, each conditioned by various forms of new media use. It suggests continued research in the interaction of a changing media ecology with generational adoption of news habits and the implications of this interaction for news and news engagement.
Article
Focus groups with teenagers (ages 15–18) were conducted to understand how they define news; what motivates them to consume news; what news sources they use; and how much knowledge about the news media industry, content, and effects they bring to the task of consuming and thinking critically about the news. Findings suggested exposure to news came largely incidentally via social media and/or parents; participants expressed the sense that news would find them. These teens saw news as depressing, conflict-ridden, and something that, although important, was of less value to them than to adults. Considered in light of a media literacy model adapted for news, these focus group participants exhibited a basic sense of news literacy but lacked the kind of knowledge about news industries, content, and effects that could better direct their own exposure, understanding, and subsequent civic engagement.
Article
While a growing body of literature examines exposure to social, news, and political information via social media, we have little understanding of how users delineate these categories. In this study, we develop over 100 discrete Facebook stimuli varying these topics, and then test to what extent and which users match our definition of those posts. Our results suggest that users and researchers often agree on defining social and political content, but are more likely to disagree in categorizing news content. Therefore, researchers should carefully define all concepts—especially news—when considering prevalence and effects on social media users.
Article
The media environment is changing. Today in the United States, the average viewer can choose from hundreds of channels, including several twenty-four hour news channels. News is on cell phones, on iPods, and online; it has become a ubiquitous and unavoidable reality in modern society. The purpose of this book is to examine systematically, how these differences in access and form of media affect political behaviour. Using experiments and new survey data, it shows how changes in the media environment reverberate through the political system, affecting news exposure, political learning, turnout, and voting behavior.