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High hydrostatic pressure enhances the anti-prostate cancer activity of lotus bee pollen via increased metabolites

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... 18), and C-GS (no. 25; Table 1), including 36 protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type, 46 protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type, 10 oleanolic acid (OA)-type, and 107 other types of saponins (see Figure 2, Table S1), by comparing MS data with our previous research [12] and other published data [3,4,11,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. ...
... Sixteen potential new compounds were tentatively identified from ginseng via HPLC-IT-TOF-MS n by comparing MS n data to previous publications [3,4,[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] and searching possible structures in SciFinder. ...
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Wild ginseng (W-GS), ginseng under forest (F-GS, planted in mountain forest and growing in natural environment), and cultivated ginseng (C-GS) were compared via HPLC-DAD and HPLC-IT-TOF-MSn. A total of 199 saponins, including 16 potential new compounds, were tentatively identified from 100 mg W-GS (177 saponins in W-GS with 11 new compounds), F-GS (56 saponins with 1 new compound), and C-GS (60 saponins with 6 new compounds). There were 21 saponins detected from all the W-GS, F-GS, and C-GS. Fifty saponins were only detected from W-GS, including 23 saponins found in ginseng for the first time. Contents of ginsenosides Re (12.36–13.91 mg/g), Rh1 (7.46–7.65 mg/g), Rd (12.94–12.98 mg/g), and the total contents (50.52–55.51 mg/g) of Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, and Rd in W-GS were remarkably higher than those in F-GS (Re 1.22–3.50 mg/g, Rh1 0.15–1.49 mg/g, Rd 0.19–1.49 mg/g, total 5.69–18.74 mg/g), and C-GS (Re 0.30–3.45 mg/g, Rh1 0.05–3.42 mg/g, Rd 0.17–1.68 mg/g, total 2.99–19.55 mg/g). Contents of Re and Rf were significantly higher in F-GS than those in C-GS (p < 0.05). Using the contents of Re, Rf, or Rb1, approximately a half number of cultivated ginseng samples could be identified from ginseng under forest. Contents of Rg1, Re, Rg2, Rh1, as well as the total contents of the seven ginsenosides were highest in ginseng older than 15 years, middle–high in ginseng between 10 to 15 years old, and lowest in ginseng younger than 10 years. Contents of Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rg2, and the total of seven ginsenosides were significantly related to the growing ages of ginseng (p < 0.10). Similarities of chromatographic fingerprints to W-GS were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for F-GS (median: 0.824) than C-GS (median: 0.745). A characteristic peak pattern in fingerprint was also discovered for distinguishing three types of ginseng. Conclusively, wild ginseng was remarkably superior to ginseng under forest and cultivated ginseng, with ginseng under forest slightly closer to wild ginseng than cultivated ginseng. The differences among wild ginseng, ginseng under forest, and cultivated ginseng in saponin compositions and contents of ginsenosides were mainly attributed to their growing ages.
... The bioactive compounds of bee pollen are strongly dependent on the pollen's botanical origin and geographical conditions (Muñoz et al., 2020). The consumption of bee pollen has increased worldwide due to its inclusion in food as an health ingredient, taking advantage of its numerous functional properties, including anticancer, antiobesity, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antihyperpigmentation (Maruyama et al., 2010;Cheng et al., 2019;Kaškonienė et al., 2020;Tuoheti et al., 2020). Moreover, bee pollen can regulate hypolipidaemic activity by decreasing the content of total lipids and cholesterol (Denisow & Denisow-Pietrzyk, 2016), and improving liver function (Uzbekova et al., 2003). ...
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The exploitation of phenolic compounds in different fields has motivated researchers to explore eco‐friendly and efficient extraction techniques. This study aimed to comparatively reveal that green extraction techniques (microwave‐ and ultrasound‐assisted) are alternative to conventional extraction (maceration and magnetic stirring) with positive impact on the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and bioactive profile of bee pollen extracts. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid content was reached using the microwave‐assisted technique (MAE) with equivalent values of 28 and 8 mg g−1, with magnetic stirring and maceration showing a lower value. The composition profile of the extracts revealed the presence of twenty‐six bioactive compounds, including thirteen phenolics and thirteen phenylamides. Although the extraction technique had little impact on the chemical diversity, the amount of bioactive compounds raised significantly with the use of the green extraction techniques, with gains between 40% and 60% for phenolics and up to 200% for phenylamides. The radical scavenging activity and the reducing power of the extracts confirmed that bee pollens are potent antioxidant source, with the most bioactive extracts corresponding to green extraction techniques. Consequently, all findings recommend the use of MAE as the technique most effective for the extraction of bioactive compounds from naturally encapsulated structures such as bee pollen. Green extracting techniques demonstrated to be the most effective procedures to remove bioactive compounds from bee pollen, enriching the extract in 40–60% of phenolics and up to 200% in phenylamines, with a positive impact in the antioxidant capacity.
... Therefore, BCP needs to be processed before human consumption, in order to impair the pollen wall and to increase the accessibility of nutrients for intestinal absorption. Several biotechnological options have been proposed for BCP processing, including physical, chemical and biological treatments [6][7][8][9][10]. Fermentation is one of the most attractive opportunities, because it emulates the natural maturation process of bee Briefly, A. kunkeei strains and H. uvarum AN8Y27B were cultivated until the late exponential growth phase was reached. ...
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Bee-collected pollen (BCP) is currently receiving increasing attention as a dietary supplement for humans. In order to increase the accessibility of nutrients for intestinal absorption, several biotechnological solutions have been proposed for BCP processing, with fermentation as one of the most attractive. The present study used an integrated metabolomic approach to investigate how the use of starter cultures may affect the volatilome and the profile of bioaccessible phenolics of fermented BCP. BCP fermented with selected microbial starters (Started-BCP) was compared to spontaneously fermented BCP (Unstarted-BCP) and to unprocessed raw BCP (Raw-BCP). Fermentation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds (VOC) in both Unstarted- and Started-BCP, as well as modifying the relative proportions among the chemical groups. Volatile free fatty acids were the predominant VOC in Unstarted-BCP. Started-BCP was differentiated by the highest levels of esters and alcohols, although volatile free fatty acids were always prevailing. The profile of the VOC was dependent on the type of fermentation, which was attributable to the selected Apilactobacillus kunkeei and Hanseniaspora uvarum strains used as starters, or to the variety of yeasts and bacteria naturally associated to the BCP. Started-BCP and, to a lesser extent, Unstarted-BCP resulted in increased bioaccessible phenolics, which included microbial derivatives of phenolic acids metabolism.
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Microbial fermentation can break the bee pollen wall. However, the global profiling of bee pollen metabolites under fermentation remains unclear. This study aims to comprehensively elucidate the changes in the composition of bee pollen after microbial fermentation. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) based on widely targeted metabolomics analysis was used to compare the chemical composition of unfermented bee pollen (UBP) and fermented bee pollen (FBP). Among the 890 metabolites detected, a total of 668 differential metabolites (classified into 17 categories) were identified between UBP and FBP. Fermentation significantly increased the contents of primary metabolites such as 74 amino acids and derivatives, 42 polyunsaturated fatty acids and 66 organic acids, as well as some secondary metabolites such as 38 phenolic acids, 80 flavone aglycones and 22 phenolamides. The results indicate that fermentation is a promising strategy to improve the nutritional value of bee pollen.
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Multistep model of colon carcinogenesis has provided the framework to advance our understanding of the molecular basis of colon cancer. This multistage process of carcinogenesis takes a long period to transform from a normal epithelial cell to invasive carcinoma. Thus, it provides enough time to intervene the process of carcinogenesis especially through dietary modification. In spite of the in-depth understanding of the colon cancer etiology and pathophysiology and its association with diet, colon cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Phytochemicals and their derivatives are gaining attention in cancer prevention and treatment strategies because of cancer chemotherapy associated adverse effects. Being the largest group of phytochemicals traditionally used for medicinal purpose in India and China, terpenoids are recently being explored as anticancer agents. Anticancer properties of terpenoids are associated with various mechanisms like counteraction of oxidative stress, potentiating endogenous antioxidants, improving detoxification potential, disrupting cell survival pathways and inducing apoptosis. This review gives a comprehensive idea of naturally occurring terpenoids as useful agents for the prevention of colon cancer with reference to their classes, sources and molecular targets. Based on the explored molecular targets further research in colon cancer chemoprevention is warranted.
Chapter
This book chapter describes the catalytic activity of enzymes and the underlying mechanism and associated kinetics of enzyme inactivation during high hydrostatic pressure combined with temperature treatment. Effects of combined pressure and temperature on enzyme stability for various food quality-related enzymes such as amylase, lipoxygenase, myrosinase, polygalacturonase, pectinmethylesterase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and protease are discussed. Since enzymes have different pressure and temperature sensitivities, selective combinations of pressure, temperature and time can be identified to create novel properties of food products.
Article
In this study, Rhizopus oligosporus RT-3, which was firstly isolated in our group, was used for solid state fermentation of soybeans (R. oligosporus-fermented soybeans, RFS) in a short time (22 h). The effects of fermentation on total phenolic content (TPC), isoflavone compositions, antioxidant activity and DNA damage protection of soybeans were investigated. Besides, the effects of different polarities solvents in extracting antioxidant compounds were also tested. The results showed that fermentation significantly enhanced TPC and isoflavone aglycones content, antioxidant activity and DNA damage protection, but decreased the content of isoflavone glucosides. The enhanced antioxidant activity of RFS could be ascribed to the markedly higher levels of TPC and isoflavone aglycones achieved during fermentation. The study also indicated that extraction solvents had significant effects on TPC and isoflavone glucosides and aglycones content, and antioxidant activity. The water extract of RFS showed the highest TPC, ABTS•+ and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, chelating ability, whereas the 80% ethanol extract of RFS exhibited the strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the antioxidant capacity determined by a silver nanoparticle-based method. TPC and isoflavone aglycones content were highly correlated with antioxidant activity. In addition, bioaccessibility studies also demonstrated that RFS exhibited higher TPC and isoflavone aglycones bioaccessibility, as well as stronger antioxidant activity compared to non-fermented soybeans. Thus, this study demonstrated that RFS with enhanced TPC and isoflavone aglycones content, antioxidant activity and DNA damage protection which could be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative damage-induced diseases, and it can serve as a nutraceutical and functional food/ingredient in health promotion and disease risk reduction.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids, radical scavenging activities, and compositions of phenolic and volatile compounds in 14 samples of honeybee pollen collected in the Baltic region. Radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities and total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were evaluated using spectrophotometry. Volatiles from the headspace of the samples were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coated with 100-μm polydimethylsiloxane layer, separated, and identified employing GC-mass spectrometry (MS). Forty-two volatiles were identified in the headspace. Nonanal (1.5–20.1 %), dodecane (1.2–-34.6 %), and tridecane (1.4–24.7 %) were found in all samples. Screening of phenolics and flavonoids was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. 2-Hydroxycinnamic acid (43.4–179.9 μg/g), rutin (156.2–955.7 μg/g), and quercetin (24.0–529.8 μg/g) were detected in all tested samples. Total amounts of phenolic compounds and flavonoids varied between 24.1 and 45.5 mg/g, and 6.1 and 11.6 mg/g, respectively, expressed as rutin equivalents. The pollen extracts exhibited radical scavenging activity, which scattered widely in range of 7.1–39.2 mg/g, expressed as rutin equivalents. Radical scavenging activity correlated with the total content of phenolic compounds while correlation coefficient was 0.95. Chemometric evaluation was performed to classify the samples into clusters according to the observed data.
Article
This study was performed to evaluate the enhancement of functional components of germinated rough rice. Rough rice was germinated at 37°C for 6days, and subjected to a high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HPT) at 30MPa for 24h (HP24) and 48h (HP48). Germinated rough rice without HPT (HP0), HP24, and HP48 were analysed for their functional components. The highest γ-aminobutyric acid, total arabinoxylan, and tricin 4'-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether contents were 121.21mg/100g, 10.6%, and 85.82μg/g, respectively, after HP48 for 2days. γ-Oryzanol contents increased from 23.19-36.20mg/100g (at HP0) to 31.80-40.32mg/100g (at HP48). The highest vitamin B (60.99mg/100g) and E (4.07mg/100g) contents were observed after HP24 for 5 and 2days, respectively. These results suggest that a combination of HPT and germination efficiently enhances the functional characteristics of rough rice.
Article
Non-targeted metabolomics is the hypothesis generating, global unbiased analysis of all the small-molecule metabolites present within a biological system, under a given set of conditions. It includes several common steps such as selection of biological samples, sample pre-treatment, analytical conditions set-up, acquiring data, data analysis by chemometrics, database search and biological interpretation. Non-targeted metabolomics offers the potential for a holistic approach in the area of biomedical research in order to improve disease diagnosis and to understand its pathological mechanisms. Various analytical methods have been developed based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with different separation techniques. The key points in any analytical method development are the validation of every step to get a reliable and reproducible result and non-targeted metabolomics is not beyond this criteria, although analytical challenges are completely new and different to target methods. This review paper will describe the available validation strategies that are being used and as well will recommend some steps to consider during a non-targeted metabolomics analytical method development.
Article
Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the optimal high pressure processing treatment (300-500MPa, 5-15min) combined with Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia) addition (0-2.5% (w/v)) to guarantee food safety while maintaining maximum retention of nutritional properties. A fruit extract matrix was selected and Listeria monocytogenes inactivation was followed from the food safety point of view while polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC) were studied from the food quality point of view. A combination of treatments achieved higher levels of inactivation of L. monocytogenes and of the oxidative enzymes, succeeding in completely inactivating POD and also increasing the levels of TPC, TEAC and ORAC. A treatment of 453MPa for 5min with a 2.5% (w/v) of Stevia succeeded in inactivating over 5 log cycles of L. monocytogenes and maximizing inactivation of PPO and POD, with the greatest retention of bioactive components.
Article
Changes in extractability and bioactivity of fermented rice bran (FRB) were investigated using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment alone (HFRB) and in combination with complex enzymes (CHFRB). The CHFRB treatment resulted in increased contents of total sugars and free amino acids compared to both the HFRB and control groups, which had undergone hot-water extraction. A high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that CHFRB significantly increased the volume of ferulic acid, although there was no significant difference in total phenolic content among the groups. In bioactivity analyses, the CHFRB extract showed significant increases for inhibiting linoleic acid oxidation and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity compared to those in the other groups. Based on these results, HHP treatment combined with complex enzymes efficiently increased the extractability of ferulic acid and free amino acids, which improved bioactivity. These results provide useful information for using FRB as an ingredient in functional foods and for exploiting HHP treatment combined with specific enzymes to improve the extractability and bioactivity of a raw material. Industrial relevance This study will give a novel technique for using rice bran, a byproduct of the rice milling process, which contains various bioactive materials since most of them have been discarded uselessly. Our results provide useful information for using rice bran (fermented) as an ingredient source in functional foods and for exploiting HHP treatment combined with specific enzymes to improve the extractability and bioactivity of the raw material.
Article
In the present study, bee pollen polysaccharides from Rosa rugosa (WRPP) were extracted and fractionated. WRPP were purified to neutral (WRPP-N) and acidic polysaccharides (WRPP-1, WRPP-2) with DEAE-Cellulose. WRPP-N were mainly composed of glucose, mannose, arabinose and galactose, indicating the existence of glucan, arabinogalactan (AG) and mannoglucan. WRPP-1 mainly consisted of rhamnose (3.0%), galacturonic acid (12.4%), galactose (24.7%) and arabinose (53.9%), and contained a large proportion of AGs. WRPP-2 consisted of rhamnose (7.8%), galacturonic acid (23.0%), galactose (15%) and arabinose (48.7%), while WRPP-2 contained more galacturonic acid compared to WRPP-1. WRPP-1 and WRPP-2 were composed by type I rhamnogalacturonan (RG-I), homogalacturonan (HG) and AG fragments, while WRPP-2 contained more HG and RG-I. All the fractions had significant anti-proliferative activity in HT-29 and HCT116 cells; the neutral and acidic fractions were shown to have significant synergistic effects which accounted for the antitumor activity of bee pollen polysaccharides from Rosa rugosa in vitro.
Article
Myricetin and myricitrin are naturally occurring flavonoids have been suggested to play a role in inhibition of proliferation and transformation of carcinogenic cell. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of their activity have not yet to be revealed. The aim of the present study was to clarify the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis cell on the prostate cancer induced by myricetin, myricitrin, quercetin and quercitrin. The MTT assay confirmed that myricetin had the strongest inhibitory effect on human prostate cancer cell line PC-3, myricitrin was second, and quercitrin was the weakest. A noticeable synergistic effect was observed with the inhibition of cell proliferation when myricetin was used in combination with myricitrin. In the concentration range of 37.5-300μmol/L, the inhibitory effects of these flavonoids were enhanced with increasing dose and treatment time. The acridine orange analysis and annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining results confirmed that myricetin and myricitrin were effective in inducing PC-3 cell apoptosis. The results showed that myricetin was more effective than myricitrin in inducing cell apoptosis. The apoptosis rate increased with increasing flavonoid concentration in a dose dependent manner. A synergistic effect was observed on the apoptosis rate when myricetin was used in combination with myricitrin.
Article
To investigate the constituents of the Annona squamosa and evaluate their anti-tumor activity. The compounds were isolated and purified by various column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by spectral data analysis. Their anti-tumor activity was assayed by SRB method. Eleven compounds were obtained from the 95% EtOH extract. The structures were determined as: annosquamosin C(1),15, 16-epoxy-17-hydroxy-ent-kau-ran-19-oic acid (2),16,17-dihydroxy-ent-kau-ran-19-oic acid(3), annosquamosin A(4), ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (5), 19-nor-ent-kauran4-ol-17-oic acid (6),16-hydroxy ent-kau ran-19-oic acid (7), ent-15beta-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (8), annosquamosin B (9), ent-16beta, 17-dihydroxykauran-19-al (10), 16, 17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid me thyl ester (11). Compounds 1,2,3,5,9 showed different inhibitory activities against 95-D lung cancer cells,the effect of compound 5 was strongest with the IC50 value 7.78 micromol x L(-1); Compounds 2, 5, 9 showed inhibitory activities against A2780 ovarian cancer cells, the effects of compounds 2 and 9 were strong with the IC50 values being 0.89, 3.10 micromol x L(-1), respectively. Compound 2 was firstly isolated from this family, while compound 8 and 10 were first found from this genus and the title species, respectively. The in vitro anti-tumor test showed compound 5 significantly inhibited 95-D lung cancer cells and compounds 2 and 9 exhibited remarkbale activity against A2780 ovarian cancer cells.
Article
Many clinical studies have shown that daily intake of soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr., Fabacease] or its foods may reduce the risk of osteoporosis, heart attack, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular and chronic renal diseases, and cancers, including prostate, colon, and breast cancers. Of the soy constituents, soyasaponins exhibit anti-aging, antioxidant, apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of soyasaponin Ab has not been thoroughly studied. Therefore, we investigated its anti-inflammatory effects in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitic mice and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Soyasaponin Ab inhibited colon shortening, myeloperoxidase activity, the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Soyasaponin Ab (1, 2, 5, and 10 μM) inhibited the production of NO (IC(50) = 1.6 ± 0.1 μM) and prostaglandin E(2) (IC(50) = 2.0 ± 0.1 ng/mL), the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (IC(50) = 1.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL), interleukin (IL)-1β (IC(50) = 1.5 ± 0.1 pg/mL), and toll-like receptor (TLR)4, and the phosphorylation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-1 in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Soyasaponin Ab weakly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38. Soyasaponin Ab significantly reduced the binding of Alexa-Fluor-594-conjugated LPS to peritoneal macrophages. Soyasaponin Ab did not affect TLR4 expression or LPS-induced NF-κB activation in TLR4 siRNA-treated peritoneal macrophages (knockdown efficiency of TLR4 > 94%). On the basis of these findings, soyasaponin Ab may ameliorate colitis by inhibiting the binding of LPS to TLR4 on macrophages.
Article
Screening of various natural products in a search for novel inducers of apoptosis in human leukemia cells led us to identify the strong apoptosis-inducing activity in a fraction extracted with methanol from the roots of Sophora subprostrata Chun et T. Chen. We purified the compound that induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells and identified it as sophoranone. Sophoranone inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in various lines of cells from human solid tumors, with 50% inhibition of growth of human stomach cancer MKN7 cells at 1.2 +/- 0.3 microM. The growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of sophoranone for leukemia U937 cells were very much stronger than those of other flavonoids, such as daidzein, genistein and quercetin. At the early stages of treatment of U937 cells with sophoranone, reactive oxygen species were formed, mitochondrial permeability pores were opened and cytochrome c was released from mitochondria. Cytochrome c was also released upon treatment of isolated mitochondria with sophoranone. Inhibitors of complexes III and IV, but not complexes I and II, of the mitochondrial respiratory chain prevented the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria by sophoranone, as well as the induction of apoptosis in U937 cells in response to sophoranone. Our results indicate that sophoranone might be a unique apoptosis-inducing anticancer agent that targets mitochondria.
Article
Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand/Apo2 ligand (TRAIL/Apo-2L) is a novel anticancer agent, capable of inducing apoptosis preferentially in tumor and transformed cells. TRAIL-R1/death receptor (DR)4 and TRAIL-R2/DR5 are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, and can be activated by the TRAIL. We examined the clinical potential of chemotherapeutic drugs and TRAIL for the treatment of prostate cancer. Prostate and bladder cancer cells were exposed to chemotherapeutic drugs (paclitaxel, vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, doxorubicin, and camptothecin) and TRAIL. Cell viability was measured by sodium 3'[1-(phenylaminocarbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis (4-methoxy-6-nitro) assay; expressions of death receptors and Bcl-2 family members were measured by Western blotting, ELISA and ribonuclease protection assay. PC-3 tumor cells xenografted athymic nude mice were exposed to chemotherapeutic drugs and TRAIL, either alone or in combination, to measure tumor growth and survival of mice. Apoptosis was measured by annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining, and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated nick end labeling assay. Caspase-3 activity was measured by the Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. TRAIL induced apoptosis with varying sensitivity. Chemotherapeutic drugs (paclitaxel, vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, doxorubicin, and camptothecin) significantly augmented TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells through up-regulation of DR4, DR5, Bax, and Bak, and induction of caspase activation. Mitochondrial pathway enhanced the synergistic interactions between drugs and TRAIL. The sequential treatment of mice with chemotherapeutic drugs followed by TRAIL induced caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis, inhibited angiogenesis, completely eradicated the established tumors, and enhanced survival of mice. Chemotherapeutic drugs can be used to enhance the therapeutic potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer.
Article
Chalcones xanthohumol (X) and desmethylxanthohumol (DMX), present in hops (Humulus lupulus L.), and the corresponding flavanones isoxanthohumol (IX, from X), 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN, from DMX), and 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN, from DMX), have been examined in vitro for their anti-proliferative activity on human prostate cancer cells PC-3 and DU145. X proved to be the most active compound in inhibiting the growth of the cell lines with IC50 values of 12.3+/-1.1 microM for DU145 and 13.2+/-1.1 microM for PC-3. 6-PN was the second most active growth inhibitor, particularly in PC-3 cells (IC50 of 18.4+/-1.2 microM). 8-PN, a highly potent phytoestrogen, exhibited pronounced anti-proliferative effects on PC-3 and DU145 (IC50 of 33.5+/-1.0 and 43.1+/-1.2 microM, respectively), and IX gave comparable activities (IC50 of 45.2+/-1.1 microM for PC-3 and 47.4+/-1.1 microM for DU145). DMX was the least active compound. It was evidenced for the first time that this family of prenylated flavonoids from hops effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells in vitro.
Article
The pollen of Brassica napus L. has been used in China to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) for over decades. In this study, the pollen of Brassica napus L. was extracted successively with chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The ethyl acetate extract showed strong activity in decreasing the secretion of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in LNCaP cells as compared to two other extracts, measured by ELISA with finasteride as positive control in the assay. Five flavonoids were subsequently isolated from the active extract using bioassay-guided fractionation. They were Naringenin (1); Luteolin (2); Kaempferol (3); Kaempferol 3-(3-E-p-coumaroyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside) (4); and Kaempferol 3-(2,3-di-E-p-coumaroyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside) (5). All these compounds inhibited PSA secretion significantly, with IC50 values in the range of 5-50 microM. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 showed moderate cytotoxicity to LNCaP cells within the active concentration range, while compounds 1 and 3 showed no cytotoxicity. Further studies on the mechanism action of these compounds were performed by evaluating their activation of estrogen receptor (ER) and antagonistic activities on androgen receptor (AR) in cell-based reporter gene assays. All compounds described here were first isolated from the pollen of Brassica napus L.
Article
Brassinolide is a plant sterol first isolated from pollen of rape (Brassica napus L.). The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of brassinolide on androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC-3 cell viability. Results showed that brassinolide could induce a time and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in PC-3 cells. The mode of cell death appeared to be predominately apoptosis, as shown by flow-cytometric analysis, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopes. Caspase-3 activity was obviously increased after brassinolide treatment. Western blot studies indicated that treatment with brassinolide triggered a time-dependent decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. We suggest that brassinolide could induce cytotoxicity in PC-3 cells by triggering apoptosis. Brassinolide might therefore be a promising candidate for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Article
Bee pollen of Brassica campestris L. is widely used in China as a natural food supplement and an herbal medicine in strengthening the body's resistance against diseases including cancer. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of a steroid fraction of chloroform extract from bee pollen of Brassica campestris L. on human cancer cell viability. Our studies show that among nine cancer cell lines of different origin (PC-3, LNCaP, MCF-7, Hela, BEL-7402, BCG-823, KB, A549 and HO8910), this steroid fraction displayed the strongest cytotoxicity in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The mode of cell death appeared to be apoptosis in PC-3 cells, as shown by flow-cytometric analysis and fluorescence microscopes. Caspase-3 activity was obviously enhanced after the cells were treated with the fraction. A time-dependent decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was also observed by Western blot analysis. It is suggested that the steroid fraction could induce cytotoxicity in prostate cancer PC-3 cells by triggering apoptosis. The studies indicate that the steroid fraction of chloroform extract from bee pollen of Brassica campestris L. may be a promising candidate for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
Article
Cancer is primarily a disease of old age, and that life style plays a major role in the development of most cancers is now well recognized. While plant-based formulations have been used to treat cancer for centuries, current treatments usually involve poisonous mustard gas, chemotherapy, radiation, and targeted therapies. While traditional plant-derived medicines are safe, what are the active principles in them and how do they mediate their effects against cancer is perhaps best illustrated by curcumin, a derivative of turmeric used for centuries to treat a wide variety of inflammatory conditions. Curcumin is a diferuloylmethane derived from the Indian spice, turmeric (popularly called "curry powder") that has been shown to interfere with multiple cell signaling pathways, including cell cycle (cyclin D1 and cyclin E), apoptosis (activation of caspases and down-regulation of antiapoptotic gene products), proliferation (HER-2, EGFR, and AP-1), survival (PI3K/AKT pathway), invasion (MMP-9 and adhesion molecules), angiogenesis (VEGF), metastasis (CXCR-4) and inflammation (NF-kappaB, TNF, IL-6, IL-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX). The activity of curcumin reported against leukemia and lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancers, genitourinary cancers, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, melanoma, neurological cancers, and sarcoma reflects its ability to affect multiple targets. Thus an "old-age" disease such as cancer requires an "age-old" treatment.
New opportunities and perspectives of high pressure treatment to improve health and safety attributes of foods. A review
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Barba, F.J., Terefe, N.S., Buckow, R., Knorr, D., Orlien, V., 2015. New opportunities and perspectives of high pressure treatment to improve health and safety attributes of foods. A review. Food Res. Int. 77, 725-742.
Prostate Cancer Incidence Statistics
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Glutathione in cancer biology and therapy
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Estrela, J.M., Ortega, A., Obrador, E., 2008. Glutathione in cancer biology and therapy. Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab Sci. 43, 143-181.
Soyasaponin Ab ameliorates T. Tuoheti, et al
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In-Ah, L., Young-Jun, P., Eun-Ha, J., Dong-Hyun, K., 2011. Soyasaponin Ab ameliorates T. Tuoheti, et al. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 261 (2020) 113057
Effect of Qianliekang Tablet on patients with Type Ⅲ CP and its effect on serum inflammatory factors
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Yuan, Z., Linfa, P., Ladi, L., Yin, C., 2018. Effect of Qianliekang Tablet on patients with Type Ⅲ CP and its effect on serum inflammatory factors. Sichuan Med. J. (in chinese) 39 (11), 1261-1264. https://doi.org/10.16252/j.cnki.issn1004-0501-2018.11.014.
In Vitro Inhibition of brassica Campestris Pollen Liposoluble Extracts on Growth of
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Ling-Bin, D.U., Qian, L., Lin-Hui, G.U., Mou, H., 2010. In Vitro Inhibition of brassica Campestris Pollen Liposoluble Extracts on Growth of Prostate Cancer Cell Line PC-3, vol. 10. Chinese Remedies & Clinics, pp. 971-973.
Cancer statistics. CA: Canc
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Glutathione in cancer biology and therapy
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Effect of Qianliekang Tablet on patients with Type Ⅲ CP and its effect on serum inflammatory factors
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New opportunities and perspectives of high pressure treatment to improve health and safety attributes of foods. A review
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