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The Development of E-Commerce in Cameroon

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International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 10, Issue 5, May 2020 637
ISSN 2250-3153
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.10.05.2020.p10173 www.ijsrp.org
The Development of E-Commerce in Cameroon
Ehode Elah Raoul *, Makoudem Tene Marienne **
* Research officer at the Department of Economics and Environment, Cameroon Academic of youth scientist (CAYS) member, National Centre for
Education
** Research officer at the Department of Economics and Environment, National Centre for Education
DOI: 10.29322/IJSRP.10.05.2020.p10173
http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.10.05.2020.p10173
Abstract- The objective of this study was to analyse the level of
development and the level of organization of e-commerce as a new
activity in Cameroon. In Cameroon, e-commerce is still nascent.
In order to develop this sector and avoid the abuses, the state has
put in place in 2010 a law and in 2011 a decree regulating the
activity. The digital development seems to impose a market that
was non-existent. The country, with regard to the observed flows,
binds itself little by little in this form of exchange
On the basis of a field survey and an existing documentary
review in the domain, we came to the conclusion that practice of
online trade is still low in Cameroon. The main reasons mentioned
are: (i) the lack of confidence; (ii) questionable quality of
products; (iii) the lack of protection of personal data and; (iv) long
delivery time. In order to overcome the effects of this strong
reluctance of Cameroonians, we recommend (i) the strengthening
of communication on the importance of this exchange technic; (ii)
securing and controlling Internet (enhancing data security).
I. INTRODUCTION
-commerce is « the sale or purchase of goods or services
conducted over computer networks by methods specifically
designed for the purpose of receiving or placing of orders » (WTO,
2013). These trade activities need a specific platform. For that, we
realise that « E-commerce is the future of trade because of
technology » (Jack Ma (2017)
1
said. The technology concern is
computers, network connection, and technician. These actions
refer to virtual transactions. That means that e-commerce implies
electronic transactions including buying, selling, transferring or
exchanging products, services and/or information, which can take
place between different types of actors namely individuals,
enterprises, governments and civil society organisations (Alyoubi
, 2015). The transactions can be done through the use of desktop,
mobile devices, tablets and smartphones. Throughout the
literature, the definition of e-commerce considers five features
namely: information sharing, the use of technology, buy-sell
transaction, monetary transaction and competition (Goyal, Sergi,
and Esposito, n.a). With globalization and the development of
Internet, e-commerce is more and more present in our daily life.
The different types of e-commerce include the Business to
1
« E-commerce is the future of trade because of technology ». Jack Ma,
CEO of Alibaba, pronounced these words on The 25th April 2017 in a
high panel discussion analysing the inclusiveness of e-commerce during
the e-commerce week organised by the United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in Geneva
Business (B2B) transactions, Business to Consumers (B2C)
transactions, Business to Government (B2G) transactions,
Consumers to Business (C2B) and Consumers to Consumers
(C2C) transactions (UNCTD, 2003, El Gawady, n.a., WTO, 2013,
Goyal and Esposito, n.a.). The development of e-commerce can be
explained by its advantages to the different stakeholders namely
the reduced prices of products explain /services; an unlimited
access to the global marketplace; a large potential market share;
the low-cost of advertisement and low barriers to entries (El
Gawady, n.a.). These advantages can its fast growth. In fact, in
2013, B2C e-commerce sales amounted to more than 1.2 trillion
US dollars in the world. Furthermore, many Internet users do
online shopping worldwide that is about 40% of them with about
70% of adults Internet users in the US in 2011
2
. If e-commerce
facilitates the access to goods and services, the payment has to be
facilitated therefore there is the digital payments development.
It is not only the business landscape that e-commerce has changed.
It came in with also a new vocabulary like online platform, e-
stores, global competition, global consumer segment and virtual
value chain (Goyal and Esposito, n.a.).
As a new activity in our country, the number of the persons
who use that platform to solve their problems (communication,
buy and sell things, money transfer, etc.), the number of
transaction in the domain grows every day. To know exactly what
the current situation in our country is, some questions were raised.
What is the legal framework that governs e-commerce in
Cameroon? What are the actors of e-commerce in Cameroun and
what are their various roles? What are the strengths and the
potentials of Cameroon that can contribute to strengthen the
development of e-commerce? What are the weaknesses and treats
that Cameroon has to address in order to fully benefit from the
impact of e-commerce? What is the level of organization of e-
commerce activities in Cameroon?
The objective of this study is to analyse the level of
development and the level of organization of e-commerce as a new
activity in Cameroon. Specifically, we try to bring out the state of
the art, the opportunities and the perspective that can guarantee
good revenue to the employer and employees in the activities
sector. To attain our objective, we adopt a two-steps methodology.
The first step refers to the documentary review on e-commerce in
2
Source: https://www.statista.com/markets/413/e-commerce/
consulted on the 22/07/2017.
E
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the world. The second will focus on a mixed method quantitative
and qualitative - analysis of the e-commerce activity in Cameroon.
II. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical framework of the study
The study of e-commerce is done base on some theories
development by many authors. In the case of this study, three of
them are presented below. They are: the Technology-organisation-
environment (TOE) framework; the Commitment trust theory
(CTT) and the Cultural classification model (CCM).
Firstly introduced by Tornatzky and Fleischer 1990, the
Technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework
suggests to organisations how to adopt and implement
technological innovation Angeles, 2014) ; Goyal and Esposito,
n.a.). It proposes to pay attention to the technological context, the
organization context and the environmental context. This implies
for instance that any business has to take into account e-commerce
as it represents the evolvement of trade if it wants to survive. In
order to do so, the owners have to adopt the suitable technologies
that will enable them to be performing. Moreover, setting an e-
business in a Developed country will not present the same
constraints as if it were in a Developing country. In short, any e-
commerce provider is supposed to reorganised itself, adjusts its
technology and take into account its environment as well as the
one of its customers to be able to stay longer.
The Commitment trust theory (CTT) or model was made by
Morgan and Hunt in 1994 (Morgan, Robert Hunt and Shelby,
1994 ; (Goyal, and Esposito, n.a.; Laksamana and Wong, 2009).
This marketing theory studies how to build Relationship
commitment and trust between customers and providers. The
commitment implies that the two parties have the desire to hold
out a valued relationship. Furthermore, trust refers to the existence
of reliability, confidence and integrity between partners. It has
three main component namely affective commitment, calculative
and behavioural commitment, and continuous commitment
(Laksamana and Wong, 2009). In the context of e-commerce, the
challenge to be faced by providers here is to build trust and
commitment in their customers in such to take up Internet and
make online search and online purchase (Goyal, and Esposito,
n.a.) particularly in the context of Developing Countries where
Internet penetration remains low.
The Cultural classification model (CCM) stresses on the
importance of culture in communication
3
. It was mainly developed
by Edward Hall in 1976 (El Gawady, n.a.; Gamsriegler, 2005):
Like offline trade, e-commerce providers rely on the power of
communication to be able to do business. In order to be effective,
they have to be attentive to the way that they incorporate cultural
aspects and the context in which their segments live in. There are
two systems of communication. Firstly, the Low-context
communication system in which the words carry the entire
message while the context has almost no importance. Secondly,
the High-context communication system in which people
communicate implicitly, the context carries a good part of the
meaning of the message as well as the non-verbal aspects. Based
3
For more details on the influence of culture on communication,
see Gamsriegler, 2005.
on the above, e-commerce providers have to know which
communication style dominates where their segment live in order
to conceive a more efficient online and even offline
communication with their customers.
2-2. Literature review
For several years, the phenomenon of globalization has
modified economic activities. It gave rise to e-commerce, which
is a new way of doing trade. Many authors have been interested in
it since its advent. As such, Goyal and al, in an article published
in peer-review and scholarly journals, developed a review of 99
works that dealt with issues related to e-commerce. Depending on
the problem, we can group its work into two groups.
The first group of studies focussed on the analysis of the
demand side of e-commerce that is the consumer. The aspects
covered concerned the adoption, the behaviour and the loyalty of
the customer. The adoption of e-commerce by consumers depends
on accessibility, trust, security and their demographic
characteristics- their age, their gender, their income level, etc.
(Ngangfen, 2014).
Most of these studies have shown the merits of e-commerce
in the world. Through this channel, the trade (purchase and sale of
goods/services), the payment of factors, etc. are now made without
moving buyers and sellers. Through this business strategy, the
economies have experienced the emergence of new jobs with new
branches of business. However, in developing countries, it is
informal sector that dominates economy. That informality is also
seen in the practice of e-commerce. In fact, many buyers and
sellers use mainly social networks like Facebook and deliver either
personally or through some agents who are under temporary
contract without any social security. In that situation, the tax
authorities have not control on such transactions and create
financial losses for the country.
The second group of studies concentrated on the supply side
of e-commerce particularly on the adoption of e-commerce by
SMEs and its impact on their performance (Morgan, Robert Hunt
and Shelby, 1994). The adoption of this mode of trade requires:
Setting up a website. The creation of this site goes
through the registration of the company name. So each
website has a unique name like Amazon.com or
Pets.com. This unique name identifies the company on
the Internet platform. This registration of the website
must be done with an entity called Inter NIC. This is the
condition for other computers on the Internet to know
that a company exists (Morgan, Robert Hunt and Shelby,
1994).
Marketing and promotion of products online. This
procedure goes through online advertising and the choice
of search engine.
For online advertising, it is made on the website of the
company from which the customers will be able to
consult the offers. But to facilitate this visibility, the
company is forced to use a search engine.
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In addition, there are several search engines that can be used as a
basis for recording. Some are listed below
4
:
AOL Search
AltaVista
Ask Jeeves
Direct Hit
Excite
FAST Search
Go / Infoseek
Google
HotBot
LookSmart
Lycos
MSN Search
Netscape
Search
Northern
Light
Snap
WebCrawler
Yahoo
E-commerce has positive impacts on the performance of
companies on different ways. They include the following:
Cheaper and easier access to a greater mass of
information;
An evolution of customer-supplier relationships:
Electronic commerce allows to respond to increasingly
targeted and pointed demands of a small group of
consumers or at the level of an individual since nowadays
consumers have more and more decision-making power;
New channels of communication such as : the use of
open networks is a profound change in traditional
communication channels. The new channels are
increasingly interactive and allow much more targeted
and even personalized communication;
New ways of Supply;
Well qualified human resources;
A shortening of production and distribution chains
Having no or small inventory.
African companies in general and Cameroonian in
particular can seize these new opportunities to put themselves in
the time of electronic commerce and international
competitiveness.
The economic literature on e-commerce has highlighted
some of the drawbacks that can slow down its development. These
include the incapacity for the consumer to control personally the
products he buys, the assessment of the quality of the product
before the purchase or the protection of his personal data on the
demand side. On the supply side, we can mention the maintenance
capacity and the acquisition of the material like Hardware and
Software by the suppliers or the cost and the loyalty of customers
among others (El Gawady, n.a.). Besides those disadvantages of
e-commerce, there are some constraints that seriously limit its
development. The most important are infrastructural, regulatory,
and other barriers like taxation, security, profitability, (El Gawady,
n.a.).
The majority of studies carried out on e-commerce are on
Developed and Asian countries or have considered the whole
4
http://cameroun.smetoolkit.org/cameroun/fr/content/fr/403/Com
merce-%C3%A9lectronique
world (El Gawady, n.a.). This does not allow for having specific
characteristics and needs of a developing country like Cameroon.
III. METHODOLOGY
3-1. Research method
5
Many studies on e-commerce have made use of quantitative
research methods (Goyal et al., n.a). For this study, we have made
use of mixed methods that is by combining quantitative and
qualitative research methods. First of all, we analysed the different
documents available covering e-commerce in Cameroon.
Secondly, we analysed information collected from citizens
through a questionnaire with closed-ended and open-ended
questions.
3-2. Data description and data sources
The first set of data used came from the literature and other
second hand sources like the National Institute of Statistics. The
second sets are first hand data and came from field. In fact, with a
questionnaire, we collected information from Yaoundé Inhabitants
- both e-commerce customers and those who are not online
customers. Our sample was made of 38 respondents with 7
questionnaires that were not returned. Respondents were from
different socio-economic groups aged between 21 and 47 years
old. The sample is made of 63% of male and 37% of female.
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4-1. The e-commerce in Cameroon: the legal framework
E-commerce, being trade, is governs by trade laws and
regulations in Cameroon. Due to the channel it uses, there are
some laws and regulations, which are specific to it. It is the law
n°2010/021 of 21 December 2010 that governs e-commerce in
Cameroon and its implementing provisions are laid down in the
decree n° 2011/1521/PM of 11 June 2011. The e-commerce legal
framework covers many points namely the setting up of a contract
between a consumer and a seller in the context of e-commerce
business, the consumers’ protection, security and dispute
settlement mechanism.
The article 2 of the decree n° 2011/1521/PM of 11 June
2011 defines the e-commerce as “economical activity by which a
person provides by electronic means, goods or services”. It
includes in the field of e-commerce providing free or paid online
information, commercial communications, research, access, and
data recovery tools, access to a communication or hosting
information network. From the above definition, we can see that
e-commerce is not a specific form of trade, but normal trading
activities made on with the contribution of technology.
In Cameroon, an e-commerce provider has to introduce in his offer
at least 16 information, which are considered to be useful for the
potential buyer. They include the contact address of the provider;
product or service characteristics and price, all taxes included; the
duration of validity of the offer; payment conditions and delivery
5
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process; the date and the time at which the contract will be
executed and the conditions of the online contract execution and
cancellation among others. In addition, there should be
information on how to modify any electronic order, archiving and
procedure to get access to stored contract if any. All the above
information is crucial in the setting up of a contract. In the case of
their absence, the contract can be considered as null. For any
electronic contract of a total amount greater than or equals to
20,000 fCFA, the e-commerce provider is entitled to keep the hard
version of the contract for ten years. The other part can have access
to it at any time if needed (see article 8 of the decree
2011/1521/PM of 11 June 2011 laying down the implementing
provision of the law n°2010/021 of 21 December 2010 governing
e-commerce in Cameroon.
Concerning the consumer protection in general in
Cameroun, it is the framework law 2011/012 of 6 May 2011
that provides the necessary provisions. Its application field
includes e-commerce. Its article 7 provides that a consumer has up
to 14 days from the signature of a contract to cancel it. That
framework law forbids uncompetitive practices from providers
(art 8 (2)). It mentions also the right to information of the
consumer and the provision of customer service for durable goods.
In the case that their rights are not respected, consumers can create
an association to protect and defend them. The conditions for the
creation and the functioning of such organisations are presented in
chapter V of the framework law. Through them, consumers can be
educated on their rights and how to protect themselves from any
abuse and finally how to be compensated where required.
The use of Internet comes along with data protection
challenges. That is the reason why Cameroon has taken it into
consideration by passing on law n°2010/012 of 21 December 2010
on cybersecurity and cybercrime. This is important both for e-
commerce consumers and providers because in the course of their
activities, their data are accessible and hackers can steal them
either to take some money from consumer’s bank accounts or to
weaken a company. For illustration, the Ministry of Post and
Telecommunication has mentioned during a recent conference that
Cameroonians have lost 3.7 billion CFA francs since 2013 due to
card fraud (Jack Ma, 2017). These actions are seeing more and
more in the world and constitute a major concern for Internet
users. For a better implementation of the law on cybercrime and
cyber-security, Cameroon has decided to allow computer
scientists to become magistrates (Tchabo, 2014). This is a very
important decision because that type of magistrates knows very
well the breaches both technically and from the legal perspective,
therefore are able to hand down fair decisions.
As far dispute settlement is concerned, it is still the Decision
n°000098 /ART/DG/DAJCI of 31 July 2008 on dispute settlement
mechanism in the telecommunication sector in Cameroon. Any e-
commerce provider in Cameroon is governed by Cameroon law as
far as his website contents is concerned. This is also applicable on
the property rights that come from it. There is still a room for
improvements as the ICT sector is a fast changing one.
4-2. Adoption of the e-commerce technologies and knowledge.
Doing e-commerce as a provider or a consumer requires the
adoption of the useful technology. This includes the capacity of
using ICT material hardware, software- and Internet. Table 1
below reports the level of adoption of the technology by our
sample. All the respondents have at least an average knowledge
both for ICT technology and Internet. Most interesting, 55% of
them have a good knowledge of ICT and Internet; meaning that
they know how to use ICT devices like computers desktop,
laptop-, smartphones and tablets. This result is confirmed by the
possession of those devices. As a matter of fact, 29% of our
respondents own a laptop, 23% have a mobile and 22% a
Smartphone, while 19% have a desktop. Moreover, 98% of them
own at least 2 of the different devices with the majority (42 %)
having 2 devices and 9% having between 5 to 7 devices.
Table 1: E-commerce technology adoption by consumers (in
percentage)
Level
ICT
Knowledge
Internet
Knowledge
Internet
quality
None
0
0
0
Average
29
26
59
Good
55
55
33
Very good
16
19
8
Total
100
100
100
Source: Authors.
Having ICT devices is important to engage in to e-
commerce. But, having access to Internet is crucial. 48% of our
respondents connect through their mobile devices especially
smartphone. That Internet source is followed by cable (28%) and
Wi-fi (24%). Concerning Internet providers, Orange (31%) and
MTN (27%) are the main ones as they are the leaders in the mobile
networks in Cameroon. This is related to the fact that many of our
respondents use but mobile connexion. The other Internet sources
are CAMTEL (29%) because it is the main provider Internet
through cable; NEXTEL (7%) and Youmee, Vodafone and
cybercafé (2% respectively). The quality of Internet is very
important as many e-commerce websites use a lot of images,
which are very and the user needs to have a high speed Internet to
browse them. 59% of our respondents find the quality of Internet
Average and 33% find it to be good as depicted in table 1 above.
On average, people are connected 5 hours a day and 5 days per
week. When connected, they go mainly on research engines like
Google, Yahoo and Youtube, Wikipedia; social network like
Facebook, Linkedlin; and some e-commerce website like amazon,
Erudit, Persée, CNN, Jumia, Cdiscount and torrent9 among others.
Concerning applications, our respondents, besides research
engines, they have many social network applications like
Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, Instagram, Messenger, Imo, Viber,
Skype; Scientific applications like Calenda, Adobe reader, Office
Suite, etc.
The above high level of Internet knowledge and
connectivity can justify why 89% of the sample knows electronic
commerce against 11% even though 63% of the sample have never
done any electronic purchase against 37% that have already
bought at least one thing/service through Internet.
Most of our respondents know at least one e-commerce
provider in Cameroon. Jumia is the e-commerce website which is
mostly known (44%). The other e-commerce providers known by
the sample are Amazon, Cdiscount, SellamQuick (6%
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respectively) ; Redoute, Africeleb.com, Orange, MTN, Vision
confort, Kaymu, Facebook, Kerawa, FNAC, Ebay CAMUDI,
Google book (2% respectively). As it can be seen, all those
providers supply various products/services and are located in
Cameroon and abroad. Furthermore, 51% of them consult
advertisement on Internet against 49% who do not.
4-3. Becoming a long lasting e-commerce consumer in
Cameroon
E-commerce is not widely spread in Cameroon. In fact,
according to the magazine Investir au Cameroun (2015), about 2%
of Cameroonians buy or sell on Internet. So, what prevents
Cameroonians to buy things/services through Internet? It is the
lack of trust that stops people to do any electronic transaction
(41%). Other reasons include, in order of importance, complicated
transactions (23%), questionable quality of products sold (15%),
lack of personal data protection (9%) and long delivery time (6%).
57% of those who are reluctant to buying online know at least one
person who has experience electronic commerce. 62% of them
were satisfied with their experience while 13% were not. Despite
that satisfactory experience of their relative, what could change
the mind of some skeptics are the reduced prices of
products/services, the trust in the system and companies and
finally, the facilitation of the process. For others, nothing can
make them to change their minds towards e-commerce.
Many reasons can explain why some people decide to buy
products/services online. First, buying online help to save time
(41%). In fact, to make an online transaction, you can stay where
you are- at the office, at school, etc.-, place an order and finally
receive you product/service where you have indicated to your
seller without to his shop. Second, prices are low compared to the
traditional market (23%). This can be explained by the fact that
those who sell via Internet have reduced fixed costs and therefore
can set a reduced selling price. Third, there is a large variety of
products/services available and accessible on Internet (32%).
Since you can get access to many offers on Internet in a short
period of time, consumer can easily compare the quality and the
prices before taking any decision, what is not hard to do in the
traditional commerce. Finally, through e-commerce, consumers
can get access to products/services that are not available in his
country without needing to travel abroad. All the above reasons
can justify why 77% of those who have already experience e-
commerce have done it at least two times for an amount varying
between 8,000 and 350,000 fCFA per transaction. About 50% of
them faced some difficulties while buying online; the main one
being on the product delivery. This can be explained by the fact
that urban planning is not well done in many Cameroonians cities.
That makes difficult the localisation of consumers for an effective
product delivery. Other difficulties faced include the non-
conformity of the product compared to what was on the website
and the complexity of the process.
V. CONCLUSION
Communication is a prerequisite. With the interconnection
of markets, Internet plays a key-role in trade. However, the usage
of this technique by Cameroonians to make their operations of
sales/purchases is still weak. That is few Cameroonians practice
e-commerce. The main causes identified are the questionable
quality of products, the data protection, the long delivery time and
the lack of confidence. Behind this lack of confidence, we could
identify other limiting factors, which are both psychological and
technical.
To reduce significantly way the reluctances of
Cameroonians towards e-commerce, we suggest to the
Governments, NGOS (NON-GOVERNMENTAL
ORGANIZATIONS) and providers to (i) strengthen the
communication on the merit of this trade technique ; (ii) to secure
and control Internet - strengthen the security of the data-.
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Pour Surveiller Internet », 11 août 2017.
http://www.quotidieneconomie.com/2017/08/11/cybercriminalite-le-plan-
du-gouvernement-pour-surveiller-internet/.
[14] Morgan, Robert Hunt, Shelby ( 1994) « The Commitment-Trust Theory of
Relationship Marketing » VL - 58 the journal of marketing
Legal texts :
[15] (15) Loi N° 2010/013 du 21 Décembre 2010 régissant les communications
électroniques au Cameroun ; HYPERLINK "http://www.atangana-eteme-
emeran.com/IMG/pdf/loi_sur_la_comm_corrigee.pdf"
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 10, Issue 5, May 2020 642
ISSN 2250-3153
This publication is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.
http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.10.05.2020.p10173 www.ijsrp.org
http://www.atangana-eteme-
emeran.com/IMG/pdf/loi_sur_la_comm_corrigee.pdf
[16] HYPERLINK "http://www.camcybersec.cm/wp-
content/uploads/2013/02/Decret-2012-1643-PM-du-14-juin-2012.pdf"
cret n° 2 012/164 3 /pm du 2012 Jun 14, 2012 - des réseaux de
communications électroniques et des systèmes ... Vu la loi n°2010/013 du 21
décembre 2010 régissant les communications HYPERLINK
"http://www.camcybersec.cm/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Decret-2012-
1643-PM-du-14-juin-2012.pdf" http://www.camcybersec.cm/wp-
content/uploads/2013/02/Decret-2012-1643-PM-du-14-juin-2012.pdf
[17] Loi 2015/006 du 20 avril 2015 modifiant et complétant certaines
dispositions de la loi n° 2010/013 du 21 Décembre 2010 régissant les
communications électroniques au Cameroun
HYPERLINK
"https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2
&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiW9NiTz9bVAhUBuRoKHYkCA_MQ
FggsMAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fkalieu-elongo.com%2Fwp-
content%2Fuploads%2F2016%2F03%2FLoi-n%25C2%25B02015-
r%25C3%25A9gissant-les-communications-%25C3%25A9lectroniques-au-
cameroun.docx&usg=AFQjCNGCeJDEK78L72gKM5DjGP18VyhsvQ"
[18] https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&
cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiW9NiTz9bVAhUBuRoKHYkCA_MQFg
gsMAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fkalieu-elongo.com%2Fwp-
content%2Fuploads%2F2016%2F03%2FLoi-n%25C2%25B02015-
r%25C3%25A9gissant-les-communications-%25C3%25A9lectroniques-au-
cameroun.docx&usg=AFQjCNGCeJDEK78L72gKM5DjGP18VyhsvQ
AUTHORS
First Author EHODE ELAH Raoul, PhD, Research officer at
the Department of Economics and Environment, Cameroon
Academic of youth scientist (CAYS) member,
National Centre for Education, ehoderaoul@yahoo.fr / 00237
694 15 14 68
Second Author MAKOUDEM TENE Marienne, Research
officer at the Department of Economics and Environment,
National Centre for Education, makoudem2005@yahoo.fr ; Tel :
00237677715355
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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Extending the Commitment-Trust Model: Suggestions for Future Research Agenda
  • P Laksamana
  • D H Wong
Laksamana, P. and Wong, D.H. (2009): "Extending the Commitment-Trust Model: Suggestions for Future Research Agenda" ANZMAC.
« Développement du commerce électronique en Afrique: le cas du Sénégal », Programme d'Assistance Coordonnée à l'Afrique dans le domaine des services CAPASConsultant/Chercheur HYPERLINK
  • A Ndiaye
Ndiaye, A. (1999) : « Développement du commerce électronique en Afrique: le cas du Sénégal », Programme d'Assistance Coordonnée à l'Afrique dans le domaine des services CAPASConsultant/Chercheur HYPERLINK "mailto:abdoulay@sonatel.sn" abdoulay@sonatel.sn
« La règlementation du commerce électronique dans la CEMAC, contribution à l'émergence d'un marché commun numérique
  • S H M Tchabo
Tchabo, S. H. M. (2014): « La règlementation du commerce électronique dans la CEMAC, contribution à l'émergence d'un marché commun numérique », Thèse pour le Doctorat/Ph. D. en Droit Présentée et soutenue publiquement le 17 avril2014, Faculté des Sciences Juridiques et Politiques, Université de Dschang.
E-commerce in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
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