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Abusive supervision and knowledge sharing: moderating roles of Islamic work ethic and learning goal orientation



Purpose The purpose of this paper is to extend the scant literature on the effect of abusive supervision on knowledge sharing by examining the roles of Islamic work ethic and learning goal orientation in moderating the effect. Design/methodology/approach This paper utilizes a cross-lagged survey research design to collect data from 735 employees working in the services and manufacturing sectors of Pakistan. Findings The data analysis revealed that abusive supervision has a damaging effect on knowledge sharing in the workplace. However, employee learning goal orientation and the Islamic work ethic help in mitigating this detrimental effect. Research limitations/implications The main theoretical implication is to advance knowledge on the boundary conditions that help in mitigating the undesirable effect of abusive supervision on sharing of knowledge in organizational settings. Practical implications This paper provides practical insights into mitigating the damaging effects of abusive supervision, a prevalent issue in Asian societies, through the lenses of Islamic business ethics and learning goal orientation. Originality/value This is the first study that examines the boundary conditions placed by the Islamic work ethic and learning goal orientation around the relationship between abusive supervision and knowledge sharing in the context of Pakistan.
Abusive supervision and
knowledge sharing: moderating
roles of Islamic work ethic and
learning goal orientation
Talat Islam
Institute of Business Administration, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Saima Ahmad
Graduate School of Business and Law, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
Ahmad Kaleem
Department of Management, Central Queensland University Melbourne Campus,
Melbourne, Australia, and
Khalid Mahmood
Department of Information Management, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to extend the scant literature on the effect of abusive supervision on
knowledge sharing by examining the roles of Islamic work ethic and learning goal orientation in moderating
the effect.
Design/methodology/approach This paper utilizes a cross-lagged survey research design to collect data
from 735 employees working in the services and manufacturing sectors of Pakistan.
Findings The data analysis revealed that abusive supervision has a damaging effect on knowledge sharing
in the workplace. However, employee learning goal orientation and the Islamic work ethic help in mitigating
this detrimental effect.
Research limitations/implications The main theoretical implication is to advance knowledge on the
boundary conditions that help in mitigating the undesirable effect of abusive supervision on sharing of
knowledge in organizational settings.
Practical implications This paper provides practical insights into mitigating the damaging effects of
abusive supervision, a prevalent issue in Asian societies, through the lenses of Islamic business ethics and
learning goal orientation.
Originality/value This is the first study that examines the boundary conditions placed by the Islamic work
ethic and learning goal orientation around the relationship between abusive supervision and knowledge
sharing in the context of Pakistan.
Keywords Learning goal orientation, Islamic work ethic, Abusive leadership, Knowledge sharing
Paper type Research paper
Knowledge sharing (KS) in organizations is recognized as a crucial success factor for
improving business performance and sustainability (Kremer et al., 2019). KS is a two-way
process that involves individual behaviors related to sharing and learning of task-related
information and ideas with colleagues and supervisors to effectively accomplish the
organizational objectives (Kim et al., 2015). A growing body of research supports the
significance of KS, because such behaviors have been linked to an organizations ability to
successfully obtain a competitive edge (Kim et al., 2015). Likewise, positive effects of KS on
team creativity and business innovation have been reported (Jahanzeb et al., 2019).
Islamic work
ethic and
We are thankful to the reviewers for their valuable suggestions.
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
Received 16 August 2019
Revised 22 December 2019
1 March 2020
20 April 2020
Accepted 13 May 2020
Management Decision
© Emerald Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/MD-08-2019-1069
This highlights the significance of a focused examination of the factors impacting KS
behavior amongst employees.
While much of the extant literature has examined individual and organizational factors
that promote KS (Jiang and Gu, 2016), research into the barriers of KS remains limited
(Wu and Lee, 2016;Javed et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2015). For example, many studies support the
influence of positive leadership styles in improving KS (Han et al., 2016;Le and Lei, 2018;
Yadav et al., 2019), whereas only a few studies explore the influence of destructive leadership
on KS (see, e.g. Feng and Wang, 2019;Khalid et al., 2018, for exceptions). Progress in the
theory requires an in-depth understanding not only of the factors that boost KS but also those
that impede it, so that efforts can be made to offset them. In regard to impeding factors, recent
studies have shown that abusive supervision, a form of destructive leadership, seriously
impedes KS (Feng and Wang, 2019). Abusive supervision is conceptualized as a destructive
leadership behavior that represents the extent to which employees perceive their supervisors
have engaged in a sustained display of insolent and hostile nonphysical behaviors at work
(Tepper, 2000). It is a prevalent problem in contemporary organizations that is positively
associated with knowledge hiding in the workplace (Feng and Wang, 2019;Khalid et al., 2018;
Zweig and Scott, 2018). The present study offers an in-depth understanding of the influence of
abusive supervision on KS through a focus on identifying boundary conditions in their
relationship. We focus on abusive supervision because supervisors are often the
organizational decision-makers; hence it is important to examine how their actions
influence positive and discretionary behaviors in the workplace (such as KS).
Specifically, this paper examines the roles of the Islamic work ethic (IWE, which
represents individualsdedication to work as a virtue) and learning goal orientation (LGO,
which refers to individualsorientation toward acquiring knowledge, competencies and new
skills) in moderating the effect of abusive supervision on KS. We focus on these two factors
because research shows that specific individual orientations moderate the influence of
organizational factors on work behavior (Jahanzeb et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2016). For example,
the theoretical underpinnings of the IWE explain that individuals are generally motivated to
acquire knowledge and cooperate with coworkers (Javed et al., 2019;Khalid et al., 2018;
Murtaza et al., 2016). Similarly, LGO explains an individuals general tendency to learn new
ideas and acquire new skills in a social setting (Bandura, 1977). In such circumstances, it is
argued, the effect of abusive supervision on KS will differ.
More specifically still, this paper presents the results of an empirical study that was
undertaken to test this perspective by obtaining data from real-work settings in the context of
Pakistan. This specific context provides an appropriate setting to conduct the current study,
because the countrys high power distance culture makes abusive supervision more likely
(Vogel et al., 2015). In doing so, this paper contributes to knowledge on mitigating the adverse
effects of abusive supervision through a deeper understanding of individualsorientations
toward ethics and learning.
This paper is structured as follows. First, a review of the key concepts and theories for this
research is provided before presenting development of research hypotheses. Second, the
research data and methods are described. Third, analysis and interpretation of the studys
results are presented. Finally, the implications of this studys results are discussed.
Literature review and hypotheses development
Abusive supervision and KS. Knowledge is recognized as a vital organizational resource, and
KS as a key ingredient for organizational success (Choi, Kim and Yun, 2019). To date,
extensive efforts have been devoted to understanding the antecedents of KS. Research has
shown that personality traits, organizational commitment and trust are important individual-
level antecedents of KS (Wu and Lee, 2016;Kim et al., 2016). Likewise, organizational culture,
human resources (HR) support and reward systems have been identified as organizational-
level antecedents of KS (Liu and Liu, 2011;Wu and Lee, 2016). It has been revealed that
employeesdecisions about KS largely depend on how they are treated by coworkers,
and especially leaders, in the workplace (Choi et al., 2019). Consequently, a number of
studies have focused on leadership styles as antecedents of KS (Srivastava et al., 2006;
Bavik et al., 2018).
One particularly destructive form of leadership known as abusive supervision has been
recently identified as an antecedent of KS (Choi et al., 2019;Feng and Wang, 2019). Abusive
supervision is prevalent in organizations worldwide (Aryee et al., 2008). It significantly lowers
employee discretionary work behaviors, such as organizational citizenship behavior
(Lyu et al., 2016), and increases employee turnover and deviant work behavior (Agarwal,
2019;Aryee et al., 2008;Han et al., 2016;Javed et al., 2019;Pradhan and Jena, 2017;Yang et al.,
2019). Abusive supervision has also been associated with eliciting other forms of negative
attitudes and behaviors in employees such as psychological distress and emotional
exhaustion (Martinko et al., 2013;Tepper, 2000;Peltokorpi, 2019). Since supervisors generally
perform important responsibilities in organizations, including decision-making, it is
important to examine how their behavior affects KS in the workplace.
This influence can be examined in the light of the norm of reciprocity, according to which,
when one behaves well toward others, one expects to receive a similar kind of treatment from
others in return (see also Gouldner, 1960). Drawing on this perspective, Cropanzano and
Mitchell (2005) explain the notion of negative reciprocity in the case of adverse treatment at
work (e.g. abusive supervision). The present study applied this notion to understanding the
relationship between abusive supervision and KS in order to argue that employees exposed to
supervisory abuse may negatively reciprocate this behavior by not sharing knowledge. This
is because a direct negative reciprocation of the supervisors behaviors and actions will be
challenging for the targeted employee because of his/her superior authority (Cropanzano and
Mitchell, 2005). In such situations, individuals are more likely to engage in organizational
deviance (Javed et al., 2019). Organizational deviance exemplifies behaviors such as work
sabotage, absenteeism, lying, theft and spreading malicious rumors (Kirrane et al., 2019;
Agarwal, 2019). Similarly, employees may reciprocate more passively by withholding
sharing of important information and knowledge that benefit the supervisor and other
organizational representatives in order to assuage the pain they themselves experience from
the abuse. Indeed, recent research has linked abusive supervision with knowledge hiding
behavior (Feng and Wang, 2019). This leads to our first hypothesis:
H1. Abusive supervision may negatively impact employee KS behaviors.
In view of these grave consequences of abusive supervision, it is important to examine factors
that can moderate or buffer the negative impact (Kirrane et al., 2019). In this regard, Kim et al.
(2016) noted that individual-level orientations may interact with the process of how
employees are affected by abusive supervision. We therefore examine whether the IWE and
LGO influence the effect of abusive supervision on KS in the following sections.
The moderating role of IWE
IWE has emerged as a comprehensive, moderate and realisticbranch of work ethics that is
based on the divine command theoryand uses religion to identify ethical behavior
(bin Salahudin et al., 2016, p. 582). Specifically, IWE is grounded in the ethical perspective of
Islam, which contributes a distinct perspective to the field of the work ethic and associated
decision-making, in comparison to the industrial capitalism-based Western perspective
(Ali and Al-Owaihan, 2008). According to Ali and Al-Owaihan (2008), Max Webers seminal
essay on The Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism sparked scholarly interest on
Islamic work
ethic and
the work ethic in the context of religion in the Western world. The authors note that the
Western perspective on the work ethic is largely influenced by values and beliefs held by the
European society, in particular those associated with industrial capitalism, and differs from
the values and beliefs held by other societies (p. 5). They demonstrate this notion further by
reflecting on Confucian and Islamic civilizations, where accumulation and sharing of
knowledge over centuries has shaped these societiesoutlook toward work and enterprise.
For example, the IWE has its origin in the Quran, [and] the sayings and practice of Prophet
Mohammed, who preached that hard work caused sins to be absolved(Yousef, 2001, p. 153).
While this perspective attached a positive meaning to work in the 7th century, it is strongly
aligned with contemporary thinking about meaningful work in 21st century organizations.
The Quran encourages fairness and justice in human dealings and emphasizes acquisition
and sharing of knowledge. The Quran (5:8) says:
O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah, witnesses in justice, and do not let
the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just; that is nearer
to righteousness. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is Acquainted with what you do.
and not equal are the good deed and the bad. Repel (evil) by that (deed) which is better(Quran, 41:34).
We provide for them as sustenance, and [who] repel evil with good.(Quran, 13:22)
In the sayings of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him), the most generous
people after me will be those who will acquire knowledge and then share/distribute it. They
will come on the Day of Judgment singly, like a ruler (Al-Tirmidhi, [Hadith, 93])(cited from
Khalid et al., 2018, p. 797).
Abusive supervision is a violation of justice principles because in such a situation
employees perceive they are unfairly treated by their supervisors (see also Ahmad, 2018).
Hence they negatively reciprocate abusive supervision by withholding knowledge (Feng and
Wang, 2019). However, knowledge hiding is viewed as a curse under the IWE. Quran (2:159)
says: Indeed, those who conceal what We sent down of clear proofs and guidance after We
made it clear for the people in the Scripture those are cursed by Allah and cursed by those
who curse. The ethical principles of Islam see dedication to work as a virtue and emphasize
cooperation and consultation as means of overcoming work challenges. According to the
IWE, cooperation and developing good social relations at work is an approach for bringing
harmony to individual and social life (Yousef, 2001). The IWE is also associated with a higher
work responsibility, which motivates people to share their knowledge and experiences with
coworkers (Hassan et al., 2018). Indeed, the literature on IWE clearly suggests that it brings
positivity to the workplace (Murtaza et al., 2016;Alam and Talib, 2016). The 11 most frequent
words in the IWE literature include terms such as employees,organization,knowledge,
relationship,sharingand manager(Kalemci and Tuzun, 2019, p. 1,006).
The IWE stresses that individuals should cope with challenging situations and
discourage negative actions (Javed et al., 2019). Both Javed et al. (2019) and Murtaza et al.
(2016) have argued that abusive supervision increases deviant organizational behavior, and
they demonstrate that IWE lessens such deviance. A recent study by Khalid et al. (2018)
shows that subordinates with IWE do not hide knowledge as a consequence of supervisory
abuse. Accordingly, it is argued that IWE can buffer the negative effect of abusive
supervision on KS. This leads to our second hypothesis:
H2. IWE moderates the relationship between abusive supervision and KS.
The moderating role of LGO
LGO has been defined as a relatively stable dispositional trait that describes the extent to
which individuals strive to understand something new or increase their level of competence in
a given activity(Sosik et al., 2004, pp. 243244). In other words, LGO represents individuals
motivation toward acquiring new skills and improving their work-related competencies.
Individuals with a high LGO are keen to acquire knowledge in order to develop their personal
competencies (Dweck and Leggett, 1988), and are more self-motivated to share and apply it
(Zacher and Jimmieson, 2013). Since KS provides individuals with an opportunity to learn
from others based on the norm of reciprocity, as discussed above, those with a higher LGO are
less likely to withhold KS in the presence of abusive supervision. There are additional
justifications to support the moderation of LGO in the abusive supervision and KS
For example, individuals with a higher LGO tend to easily adjust to changing
circumstances and readily respond to challenges (VandeWalle et al., 1999). This tendency
improves their ability to handle difficult work situations such as abusive supervision. Past
research has shown that individuals who lack social adaptability skills are more adversely
affected by abusive supervision (Mackey et al., 2013). This also implies that individuals with
high LGO can better cope with abusive supervision than individuals with low LGO (see
Figure 1).
While research on the interaction between abusive supervision and LGO is sparse,
Zacher and Jimmieson (2013) have called for research in this area in order to better
understand the leadership process. They found that self-motivated individuals are more
driven by internal factors and thus are less likely to be affected by external factors such as
leadership. This implies that individuals with a low LGO may not share knowledge in the
presence of abusive supervision because of their lower learning motivation. Similarly, Gong
et al. (2009) have argued that, because individuals with a high LGO are more focused on self-
improvement, they are less affected by abusive supervision. Since KS and learning provide
opportunities for individual improvement (Swift et al., 2010), those working under abusive
supervisors may continue to share knowledge in the workplace. Further, the study by Zacher
and Jimmieson (2013) showed that high LGO strengthens the positive association between
transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. Based on these
arguments, it is hypothesized that:
H3. LGO moderates the relationship between abusive supervision and KS.
Participants and procedure
This study examines the moderating roles of IWE and LGO in the relationship between
abusive supervision and KS in the real-work settings of Pakistan. Our study is contextualized
in Pakistani work settings because over 95% of the countrys population are followers of
Islam, and accordingly the IWE is more likely to be reflected in their day-to-day work
Islamic work
Learning goal
shari ng
Figure 1.
Hypothesized model
Islamic work
ethic and
dealings (Jahanzeb et al., 2019). The research data were collected through a cross-lagged
survey of employees working in manufacturing and service-sector organizations in
the Punjab province of Pakistan. The Punjab is considered an economic hub of
Pakistan, where both manufacturing and services represent major economic activities of
the emerging knowledge-based economy (Javed et al., 2019). The surveys were administered
during AprilNovember 2018, and sought anonymous participation of employees on a
convenience basis (Cooksey, 2007). The participants were approached by seeking permission
from their HR managers. The HR managers were requested to identify staff members
working in roles that require higher input of knowledge because KS was the focus in this
research. The confidentiality of their responses was assured.
Our target sample size was 940, which is based on the item-response theory with the
underlying criteria of 20 responses for each of the measured items (i.e. 47 items x 20; see also
Islam and Tariq, 2018;Islam et al., 2019a;Ahmad and Islam, 2019). We distributed an equal
number of surveys to employees in the manufacturing- and service-sector organizations (i.e.
470 each). Potential participants were informed in advance about their receiving the survey
copies at the beginning of a work day, and these were to be collected at the end of the same
day. This practice is associated with a higher response rate (Islam et al., 2019b).
Since the data were collected from the same source (i.e. employees), common method bias
(CMB) was a potential concern (Podsakoff et al.,2012). To alleviate CMB, we utilized two-
wave survey design by separating the measurement of independent, moderating and
dependent variables over time. That is, the data were collected in two-time lags, such that
data on abusive supervision, LGO and IWE were collected in the first time period (T1), and
data on KS (dependent variable) were collected in the second time period (T2) with an
interval of 15 days between them. At T1, responses from 412 employees in the
manufacturing sector and 418 employees from the services sector were received. Since HR
managers briefed the research team about changes in work shifts (i.e. from daytime to a
nighttime duty) occurring on a fortnightly basis, an interval of 15 days was selected. At T2,
346 responses from the manufacturing-sector employees and 412 responses from the
services-sector employees were received, representing 54.35 and 45.65% of the total
responses (i.e. 758), respectively.
More than half the respondents were male (N5423, 57.5%) and majority were young (e.g.
54.14% were aged between 26 and 35 years). These figures align with the broader population
statistics of Pakistan, where males outnumber females, with more than two-thirds of the
population below 35 years of age (Pakistan Demographics Profile, 2019). Most respondents
had completed a masters degree (N5630, 85.71%).
This studys constructs were measured on a 5-point Likert scale with response options
ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).
KS: Van den Hooff and De Ridders (2004) 10-item scale was used to measure KS. This
scale has been previously validated in the context of Pakistan by Islam et al. (2019c). The
scales reliability was acceptable with a Cronbachs alpha of 0.84. An example item is: I share
my skills with colleagues within my organization.
Abusive supervision: Teppers (2000) widely applied abusive supervision scale was used to
measure the construct with the help of 15 items (e.g. Wang et al., 2012;Javed et al., 2019). An
example item is: My boss puts me down in front of others. The reliability value for this scale
was 0.78.
LGO: This study utilized Brett and VandeWalles (1999) 5-item scale to measure LGO and
noted a value of 0.88 in terms of the scales reliability in our studys context. An example item
is: I often look for opportunities to develop new skills and knowledge.
IWE: This was measured with the help of Alis (1992) 17-item scale, which has been
previously validated by Murtaza et al. (2016) in the Pakistani context. This scale was found
reliable with a Cronbachs alpha value of 0.81. An example item is: Good work benefits both
ones self and others.
Control variables: Previous research has suggested that gender (Restubog et al., 2011), age
(Farh et al., 1997) and qualification-levels (Tepper et al., 2000) significantly impact employees
reaction to negative leadership styles. Hence the present study controlled for these three
variables in the analysis.
Data analysis and results
The data were examined for missing values, outliers, normality and collinearity to ensure
their fitness for hypothesis testing. Following the recommendations of Sekaran (2003), this
study removed 14 responses with more than 15% of missing values from the analysis. Data
outliers were examined through the Mahalanobis distance procedure (at p< 0.00) by
following the instructions of Kline (2005), which resulted in the deletion of nine outlying cases.
Normality of the data was examined on the basis of kurtosis (±3) and skewness (±1) values
(Byrne, 2010). Finally, collinearity was examined on the basis of bivariate correlations, and all
values were found to be lower than 0.85 (see Table 2 for details), and hence acceptable for
further analysis (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2007). All in all, 735 responses were retained for
analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).
This study collected the data at two different points of time to tackle CMB, we also applied
Harmans single factor test to detect this issue. The results showed that single factor
extracted 32.47% of the total variance which is well below the standard value of 50%
(Podsakoff et al., 2003). Therefore, CMB was not considered as a problematic issue for the
present study. Furthermore, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed because
the studys measures were adapted from previous studies (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988).
In CFA, the model fit indices were examined by considering the values of x
/df, CFI,
goodness-of-fit index (GFI), standardized root mean residual (SRMR) and root mean square
error of approximation (RMSEA) (Williams et al., 2009). As can be seen from Table 1, the
results from CFA indicate acceptable model fit indices (x
/df 52.59, CFI 50.88, GFI 50.87,
SRMR 50.091 and RMSEA 50.076) with factor loadings for all items above 0.50 (Fornell and
Larcker, 1981). The values of a few error terms associated with the same latent factor were
Variables 1 2 3 4 Mean SD
1. Abusive leadership 1 3.89 0.57 0.78
2. Islamic work ethics (IWEs) 0.14* 1 4.01 0.64 0.81
3. Learning goal orientation (LGO) 0.28** 0.34** 1 3.78 0.66 0.89
4. Knowledge sharing (KS) 0.22** 0.42** 0.11* 1 3.28 0.74 0.84
Note(s):*p< 0.05, **p0.01
Cut-off values 30.90 0.90 0.08 0.08
CFA (Initial) 1,123.43/434 52.59 0.88 0.87 0.091 0.076
CFA (Modified) 1,119.86/453 52.47 0.92 0.91 0.056 0.048
Table 2.
Correlation, mean,
standard deviation and
Cronbachs alpha
Table 1.
Goodness-of-fit indices
Islamic work
ethic and
high, and hence covaried to further improve the model fit indices (x
/df 52.47, CFI 50.92,
GFI 50.91, SRMR 50.056 and RMSEA 50.048).
The data were examined for discriminant and convergent forms of validity in the light of
composite reliability (CR) and average variance extracted (AVE) values. In accordance with
Byrne (2010), the values of CR and AVE were well above their cut-off values of 0.60 and 0.50,
respectively (see Table A1). Moreover, the values of Cronbachs alpha were also above
0.70 (Hair et al., 2010;Islam et al., 2019d).
The results of descriptive analysis are presented in Table 2. The mean values of abusive
supervision, IWE, LGO and KS were 3.89, 4.01, 3.78 and 3.28, respectively. Abusive
supervision was positively correlated with IWE (r50.14, p< 0.05) and negatively correlated
with both KS (r50.22, p< 0.01) and LGO (r50.28, p< 0.01).
Hypotheses testing
The study used hierarchical regression to test the research hypotheses. The results showed
that abusive supervision was negatively associated with KS (β50.34, p< 0.01), hence
supporting H1. The moderating roles of IWE and LGO in the relationship between abusive
supervision and KS (H2 and H3, respectively) were examined on the basis of standardized
values of the three-step hierarchical regression analysis (Judd et al., 2001). In the first step,
age, gender and qualification-level were entered as control variables. In the second step,
independent (i.e. abusive supervision) and moderating (i.e. LGO and IWE) variables were
entered. In the final step, two interaction terms (i.e. abusive supervision 3IWE and abusive
supervision 3LGO) were entered in the analysis to determine their significance. Table 3
presents the results.
Table 3 shows a significant negative impact of abusive supervision on KS (β50.34,
SE 50.052, p< 0.01) and a significant positive impact of abusive supervision on LGO
(β50.11, SE 50.068, p< 0.05). The impact of abusive supervision on IWE (β50.07,
SE 50.124, p> 0.05) was nonsignificant (with 12% of variation in R
in the second step). The
interaction between abusive supervision and IWE (β50.21, SE 50.038, p< 0.01), as well as
the interaction between abusive supervision and LGO (β50.19, SE 50.052, p< 0.01), were
Variable BSE t
Step 1: Control variables
Age 0.11* 0.08 2.03
Gender 0.08 0.12 0.72
Qualification 0.16* 0.07 3.69
Step2: Independent and moderating variables
Abusive supervision 0.34** 0.052 4.93
IWE 0.07 0.124 0.68
LGO 0.11* 0.068 1.99
Step 3: Interactional term
Abusive supervision 3IWE 0.21** 0.038 4.97
Abusive supervision 3LGO 0.19** 0.052 3.18
Note(s): Dependent variable 5Knowledge sharing, *p< 0.05, **p< 0.01
Table 3.
Hierarchical regression
results for moderation
both significant (with 31% of the variation in R
). We also performed a simple slope analysis
of these interaction terms. As can be seen from Figure 2, the influence of abusive supervision
on KS was weaker when IWE was high compared to when it was low. This supported H2.
Similarly, Figure 3 shows that the influence of abusive supervision on KS was stronger
when LGO was low compared to when it was high. Hence, H3 was also supported.
The emergence of knowledge economies in the global arena has placed KS at the forefront of
the contemporary business and management agenda. This study supports abusive
supervision as a hindrance factor in achieving this agenda by investigating its direct and
interactive effects on KS. While information and knowledge are critical enabling factors for
organizational success and sustainability (Kim et al., 2016), this research showed that KS is
severely disrupted when supervisors, perceived as decision-makers (Jiang and Gu, 2016),
Low Abusive Supervision High Abusive Supervision
Knowledge Sharing
High IWE
Low Abusive Supervision High Abusive Supervision
Knowledge Sharing
High LGO
Figure 2.
The moderation of
IWE in the relationship
between abusive
supervision and KS
Figure 3.
The moderation of
LGO in the relationship
between abusive
supervision and KS
Islamic work
ethic and
engage in abusive conduct. Given the prevalence of abusive supervision in contemporary
workplaces, with a growing body of evidence on its harmful impact on employees and
organizations alike (Mackey et al., 2013;Tepper, 2000;Wang et al., 2012), scholars have
stressed the need to examine factors that moderate that impact (see, e.g. Jiang and Gu, 2016;
Yang et al., 2019). Building on the research that linked abusive supervision with a range of
counterproductive and deviant behaviors in organizations (Wang et al., 2012;Yang et al.,
2019), the present study examined its association with a positive work behavior (i.e. KS).
Specifically, considering the norm of reciprocity (see also Gouldner, 1960) as a theoretical lens,
we explained the role of abusive supervision in disrupting sharing of knowledge in the
workplace. Although employees retaliate against the hostile actions of their supervisors
(Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005;Gouldner, 1960), given the authority and control of
supervisors over job advancement and rewards any direct confrontation could be
problematic. Since employees are generally autonomous in terms of making decisions
related to their knowledge (Srivastava et al., 2006), the findings of the present study show that
those working under abusive supervision withhold KS in the workplace. This finding is in
line with other studies suggesting that abusive supervision is requited through knowledge
hiding behavior in the workplace (Choi et al., 2019;Feng and Wang, 2019;Jahanzeb et al.,
2019). The displaced aggression theory(see also Dollard et al., 1939) offers an alternative
explanation of this studys finding of the negative relationship between abusive supervision
and KS. According to this theory, the targets of aggression do not retaliate against the
perpetrator overtly; rather they react covertly by withholding knowledge from coworkers
(Khalid et al., 2018;Mitchell and Ambrose, 2012).
Nonetheless, we further investigated why some employees would still engage in KS
despite abusive supervision. In fact, a valuable finding of the present study is that employees
IWE and LGO moderate this process, because the influence of abusive supervision on KS was
found weaker among employees with a high IWE and a high LGO. Through this finding, this
paper not only contributes to the growing literature on the harm associated with abusive
supervision, but also extends the scant literature on moderating that harm.
Implications of the present study
The present study has several important implications for management theory and practice.
First, it offers a noteworthy insight by viewing business ethics through the lens of IWE,
which helps in understanding when the harmful effects of abusive supervision are
mitigated in organizational settings. Although the IWE is based on the teachings of Islam,
where individuals are encouraged to acquire and share knowledge with others and to
respond to bad actions with constructive behavior, the implications of these teachings in
regulating moral and ethical work behavior can be considered universal. This is because
the literature has recognized that the universal application of IWE makes it a powerful tool
for studying differences in work orientation and commitment across cultures(Kalemci and
Tuzun, 2019, p. 1,006). Through a comparative study between IWE and the Protestant
work ethic (PWE), Kalemci and Tuzun (2019) demonstrate that both types of literatures
view work as a divine calling and associated with similar characteristics in business
contexts (Kalemci and Tuzun, 2019). The authors advocated the universal application of
IWE because it also incorporates dimensions that are not specifically addressed by PWE.
For example, the IWE emphasizes intention, not just the outcome, as a measure of morality
(Yousef, 2001;Ali and Al-Owaihan, 2008;Kalemci; Tuzun, 2019). Previous research has
confirmed the universality of PWE by showing that India (where the predominant religion
is Hinduism) is ranked first in terms of international PWE scores. In addition, the
measure of IWE is inclusive of the universally shared values of hard work and justice
(Ali, 1992).
Second, this study examined the moderation of LGO in the abusive supervision and KS
relationship. Since individuals with high LGO are more likely to behave constructively in
interpersonal matters, given their enthusiasm for learning (Helmy et al., 2014), they are less
affected by abusive supervision when it comes to decisions relating to knowledge.
Third, this studys findings have implications for improving knowledge management
practice in the workplace by demonstrating the significance of supervisory actions in
regulating KS. The findings have conveyed that organizations should not only focus on
employees to improve practice but also on supervisory staff members, because their hostile
actions could disrupt this endeavor. This implies that abusive supervisors should be held
seriously accountable for the unfair treatment of employees. Their participation in decision-
making processes should be curtailed when any signs of abusive conduct are noticed in the
workplace. If such situations occur, supervisors should be coached in terms of developing
their abilities to foster positive relationships with subordinates. Employees should be
given opportunities to participate in decision-making processes in order to strengthen a
knowledge-sharing culture in organizations.
Fourth, the study suggests that organizations should consider assigning ambiguous and
complex tasks to employees with a higher LGO because they are more motivated to learn and
share the new learning with coworkers. Finally, organizations should reward employeesKS
behavior by linking it with the formal reward system to promote that behavior in the
Despite noticeable strengths, the present study also has limitations. This study obtained
self-reported data from employees. However, this approach is associated with CMB
(Podsakoff et al., 2003), although we introduced a time lag in the data collection to minimize
the bias. According to Conway and Lance (2010), certain types of data such as those related to
individual-orientations should be collected with self-reported surveys. This study followed
their recommendation, because employees can best report their IWE, perceive abusive
supervision and indicate their LGO. Still, we cannot infer any causality between abusive
supervision and KS, because this would require experimental and longitudinal research
designs. This limitation should be considered and addressed in designing future research.
Finally, this study is limited to the examination of interactive effects of the IWE and LGO in
the influence of abusive supervision on KS. We urge future studies to also examine relative
interactions between IWE and PWE.
Finally, this paper, through a study of abusive supervision and KS, suggests that
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Questions Loading
Abusive supervisor 0.78 0.60 0.84
My supervisor ...
Ridicules me 0.78
Tells me my thoughts or feelings are stupid 0.81
Gives me the silent treatment 0.73
Puts me down in front of others 0.74
Invades my privacy 0.69
Reminds me of my past mistakes and failures 0.85
Does not give me credit for jobs requiring a lot of effort 0.82
Blames me to save himself/herself embarrassment 0.75
Breaks promises he/she makes 0.79
Expresses anger at me when he/she is mad for another reason 0.83
Makes negative comments about me to others 0.68
Is rude to me 0.88
Does not allow me to interact with my coworkers 0.68
Tells me I am incompetent 0.76
Lies to me 0.80
Learning goal orientation 0.89 0.66 0.87
I am willing to select a challenging work assignment that I can learn a lot
I often look for opportunities to develop new skills and knowledge 0.76
I enjoy challenging and difficult tasks at work where I will learn new skills 0.72
For me, development of my work ability is important enough to take risks 0.80
I prefer to work in situations that require a high level of ability and talent 0.91
Knowledge sharing
When I have learned something new, I see to it that colleagues in my
organization can learn it as well
0.85 0.84 0.58 0.76
I share the information I have with colleagues within my organization 0.77
I share my skills with colleagues within my organization 0.73
When I have learned something new, I see to it that colleagues outside of my
organization can learn it as well
I share the information I have with colleagues outside of my organization 0.68
I share my skills with colleagues outside of my organization 0.67
Colleagues within my organization tell me what they know, when I ask them
about it
Colleagues within my organization tell me what their skills are, when I ask
them about it
Colleagues outside of my organization tell me what they know, when I ask
them about it
Colleagues outside of my organization tell me what their skills are, when I
ask them about it
(continued )
Table A1.
Questionnaire and
confirmatory factor
Islamic work
ethic and
Corresponding author
Talat Islam can be contacted at:
For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website:
Or contact us for further details:
Questions Loading
Islamic work ethic
Laziness is a vice 0.79 0.81 0.56 0.69
Dedication to work is a virtue 0.80
Good work benefits both ones self and others 0.83
Justice and generosity in the workplace are necessary conditions for
societys welfare
Producing more than enough to meet ones personal needs contributes to the
prosperity of society
One should carry work out to the best of ones ability 0.69
Work is not an end but a means to foster personal growth and social
Life has no meaning without work 0.67
More leisure time is not good for society 0.78
Human relations in organizations should be emphasized and encouraged 0.73
Work enables man to control nature 0.81
Creative work is a source of happiness and accomplishment 0.84
Any man who works is more likely to get ahead in life 0.64
Work gives one the chance to be independent 0.73
A successful man is the one who meets deadlines at workplace 0.78
One should constantly work hard to meet responsibilities 0.74
The value of work is derived from the accompanying intention rather than
its results
Table A1.
... Another reason was that PWE is not so valid for non-Protestant communities (Suryani et al., 2021). Because PWE is mostly based on industrial capitalism (Islam et al., 2021) which is contrary to Islamic world. According to Khan et al. (2015), IWE differs from other religious ethics in terms of universally constructed and belonging not only a specific people or professions. ...
... In addition, the nature of POQ causes these employees to perceive the organization as an unfair environment, and this creates pressure on them which leads to the expectation that overqualified employees are inhibiting to reveal KSB (Zhao et al., 2021). As Islam et al.'s (2021) emphasized, despite the fact that there are many studies which examine the factors boosting KSB, there are a few studies which investigate what factors could inhibit KSB. In literature, empirical studies reveal that the relationship between POQ and KSB can be either positive or negative. ...
... Supporting this situation, empirical studies show that there is a positive relationship between IWE and KSB (Murtaza et al., 2016;Suryani et al., 2021). There are also studies indicating the moderating role of IWE in the relationship between KSB and leadership style / supervision type (Islam et al., 2021;Javaid et al., 2018) and innovation capability (Kumar and Rose, 2011) in a positive way. Just like IWE, PWE also emphasized the hardworking, dedication, creativity, cooperation and commitment for employees in organizations in an ethical way . ...
... Previous research has shown that the relations between abusive leadership and employees' negative and resentful behavior can be moderated by other variables such as psychological ownership , Islamic work ethics and learning goal orientation (Islam et al., 2021a) and future role orientation (Islam et al., 2021b). These studies demonstrate that the negative impact of abusive supervision can be buffered by certain moderating variables. ...
Full-text available
Abusive leadership has been shown to have adverse consequences for both the employees and the organization. In the current paper, the impacts of such a leadership style on workers’ turnover intentions (TIs), counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are investigated through a dyadic lens—the mediation of leader-member exchange (LMX). Furthermore, when the workplace atmosphere is also tainted by high level of perceived organizational politics (POP) (as a moderator), these relationships deepen and and/or change (for the worse). To test the moderated-mediation research model, an online sample of 619 participants was obtained. The results support an interesting moderated-mediation of LMX by POP. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations and future research suggestions are discussed.
Full-text available
This research is motivated by the experience of the community who considers that the behavior of rice and egg traders in the Manarap market is contrary to sharia business ethics. The purpose of this study was to determine the business ethics behavior of rice and egg traders in the Manarap market in terms of Islamic business ethics. This research is a field research with a qualitative approach, the number of traders studied is 10 people. Data collection used observation techniques and direct interviews with informants, namely rice and egg traders. The collected data were analyzed based on Islamic business ethics theory. Through a Qualitative Approach, the following findings are obtained: first, the business of rice and egg traders in Manarap Market has implemented Islamic business ethical behavior, which can be seen from several attitudes: honesty, trustworthiness, fairness, sincerity, diligence and hard work, not badmouthing other traders, all rice and egg traders in Manarap Market but in the attitude of working harder there are 2 people who work harder than other traders because they also sell elsewhere. Second, traders who apply Islamic business ethics as a whole, out of 10 informants, only 2 or 20%.
As a country with the biggest Muslim population in the world, Indonesia is a fascinating avenue to conduct studies about Muslim behavior, including in the workplace context. The present study focuses on exploring religiosity’s effect on Islamic work ethic (IWE). Using the 5th and the 7th waves of World Values Survey (WVS) data, in total this study processes 2474 Indonesian Muslim respondents’ data. Among the notable findings is that religiosity has a dynamic effect on IWE. Religiosity is found to positively and significantly influence IWE in the 5th wave (2006) but the significant influence is no longer found in the 7th wave (2018). The authors argue that globalization, secularism, and the new way Muslims learn their religion may be the source of these dynamics. While religiosity does not influence IWE in contemporary times, the authors propose national culture and macroeconomic factors as the prospective factors driving individuals’ IWE. The present study is arguably among the first studies to comprehensively explore IWE as a multidimensional construct, involving both micro (individual-as being represented by religiosity) and macro (societal) perspectives to bring about IWE’s discourses. Additionally, the time-series data this study employed also offer a rich discussion on how religiosity influences (or does not influence) individuals’ IWE.
BACKGROUND: Many recent studies recommend ethical leadership as a key antecedent to improving employee performance in organizations. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, this study aims to examine how ethical leadership affects employee performance by focusing on the role of Islamic work ethics and knowledge sharing. METHODS: Based on data obtained from 196 Muslim employees who work in the three stone milling companies located in Central Java - Indonesia, this study uses a survey in the form of a questionnaire and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based on Amos 24.0 software to test hypotheses in the proposed research model. RESULTS: The results of this study prove that ethical leadership has a significant effect on employee performance, Islamic work ethics, and knowledge sharing. Furthermore, Islamic work ethics and knowledge sharing significantly improve employee performance. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study further confirm that Islamic work ethics and knowledge sharing play an important role in linking ethical leadership and employee performance.
Purpose Workplace bullying is a serious problem among nurses, which results in negative workplace behavior. Therefore, this study aims to understand how workplace bullying affects employees’ knowledge hiding behavior. Specifically, this study explored psychological contract breach as an underlying mechanism between workplace bullying and knowledge hiding; and learning goal orientation as a boundary condition between psychological contract breach and knowledge hiding. Design/methodology/approach The study collected data from 343 nurses working in the health-care sector of Pakistan on convenience basis using a questionnaire-based survey between December 2021 to March 2022. The data were analyzed through structural equation modeling. Findings The results revealed the adverse effect of workplace bullying on knowledge hiding behaviors among nurses, and psychological contract breach was noted to mediate this association. Further, learning goal orientation was noted to buffer the relationship between psychological contract breach and knowledge hiding. Research limitations/implications The cross-section design may restrict causality; however, the findings suggest health-care administration take appropriate measures to reduce the adverse effects of workplace bullying. In addition, the administration is suggested to implement training programs to make nurses capable of dealing with workplace stressors (bullying and psychological contract breach). Originality/value This research provides a novel perspective to consider psychological contract breach as a mechanism between workplace bullying and knowledge hiding in the health-care sector from the conservation of resources perspective. It further explored learning goal orientation as a buffer to mitigate the effect of psychological contract breach on knowledge hiding.
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Quarantine policies introduced in the context of COVID-19 are affecting business operations and slowing down the flow rate of the overall economy. Different degrees and types of threats occur in both the living environment and the working environment during the epidemic prevention, which causes many additional uncertainties. The impact on employees is the identity threat from environment and organizations. This is different from the related research on the identification and impact of the threat before the occurrence of COVID-19. However, in the post-pandemic period, companies continue to strengthen important factors that can increase innovation and recovery, including the role of employee knowledge sharing. The organizational inequity and lack of organizational justice bring about the threat of internal identification in organizations. In order to ensure their own interests in organizations, employees may think twice when sharing knowledge. Therefore, this study explores the relationship among employees’ identity threat, social capital and knowledge sharing behavior from the perspective of organizational behavior. In this study, a sample of high-tech employees was conducted, and a total of 434 questionnaires were obtained. The research results show that employees’ perception of identity threat has a negative impact on knowledge sharing behavior and positively affects social capital; employees’ social capital positively affects their knowledge sharing behaviors; and organizational reward system moderates the relationship between identity threat and knowledge sharing behavior. Based on the comprehensive research findings, this research proposes corresponding theoretical and practical implications.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan antara supervisi kepala sekolah dengankomunikasi interpersonal secara parsial dan simultan dengan etos kerja guru pada SD di kecamatan Taktakan Kota Serang. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian survei dengan jenis penelitian kuantitatif mendekati. Subjek penelitiannya adalah guru sedangkan objek penelitiannya adalah pengawasan kepala sekolah dan komunikasi interpersonal. Hasil yang didapat menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungan antara supervisi kepala sekolah dengan interpersonal komunikasi secara parsial dan simultan signifikan dengan etos kerja guru dalam SD di kecamatan Taktakan Kota Serang.
This study examines the influence of perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) on corporate financial performance (CFP). Based on win-win paradigm, this study uncovers the mediating role of Quality of Work Life (QWL) on CSR-CFP nexus. A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted to accumulate data from 355 employees working in public and private sector banks of Pakistan. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine the hypotheses. The results depict that CSR is positively related with CFP, and employee QWL partially mediates this relationship. According to our noesis, the review of previous literature regarding the association of CSR and CFP reveals that QWL has not been empirically tested as a mediator between these two variables. This study findings proposes that banks engaged in CSR activities are actually establishing a healthy work environment for their employees which ultimately helps the banks to improve their financial performance. This study highlights the importance of CSR activities for enhancing the CFP of the banking sector in the developing countries. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Quality of Work Life, Agency Theory, Financial Performance.
Although organizational culture is believed to provide a set of behavioral guidelines for employees' behavior, the internal mechanism by which organizational green culture influences employees' green behavior is not clear. Therefore, based on the “stimulus–organism–response” theory, a logical model of “organizational green culture–environmental awareness–employees' green behavior” was constructed in this study. A sample of 258 employees was collected from the oil industry to test the hypotheses proposed by the model. The results of hierarchical linear regression showed that employees' environmental awareness had a significantly effect on their green behaviors. In addition, two dimensions of organizational green culture: cognitive green culture and emotional green culture, were identified to raise employees' environmental awareness, which in turn motivate them to perform green behaviors. Furthermore, the indirect effect of employees' environmental awareness between cognitive green culture and employees' green is higher.
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Purpose It is evident that organizations are continuously contributing toward environmental dilapidation. This may be reduced by focusing their employees' involvement in pro-environmental behaviors. Pro-environmental behaviors have ramifications for organizations, employees, leaders and natural environment. Therefore, this study aims at investigating environmental related social responsibility and identification as the predictors of pro-environmental behaviors through the moderating role of empathy in the hospitality sector. Design/methodology/approach This study collected data from 201 pairs (i.e. supervisors and their subordinates) working in the hospitality sector. Findings The study found that employees with high empathy exhibit more pro-environmental behavior and organizational identification when perceiving their organization's involvement in environment-related social responsibilities. Research limitations/implications The data for this study were collected at one point of time and it has implications for organizations and employees. Originality/value This study aims to fill the gap of the underlying mechanism that how perceived CSR affect employee pro-environmental behavior.
Purpose Around 87 percent of employees are not engaged in their work and 82 percent have withdrawal intentions across the globe. Considering these emerging challenges the purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations between inter-role conflicts, work engagement and turnover intention considering person-job-fit (PJF) as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach The data from 343 Punjab police employees were collected on a convenience basis through a questionnaire-based survey. The study used the second generation data analysis technique (i.e. structural equation modeling) in two stages. Findings The results found work engagement as a mediator between inter-role conflicts and turnover intention. In addition, PJF was found to moderate these relations. Research limitations/implications This study collected data from a single province of the county. The study has implications for the academicians and policymakers. Originality/value Considering the emerging challenges to policing, this study is first of its kind to examine the moderating role of PJF. This theoretical model is developed on the basis of conservation of resource theory and field theory.
Drawing on social exchange and displaced aggression theories, this study investigates the mediating role of knowledge hiding in the relationship between employees’ exposure to abusive supervision and their creative performance, as well as the invigorating role of their negative reciprocity beliefs in this process. We collected time-lagged data from employees in a sample of Pakistani organizations and found that an important reason abusive supervision decreases employees’ creativity is that employees reciprocate through self-serving knowledge-hiding behaviour. This mechanism, in turn, is more prominent among employees who score high on negative reciprocity beliefs. This study reveals a key factor, i.e., knowledge hiding, by which abusive supervision hinders employees’ creativity, but our findings indicate that this process is more likely to escalate when employees have negative reciprocity beliefs, which cause them to be more vulnerable to experiencing negative social exchanges.
Purpose Knowledge hiding as an important topic in knowledge management field might be triggered by abusive supervision, but few studies discussed how to alleviate the effect of abusive supervision on knowledge hiding. Drawing on both reactance theory and conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study aims to build a moderated mediation framework to examine effects of abusive supervision on knowledge hiding via job insecurity and under moderation of motivational climate (including mastery climate and performance climate). Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a two-wave survey study among 155 knowledge workers from educational and manufacturing industries. Findings Results show that abusive supervision is not significantly related to knowledge hiding directly but indirectly via job insecurity. Abusive supervision’s interaction with mastery climate is negatively related to knowledge hiding, but its interaction with performance climate is positively related to knowledge hiding. The indirect relation of abusive supervision to knowledge hiding via job insecurity is significantly moderated by mastery climate but not by performance climate. Research limitations/implications Despite contributions, this study also has some limitations. Variables rated from the same source (i.e. employees) may have common method bias although the two-wave design does help alleviate this concern. Practical implications The paper highlights important reasons why people hide knowledge at work (because of abusive supervision and job insecurity) and identifies a boundary condition (mastery climate) which will reduce abusive supervision’s influence on knowledge hiding. Originality/value This paper contributes to knowledge hiding literature which is an important part of knowledge management from the perspective of abusive supervision based on both reactance theory and COR theory.
Purpose The vast majority of research on traditional leadership focuses on effective and positive leadership behavior. However, scholars have begun to pay attention to the impact of negative leadership behavior on employees and the organization. Hence, the main purpose is to examine the effects of abusive supervision. While the literature does not examine the time future orientation of the effects of abusive supervision, the purpose of this paper is to fill up this gap and examine the moderating role of future orientation. Design/methodology/approach A total of 584 valid questionnaires were collected from respondents aged between 21 and 30 years old and analyzed using the hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling method. Findings The main results show that abusive supervision positively affects counterproductive work behavior and future orientation positively moderates both the relationship between abusive supervision and originality behavior and the relationship between abusive supervision and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Originality/value This study demonstrates the moderating roles of future orientation in the effects of abusive supervision, and thus deepens the understanding of the moderating effect. It departs from the prior works and presents a more detailed examination examines the distinct dimensions of personality traits. It makes three main theoretical contributions. First, it introduces uncertainty management theory as a means to interpret the effects of abusive supervision. Second, it contributes to the literature on abusive supervision. Third, it does not lead to discovery as an OCB and originality, conclusions which differ from the results suggested in past literature.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and knowledge sharing behavior in freelancers. Also, the study focuses upon mediation of the relationship by employee engagement and moderation by social support. Design/methodology/approach Confirmatory factor analysis was used to find validity and reliability of the model under study. To study the relation between variables, the Pearson correlation was used. Further, the PROCESS macro of Hayes (2013) was used to test mediation and moderated mediation. Findings Transformational leadership influenced knowledge collecting and knowledge donating behavior in freelancers. The relation was mediated by employee engagement. Social support was found to moderate the mediated path by employee engagement between transformational leadership and knowledge collecting behavior. A similar result was found for knowledge donating behavior as a dependent variable. Research limitations/implications The model under study can be tested in other contexts with extended data. Practical implications The study asserts importance on freelancers in knowledge sharing in client organizations; leaders should take a transformational role to create a culture of free flow of knowledge and information between various types of employees. Originality/value This study is the first to research how transformational leadership, through engagement, motivates freelancers in engaging in knowledge collecting and knowledge donating. The importance of social support is also noted.
Purpose Managers exert considerable effort to foster employee engagement given its positive organisational consequences. However abusive supervision, not uncommon in the organisational context, is said to damage hard-won gains in this arena. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the deleterious effects of abusive supervision on engagement can be attenuated. Specifically, the paper examines the moderating role of team psychological empowerment (TPE) in the negative relationship between abusive supervision and engagement. Design/methodology/approach The paper employs survey data from a diverse sample of 191 employees. Findings Abusive supervision is negatively associated with employee engagement. TPE moderates the negative relationship between abusive supervision and engagement (vigour and dedication components). Research limitations/implications The use of self-report measures in this cross-sectional study limits the generalisability of the findings and inferences of causality. Future studies should replicate this investigation among intact teams. Practical implications Interventions designed to build team effective team dynamics are accessible and fruitful approaches managers can use to counteract the destructive effects of abusive supervision. Originality/value Managers need to have multiple routes to address the challenges raised by prevalent abusive supervision. The study highlights that working to enhance team dynamics is a cogent strategy to deal with this destructive feature of many organisational contexts.
In this article, we examined the relationship between abusive supervision and deviant workplace behavior and the moderating role of an Islamic Work Ethic. Three hundred and thirty‐six employees in different organizations (specializing in software development, medicine, law enforcement, telecommunication, pharmaceutics, and banking) across Pakistan completed our questionnaire. The results revealed that abusive supervision was positively related to deviant workplace behavior. Moreover, the moderation of an Islamic Work Ethic on the relationship between abusive supervision and deviant work behavior was confirmed. The study contributed in many ways. It expanded literature by revealing a weaker relationship between abusive supervision and deviant behavior when Islamic Work Ethic (IWE) was high. It also tested the conservation of resources theory by providing a plausible reasoning of the role of IWE in employee motivation. By integrating IWE as a resource in the workplace, practitioners would learn that the proper use of resources would produce satisfied workers who would not indulge in deviant workplace behaviors.
Innovation—the implementation of creative ideas—is one of the most important factors of competitive advantage in 21st century organizations. Yet, leaders do not always encourage employee behaviors that are critical for innovation. We integrate existing literature on the critical factors that serve as antecedents of innovation, including employee voice and knowledge sharing, which in turn lead to creativity and innovation. Based on existing empirical research, we offer evidence-based recommendations for managers to become innovation leaders by: (1) developing the right group norms, (2) designing teams strategically, (3) managing interactions with those outside the team, (4) showing support as a leader, (5) displaying organizational support, and (6) using performance management effectively.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a moderated mediation model wherein abusive supervision predicts subordinate’s stress and turnover intentions through Psychological Capital (PsyCap). Leader–member exchange (LMX) moderates the abusive supervision-outcome relationship through PsyCap. Design/methodology/approach Two wave data were collected from 1,193 full-time employees across organizations in India. Findings Results suggest that abusive supervision is significantly related to intention to quit and perceive stress, and this relationship is partially mediated by PsyCap. The findings from the moderated mediation analysis revealed that the mediation of PsyCap was moderated by LMX such that at the higher levels of LMX, the mediation effect of PsyCap on workout comes became stronger. Research limitations/implications As the study did not cover all sectors, the results of this study should be interpreted with caution. Originality/value Embedded in the conservation of resources theory, this study adds to the knowledge of how abusive supervision and LMX jointly affect PsyCap, turnover intentions and perceived stress. The results of this study indicate that abusive supervision exerts its influence on work-related outcomes and highlights the importance of taking the quality of relationship (LMX) with supervisor and personal resources into consideration when making sense of the influence of abusive supervision with employee outcomes. The study extends the current research stream of abusive supervision research to one of the underrepresented developing Asian countries, India.