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Background: Salas y Gómez is a small, volcanic island largely untouched by humans due to its diminutive size and remoteness. Since the waters surrounding Salas y Gómez were established as Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park in 2010, marine investigations have been the primary research focus. Secondarily, nesting seabird communities have been censused since 2011. Methods and findings: In 2016, terrestrial arthropods were sampled on the island. Two observers sampled two locations for 30 min per site. Fifteen morphospecies were identified including at least one likely undescribed species. Conclusions: Our work represents the most comprehensive terrestrial arthropod inventory of Salas y Gómez island to date. We are hopeful the recommendations provided will spur additional research to both characterize the island's arthropod community, as well as identify species of management concern.
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S H O R T R E P O R T Open Access
Notes on the arthropod fauna of Salas y
Gómez island, Chile
Samantha N. Hershauer
, Sebastian Yancovic Pakarati
and J. Judson Wynne
Background: Salas y Gómez is a small, volcanic island largely untouched by humans due to its diminutive size and
remoteness. Since the waters surrounding Salas y Gómez were established as Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park in
2010, marine investigations have been the primary research focus. Secondarily, nesting seabird communities have
been censused since 2011.
Methods and findings: In 2016, terrestrial arthropods were sampled on the island. Two observers sampled two
locations for 30min per site. Fifteen morphospecies were identified including at least one likely undescribed species.
Conclusions: Our work represents the most comprehensive terrestrial arthropod inventory of Salas y Gómez island to
date. We are hopeful the recommendations provided will spur additional research to both characterize the islands
arthropod community, as well as identify species of management concern.
Keywords: Species inventory, Motu Motiro Hiva Marine park, Oceanic islands, Polynesia
Prior to this study, our knowledge concerning the
natural history of Salas y Gómez island was largely
limited to the marine animals and pelagic bird rookeries.
The marine ecosystem is characterized by high biodiver-
sity including numerous endemic species [1,2]. More
than 38% of fish species found in Salas y Gómez waters
are considered endemic to the island [2]. While surveys
to initially document seabirds occurred earlier on [35],
annual pelagic bird surveys have been conducted since
2011 [6]. To date, at least at least 16 avian species nest
on the island [36].
Given the importance of the marine ecosystem, the
waters surrounding Salas y Gómez island were designated
as a Natural Sanctuaryin 1976 [8]. In 2010, the Chilean
government established Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park; at
which time 150,000 km
were designated a no take zone
[9] (i.e., fishing and other resource extraction activities
were prohibited [10]). In 2017, with support from the
Rapanui people, the Chilean government ultimately
declared the remaining 74% of the 579,368 km
territory as protected [11]. Today, this region represents
the largest marine protected area in South American
waters [2] and one of the largest in the world.
Regarding our knowledge of terrestrial arthropods on
the island, only one species, Cryptamorpha desjardinsii
(Guérin-Méneville, 1844) (Coleoptera: Silvabidae) was
previously documented on the island [7]. In 2012,
arthropods were collected during the Ministry of Agricul-
tures National Forest Corporations (CONAF) annual bird
monitoring survey; researchers collected specimens belong-
ing to the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and
Araneae [6]. Unfortunately, no additional information was
available on this survey.
In 2016, the second author (S.Y. Pakarati) and another
researcher collected terrestrial arthropods on Salas y
Gómez island during CONAFs annual bird monitoring
survey. Here we present the findings of that work, which
represent the most comprehensive arthropod inventory
to date. Based upon our findings, we also provide recom-
mendations for future research and management.
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* Correspondence:
Department of Biological Sciences, Colorado Plateau Museum of Arthropod
Biodiversity, Northern Arizona University (NAU), Flagstaff, USA
Center for Adaptable Western Landscapes, NAU, Flagstaff, USA
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
Revista Chilena de
Historia Natural
Hershauer et al. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (2020) 93:4
Study area
Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (the marine park
surrounding Salas y Gómez island) is one of the most
remote and pristine protected areas of the South Pacific
[12]. Often considered the easternmost extent of the
Polynesian triangle (e.g., [13]), Salas y Gómez occurs
within the Chilean province of Easter Island and is
grouped with the surrounding small islands to form the
East Island Ecoregion (EIE) [14].
Salas y Gómez is a volcanic island, which rose ~ 3500 m
from the ocean floor around two million years ago [1,2].
Approximately 3300 km from mainland Chile, 402 km
northeast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), and 2600 km from
the Juan Fernandez Islands, this small, isolated island is
uninhabited by humans [3]. Low, relatively flat, and
horseshoe-shaped, Salas y Gómez encompasses an area of
2.5 km
. Highest elevations occur at the eastern and west-
ern ends with the eastern extent reaching ~ 30 m above sea
level. The eastern and western extents of the island are
linked by a low-lying isthmus subjected to flooding during
storm events and a small sandy beach occurs along the
northeastern shore. Salas y Gómez supports relatively low
plant diversity consisting of three succulent species [5]and
shore spleenwort (Asplenium obliquum Forst) [5,15].
Arthropod Sampling & Analysis
On August 23, 2016, the second author (S.Y. Pakarati)
and Edgardo Quezada (Servicio Agricola y Ganadero
[SAG], Valparaíso Region, Rapa Nui Office) collected ar-
thropods. As the primary objective of this expedition
was the annual bird monitoring surveys conducted by
CONAF, search time was limited. Within each of the
two areas sampled (Fig. 1), two observers searched for
arthropods for approximately 30 min by examining vege-
tation, the soil, and underneath rocks (totaling 2 person
hours of searching).
Arthropods were hand-collected with forceps and
watercolor paintbrushes and then placed directly into vials
with 95% ethanol. Specimens were examined and photo-
graphed at the Colorado Plateau Museum of Arthropod
Biodiversity, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern
Arizona University. All specimens will ultimately be
deposited at the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural in
Santiago, Chile.
Forty-six specimens across 15 morphospecies repre-
senting 10 taxonomic orders were collected (Table 1,
Figs. 2,3and 4). Lepidoptera represented the highest
species diversity (n= 3), while terrestrial isopods were
most abundant (nine individuals). Low-level taxonomic
identifications include a morphospecies of Segestriidae
(Araneae), Garypus sp. (Pseudoscorpiones: Garypidae),
Atheta sp. (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), Entomobrya atro-
cincta Schott, 1896 (Entomobryomorpha: Entomobryidae),
Lynchia americana Leach, 1817 (Diptera: Hippoboscidae),
and a morphospecies of Trogiidae (Psocoptera). Total num-
ber of morphospecies per taxonomic group are summarized
(Fig. 2) and an annotated species list is provided (Table 1).
While baseline in nature, this study represents the most
detailed arthropod study of Salas y Gómez. At least 15
Fig. 1 Salas y Gómez island, Chile with the two sampling locations demarcated (red dots)
Hershauer et al. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (2020) 93:4 Page 2 of 6
morphospecies exist on this remote island. Of the 46 indi-
viduals collected, two morphospecies (E. atrocincta and L.
americana) were identified to species level (Fig. 4). Addition-
ally, the Segestriidae morphospecies (Fig. 3b) is being for-
mally described as a new species (D. Cotoras, pers. comm.
2018). It is likely to be the first endemic arthropod species
discovered on Salas y Gómez and may ultimately represent
the first terrestrial species of management concern.
For the remaining 12 morphospecies, there were vari-
ous obstacles in achieving higher taxonomic resolution.
For the pseudoscorpion, we collected one tritonymph of
the genus Garypus (Fig. 3a). While this also likely repre-
sents a new and endemic species (M. Harvey, pers. comm.,
2019), examination of adult characters is required to prop-
erly identify arachnids to species level. To both confirm
whether this is a new endemic species and to formally
describe it, we will require additional specimens (i.e.,
multiple adult males and females). The Staphylinid beetle,
Atheta sp. (Fig. 3d), cannot be identified beyond the genus
level because Chilean Aleocharinae are presently unidenti-
fiable. Original descriptions of congeners are insufficient
to reliably identify the specimen, and aside from a few
select genera, no one is actively working on this group (V.
Assing, pers. comm. 2019). Regarding the two terrestrial
isopod morphospecies (Halophilosciidae? sp. 1 and 2), we
suggest these two isopod morphospecies may belong to
the genus Littorophiloscia (S. Taiti, pers. com. 2020);
however, these specimens will require examination by an
isopod systematist to confirm.
As would be expected, avian species richness (i.e., total
number of species) increased as additional surveys (i.e.,
when more time was allocated) were conducted [46,12].
Schlatter [12] reported six species based upon brief site
visits by naturalists; unfortunately, no survey methods
were presented. Today, 16 seabird species are known from
the island [6]. The arthropod inventory results presented
here were similarly constrained by time. Because the pri-
mary objective of the 2016 work was to census seabirds,
observers spent only two person hours collecting arthro-
pods. Through this abbreviated effort, at least 15 morpho-
species were identified, which stands as a testament to the
significance of continuing this work. Importantly, we iden-
tified several research questions that should be addressed
to best guide future conservation and management efforts.
First, what options exist for expanding this inventory
work and/ or developing future arthropod monitoring
Table 1 Annotated species list of the 15 morphospecies from
Salas y Gómez island, Chile
Arachnida: Araneae
Araneae sp.
Segestriidae sp.
Garypus sp.
Entomobrya atrocincta Schott, 1896
Zygentoma sp.
Miridae sp.
Fulgoromorpha sp.
Trogiidae sp.
Atheta sp.
Lepidoptera larva sp. 1
Lepidoptera larva sp. 2
Noctuidae sp.
Lynchia americana Leach, 1817
Halophilosciidae? sp. 1
Halophilosciidae? sp. 2
Fig. 2 Total number of individuals collected across the 10
taxonomic groups detected on Salas y Gómez island, Chile
Hershauer et al. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (2020) 93:4 Page 3 of 6
strategies for Salas y Gómez island? To best capture
diversity and identify potential management concern
species, a multi-day sampling frame, which employ
multiple techniques, is highly recommended. This could
be accomplished by focusing future efforts on examining
the different habitat types. Harrison and Jehl [4] identi-
fied at least five different topographic features on the
island (which may serve as a proxy for different
habitats); these include (1) the eastern half of the island,
which is relatively uniform and flat; (2) a sandy beach on
the northeastern extent of the island; (3) steep-sided
rocky cliffs to the south rising to ~ 10 m elevation; (4) a
sandy depression approximately 70 m in diameter in the
west-central section of the island; and, (5) the more
rocky western half of the island. We have identified a
sixth area, pelagic bird nesting areas, which could reveal
Fig. 3 aGarypus sp., bSegestriidae morphospecies, cTrogiidae morphospecies, and dAtheta sp. from Salas y Gómez island, Chile
Fig. 4 aLynchia americana Leach, 1817, and bEntomobrya atrocincta Schott, 1896 (), from Salas y Gómez island, Chile
Hershauer et al. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (2020) 93:4 Page 4 of 6
unique taxa. Each of these sites likely supports different
species. Sampling techniques to consider include con-
ducting timed searches within 1 m
quadrats and surface
pitfall trapping similar to previous work on Rapa Nui
[16], which would maximize our ability to best capture
diversity, provide a robust sampling frame, and establish
a framework for future monitoring efforts. These sam-
pling locations could be marked and revisited should
monitoring be required. Alternatively, if an intensive ef-
fort cannot be supported in the near future, we recom-
mend CONAF Rapa Nui personnel continue sampling
arthropods during their annual pelagic bird censuses.
Sampling arthropods annually would require a diminu-
tive time investment for CONAF (i.e., an additional 1 to
2 h per visit to search for and collect arthropods).
Elements of the above mentioned sampling design could
be incorporated whereby researchers establish a system-
atic framework for sampling the different habitat types
during each visit. Both of these repeatable approaches
and the derived data may ultimately be modified to
monitor endemic and/or indicator species.
The prevalence of Cryptamorpha desjardinsii should
be further examined and potentially monitored by
CONAF and SAG. Native to tropical Asia[17], this
nonnative species is predaceous in its larval stage [18].
As virtually nothing is known concerning the entomo-
fauna of Salas y Gómez island, it is unknown whether
this species is competing with and/or predating upon
endemic arthropod populations.
Additionally, understanding the relationship between
pelagic birds and arthropods could both improve moni-
toring of avian populations, as well as shed additional
light on bird-arthropod phoresy in the South Pacific.
Pseudoscorpions have been widely documented using
birds for dispersal [1921]. Because nothing is known
about pelagic bird phoresy in this part of the South
Pacific Ocean, it is possible Garypus sp. (a potentially
undescribed species) arrived to Salas y Gómez island via
this method. Currently, no pseudoscorpions have been
identified on Rapa Nui [2224]. We suggest conducting
arthropod surveys (to search for pseudoscorpions) on
Motu Nui (a small islet off the southwestern coast) and
Rano Raraku crater, the two primary pelagic bird rooker-
ies of Rapa Nui. If present on both islands, this could
launch an exciting investigation into another ecological
connection between these two geographical regions.
This study represents the small first step toward char-
acterizing the arthropod community of Salas y Gómez.
Although Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park is a protected
area, little is known regarding the natural history of the
terrestrial fauna with the exception of avian species.
As it is infeasible to manage what is unknown, a future
management plan will benefit from a baseline under-
standing of the terrestrial flora and fauna on the island.
We hope this project will serve to inspire future workers
to expand upon our efforts and acquire the data necessary
to most effectively manage the islands terrestrial ecosys-
tem. Through such an initiative, researchers will both
collect the information necessary to characterize the
natural history, as well as contribute to the protection of
sensitive natural resources on Salas y Gómez island.
Two person hours spent sampling two locations in south-
eastern Salas y Gómez resulted in the identification of at
least 15 morphospecies. Albeit brief, these surveys under-
score the potential for additional work to better
characterize the arthropod communities, as well as identify
potential management concern species. Importantly, we are
hopeful this project will engender future research on Salas
y Gómez island. Given the paucity of information on the
terrestrial communities of Salas y Gómez, additional
research will be required to: (1) examine the potential
ecological relationships between Salas y Gómez and other
neighboring islands; (2) characterize potential dispersal
mechanisms between Salas y Gómez and neighboring
islands; and, (3) acquire the data necessary to develop
effective policies to best manage terrestrial island habitats.
CONAF: Ministry of Agricultures National Forest Corporation; EIE: East Island
The second author (S.Y. Pakarati) would like to thank the following for
making this research possible: Edgardo Quezada V. from Servicio Agricola y
Ganadero (SAG), Oficina de Rapa Nui; Pedro Lazo Hucke with CONAF, Rapa
Nui; Violeta Producciones of Rapa Nui; the Chilean Navy and the AP 41
Aquiles crew; and Consejo Asesor de Monumentos Nacionales (CAMN) and
Secretaria Tecnica de Patrimonio (STP) in Rapa Nui. Aaron Smith and Chris
Wirth assisted the lead author with imaging arthropod specimens. Ryan
Lumen provided comments leading to the improvement of this paper. Lab
technician, Anna Ross, as well as systematists Volker Assing (Staphylinidae),
Darko Cotoras (Araneae), Mark Harvey (Pseudoscorpiones), Frans Jassens
(Collembola), Edward Mockford (Psocoptera), and Stefano Taiti (Isopoda)
assisted with arthropod identifications. Frank Howarth provided useful
discussions on Lepidoptera taxonomy. Justine Baca provided Fig. 2.
Specimen collection: SYP. Specimen processing and analysis: SNH, JJW.
Manuscript preparation: SNH, JJW, SYP. All authors read and approved the
final version of the manuscript.
Availability of data and materials
Specimens will ultimately be deposited at the Museo Nacional de Historia
Natural, Santiago, Chile.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Not applicable.
Consent for publication
Not applicable.
Competing interests
The authors have no competing interests.
Hershauer et al. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (2020) 93:4 Page 5 of 6
Author details
Department of Biological Sciences, Colorado Plateau Museum of Arthropod
Biodiversity, Northern Arizona University (NAU), Flagstaff, USA.
Asesor de Monumentos Nacionales de Chile - Rapa Nui, Manu Project, Rapa
Nui, and Laboratorio de Socioecosistemas, Departamento de Ecología,
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Center for Adaptable
Western Landscapes, NAU, Flagstaff, USA.
Received: 6 January 2020 Accepted: 20 May 2020
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Hershauer et al. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (2020) 93:4 Page 6 of 6
... Arthropods were hand collected with forceps and watercolor paintbrushes. Additional details on collection and curation may be found via Hershauer et al. (2020). ...
... In their paper chronicling the first arthropod survey on MMH, Hershauer et al. (2020) preliminarily identified two terrestrial isopods as different morphospecies (Halophilosciidae? sp. 1 and Halophilosciidae? ...
... In email correspondence with the second author (ST), the lead author suggested one of the morphospecies was potentially Hawaiioscia rapui; however, upon examining images of one of the specimens, ST intimated the specimens probably represented at least one morphospecies of the family Halophilosciidae-as the specimens were collected in a halophilous environment. ST recently examined all the terrestrial isopod specimens (n = 9) representing the potential two morphospecies identified by Hershauer et al. (2020). He determined all were H. rapui. ...
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Caves are considered buffered environments in terms of their ability to sustain near-constant microclimatic conditions. However, cave entrance environments are expected to respond rapidly to changing conditions on the surface. Our study documents an assemblage of endemic arthropods that have persisted in Rapa Nui caves, despite a catastrophic ecological shift, overgrazing, and surface ecosystems dominated by invasive species. We discovered eight previously unknown endemic species now restricted to caves—a large contribution to the island's natural history, given its severely depauperate native fauna. Two additional species, identified from a small number of South Pacific islands, probably arrived with early Polynesian colonizers. All of these animals are considered disturbance relicts—species whose distributions are now limited to areas that experienced minimal historical human disturbance. Extinction debts and the interaction of global climate change and invasive species are likely to present an uncertain future for these endemic cavernicoles.
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The fauna of Chile's Sala y Gomez island (26°28'S, 105°21'W) is not well known because of the island's remote location, small size, and low profile. Previous literature about the bird life of this island consists of one report based on two visits of less than three hours duration, listing 11 species of seabirds, of which seven were observed breeding. The authors of the present study remained on the island for six days, during which time we observed 14 species of birds, ten of which were nesting. Both species richness and abundance were greater than reported previously. Sala y Gomez Island has significant breeding colonies of Blue-gray Noddy (Procelsterna cerulea) and Christmas Shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis). Also we recorded for the first time nesting by small numbers of Red-billed Tropicbirds (Phaethon aethereus) and White Terns (Gygis alba). Received 29 September 1998, accepted 2 December 1998.
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We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species). Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There has been an increase in new records over the past six years but no systematic studies have been developed. The need for further research that focuses on ecological aspects and anthropogenic impacts is critical in order to develop adequate conservation strategies. RESUMEN. Se revisó la información disponible sobre las aves marinas que habitan Isla de Pascua, Isla Salas y Gómez, Islas Desventuradas y aguas adyacentes, mediante el análisis de la literatura publicada y literatura gris. Los resultados obtenidos indican que en el área de estudio se encuentran presentes 37 especies y entre los órdenes representados, Procellariiformes y Charadriiformes son los taxa dominantes (29 especies). Las familias Procellariidae y Laridae están representadas por 13 y 7 especies, respectivamente. Durante los últimos seis años, ha habido un incremento de nuevos registros, sin embargo aún no se desarrollan estudios sistemáticos de la avifauna. La necesidad de mayor investigación científica enfocada en aspectos ecológicos e impactos antropogénicos es crítica para desarrollar estrategias adecuadas de conservación. Palabras clave: aves marinas, colonias de nidificación, islas oceánicas, Pacífico suroriental.
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1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2 t ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45 t ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.
Aim: Identify the optimal combination of sampling techniques to maximize the detection of diversity of cave-dwelling arthropods. Location: Central-western New Mexico; northwestern Arizona; Rapa Nui, Chile. Methods: From 26 caves across three geographically distinct areas in the Western Hemisphere, arthropods were sampled using opportunistic collecting, timed searches, and baited pitfall trapping in all caves, and direct intuitive searches and bait sampling at select caves. To elucidate the techniques or combination of techniques for maximizing sampling completeness and efficiency, we examined our sampling results using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), analysis of similarity (ANOSIM), Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, species richness estimators and species accumulation curves. Results: To maximize the detection of cave-dwelling arthropod species, one must apply multiple sampling techniques and specifically sample unique microhabitats. For example, by sampling cave deep zones and nutrient resource sites, we identified several undescribed cave-adapted and/or cave-restricted taxa in the southwestern United States and eight new species of presumed cave-restricted arthropods on Rapa Nui that would otherwise have been missed. Sampling techniques differed in their detection of both management concern species (e.g., newly discovered cave-adapted/restricted species, range expansions of cave-restricted species and newly confirmed alien species) and specific taxonomic groups. Spiders were detected primarily with visual search techniques (direct intuitive searches, opportunistic collecting and timed searches), while most beetles were detected using pitfall traps. Each sampling technique uniquely identified species of management concern further strengthening the importance of a multi-technique sampling approach. Main conclusions: Multiple sampling techniques were required to best characterize cave arthropod diversity. For techniques applied uniformly across all caves, each technique uniquely detected between ~40% and 67% of the total species observed. Also, sampling cave deep zones and nutrient resource sites was critical for both increasing the number of species detected and maximizing the likelihood of detecting management concern species.
The Easter Island Ecoregion is in the center of the South Pacific gyre and experiences ultra-oligotrophic conditions that could make it highly susceptible to global change and anthropogenic activities, so it is imperative that these regions are characterized and studied so that conservation and sustainable management strategies can be developed. From the few studies from the region, we know that the coastal areas are relatively depauperate and have relatively high rates of endemism. Here, we present a brief report from the first video observations from this region of the deep fish fauna from ROV exploration of benthic communities from 157 to 281 m and baited drop-camera videos from 150 to 1850 m. We observed a total of 55 fish species from the ROV and Drop-Cam surveys; nine could not be assigned family level or lower, 26 were observed in the ROV surveys, 29 were observed in the Drop-Cam surveys, nine were observed with both survey methods, at least six species are potentially new to science, and nine species were observed at deeper depths than previously reported. These new reports may be indicative of the unique oceanographic conditions in the area and the relative isolation of the communities that have provided opportunity for the evolution of new species and favorable conditions for range expansion. In contrast, these new reports may be indicative of the severe undersampling in the south Pacific at mesopelagic depths. The prevalence of potentially new species suggests that the region likely harbors a wealth of undiscovered biodiversity.
A compilation of the information on pseudoscorpions recorded from birds' nests is presented. Species and families of birds, and specimens, species and families of pseudoscorpions involved worldwide are given. 14 families (63 genera with 85 species) of Pseudoscorpiones were found in birds' nests, of which the Chernetidae is ranked first, with 22 genera and 35 species. Only 45 families of birds have been recorded as hosts worldwide, represented by a total of 98 species and a certain number of unidentified taxa. Geographical origin of these records reflects collecting efforts of individuals and gives no precise indication on the biological association between these two groups.