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Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia

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Goat feed inventory and feed balance studies were conducted in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas with the aim of assessing the current status of major goat feed resources, dry matter availability and goat feed balance. Five kebeles from Bena-Tsemay and three kebeles from Hamer were selected. In each Woreda, between eight and twelve herders were selected to participate in focus group discussions (FGD). Herders were interviewed about major feed resource for goats, their availability, seasonal dynamics and the plant parts utilised by goats. In addition to the FGDs, in each of the study kebeles, subsets of the experienced herders were asked to collect samples of forage species mentioned in the FGDs. These samples were catalogued in code corresponding to local names for each species and botanical names subsequently assigned, following identification by trained botanists. The findings from this study revealed that there were 22 and 20, 51 and 40 herbaceous and browse forage species identified as goat feeds from Hamer and Bena- Tsemay Woredas respectively. The herders also reported that goat feed was generally plentiful from April to August and became scarce during January and February. The estimated total annual maintenance dry matter requirement for goats across districts is likely to be in the order of 470,000 and 170,000 tons which exceeds the estimated dry matter of 370,000 and 40,000 tons produced for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively and equates to estimated deficits of roughly 94,000 and 129,000 tons of dry matter. It was therefore, recommended that the primarily focus on improving the existing feed resources through area enclosure, improving poor quality feeds, forage banking during surplus production, introduction and demonstration of adaptable cultivated fodder species and enhancing the utilisation of native browse species as a local protein supplements.
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Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183)
Volume 2 Issue 6 June 2020
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
Denbela Hidosa1*, Shagnachew Hailu2 and Joseph O’Reagain3
1Livestock Research Directorate, Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Jinka, Ethiopia
2Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Key Afer Goat Research Substation Key
Afer, Ethiopia
3Farm Africa, Volunteer - Rangelands and Pastures, Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Denbela Hidosa, Livestock Research Directorate, Jinka
Agricultural Research Center, Jinka, Ethiopia.
Research Article
Received: March 05, 2020
Published: May 29, 2020
© All rights are reserved by Denbela Hidosa.,
et al.
Abstract
Keywords: Goat Feed Resources; Feed Resource Availability; Feed Resource Dynamics; Feed Balance
Introduction
Goat feed inventory and feed balance studies were conducted in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas with the aim of assessing the
current status of major goat feed resources, dry matter availability and goat feed balance. Five kebeles from Bena-Tsemay and three
kebeles from Hamer were selected. In each Woreda, between eight and twelve herders were selected to participate in focus group
discussions (FGD). Herders were interviewed about major feed resource for goats, their availability, seasonal dynamics and the
plant parts utilised by goats. In addition to the FGDs, in each of the study kebeles, subsets of the experienced herders were asked to
collect samples of forage species mentioned in the FGDs. These samples were catalogued in code corresponding to local names for


Tsemay Woredas respectively. The herders also reported that goat feed was generally plentiful from April to August and became
scarce during January and February. The estimated total annual maintenance dry matter requirement for goats across districts is
likely to be in the order of 470,000 and 170,000 tons which exceeds the estimated dry matter of 370,000 and 40,000 tons produced

therefore, recommended that the primarily focus on improving the existing feed resources through area enclosure, improving poor
quality feeds, forage banking during surplus production, introduction and demonstration of adaptable cultivated fodder species and
enhancing the utilisation of native browse species as a local protein supplements.
Goats play a key role in livelihoods of poor pastoral communi-
ties through the provision of milk, meat, skins, manure and cash
income [1,2]. However, within the Ethiopian context, shortfalls
in both quality and quantity of feed represent major limitations
for goat productivity [3]    
in the focal regions of the present study, where previous research
has demonstrated that goat production is limited by constraints in
-
ations in the seasonal availability of range forage [4-6]. Nutritional
stress contributes to slow growth rates, loss of body condition and
increased susceptibility to diseases and parasites [6]. Within the
study regions it is also apparent that pastoral communities do not
always possess a full appreciation and understanding of the qual-
ity and availability of major goat feed resources [6]. Issues such as
these validate the need for research activities focused on the ap-
  
    
The information provided by such research has the potential to be
immense utility to policy makers, government departments, NGOs
and development agencies in the formulation and implementation
of programs aimed at sustainably improving goat productivity. The
availability of such information would also enable the improved
provision of practical recommendations for goat keepers and other
stakeholders. Moreover, to date on the assessment of goat feed sup-
ply and demand has not been carried out in Hamer or Bena-Tsemay.
Aim of the Study
Therefore, this study aimed to contribute to the existing bank
of knowledge regarding goat feed resources in Hamer and Bena-
Tsemay by assessing the current status and availability of major
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
29
goat feed resources and attempting to calculate the annual goat
feed supply-demand balance.
Study Methodologies
Description of the study areas
The study was conducted in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas
of the Hamer and Bena-Tsemay districts of South Omo Zone. Bena-

    
Tsemay Woredas is hot to warm semiarid with altitudinal varia-
tion of 500m to 1800m. The average daily temperatures range be-
tween 15.6°C and 26.5°C in Bena-Tsemay while, in Hamer Woreda
the average temperature is 37°C and altitude varies from 450 m to
1765m a.s.l with the average annual rainfall is 400 mm.
Methods of data collection

were the main methods of data collection employed for the com-
pletion of the goat feed inventory study. A questionnaire was de-
signed for the purposes of guiding FGDs and capturing all informa-
tion relevant to the major goat feed resources and their availability.
Focus group discussions
  
of Shaba Arigemenda, Dize Aman, Bori, Moregolla and Sile. In Ham-
er, FGDs were conducted in the the three kebeles of Area Umbule,
Area Kiyisa and Dimeka Zuria. Each of the eight FGDs engaged be-
tween eight and twelve pastoralists and was facilitated with the
aid of local kebele development agents, who selected pastoralists
for inclusion, taking into consideration of their age and degree of
local experience in regard to goat production and feed manage-
ment practices. The participating herders were asked about the
major goat feed resource categories (herbaceous forages, browse
forages, and crop residues) that are available within their kebeles.
For each of these categories, they were asked to recall and list all
of the species that comprise them, before being asked to rank each
species in order of preference for goat production. For each species
the pastoralists were also asked about seasonal patterns of avail-
ability, morphological plant parts utilised by goats and whether
they thought each species was increasing or decreasing in preva-
lence over the longer term.

       -
rienced and knowledgeable herders were nominated by the FGD
participants, for the purpose of collecting and identifying range-

the FGD activities. With the assistance of researchers these pasto-
ralists collected, catalogued and photographed a sample of each
nominated species using a numerical code corresponding to indig-
-

botanists from the Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Centre.
Source of secondary data
Secondary information on goat population numbers and the
total areas of land under browsing were sourced from the respec-
  
 

Agriculture and Natural Resource Development.
Estimation of annual dry matter availability

utilised to calculate an estimate of the quantity of dry matter pro-
duced per year for goats within the study areas for each respective
land use category. Estimated annual dry matter production for the
browsing land use category was calculated using the methodology
recommended by Kearl LC [7] and while estimated annual dry mat-
ter yields obtained from crop residues per crop were estimated us-
ing conversion factors developed by the FAO [8].
Estimation of dry matter requirements and feed balance for
goat
Goat holdings per study Woreda were aggregated into Tropical
Livestock Units (TLUs) by considering the annual average goats
          
conversion factors of 0.1 for goats [9,10]. The dry matter demand of
goats in the study area was estimated based on the expected daily
dry matter intake suggested for the standard TLU of 250 kg at 2.5%
of the body weight, which is equivalent to 6.25 kg/day. The Goats’
feed balance at the entire production year was determined as the
difference between the total annual feed dry matter supplies from
different major goat feed resources and the total annual dry matter
demands for goats.
Results
Major herbaceous feed resources for goats
The major herbaceous forage species utilized as goat feed re-
sources in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas are listed in table 1
 -
ceous forage species for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas respec-
tively. During the FGDs, the pastoralists were asked to rank each of
the nominated forage species based on their importance as goat
feed resources and these rankings are also indicated in table 1 be-
low. There was extensive overlap in the species recorded within
both Woredas, however Oresoschimperella verrucosa, Sporobolus
pyramidalis, Commelina benghalensis, Cido obata and Colotoria en-
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
30
kana were only reported from Hamer Woreda and Ovyalis abyssi-
nica, Lantana camara and Digitaria abyssinica were reported only
from the Bena-Tsemay district.
Major browse forages for goats
The major browse forage species used as goats feed resource in
Hamer and Bena-Tsemay woredas are listed in table 2 below. Herd-

Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas respectively. Forage usefulness
rankings assigned by herders are also displayed in table 2. As was
the case with the herbaceous species, there was extensive overlap
in the species recorded within both Woredas, however Boscia co-
riacea, Dalbergia sissoo, Combretum molle, Rhoicissus revoilii, Sida
ovate, Commiphora erlangerana, Delonix regia, Grewia bicolor and
Seurinega virosa were reported within Hamer district only where-
as, Ficus sycomorus, Piliostgma thonningii and Sclerocarya birrea
were reported only in Bena-Tsemay district.
Benagna Language Ranking Hameregna Language  Ranking
Turna Indigofera spicata spira 1 Turina Indigofera spicata spira 1
Kontsala Cyperus bulbosus 2 Mara Tetrapogon teneullus 2
Garant Vernonia natalensis 3 Mugri Crotalaria incana? 3
Mugr Crotalaria incana? 4 Garanti Vernonia natalensis 4
Zaki Vigna unguiculate 5 Genya Tribulus terrestris 5
Zersi Cynodon dactylon 6 Kuntsale Cyperus bulbosus 6
Erbo Ormocarpum mimo-
soides
7 Gojo Euphorbia tirucalli 7
Mara Tetrapogon teneullus 8 Eribo Ormocarpum mimosoides 8
Enku Lablab purpureus 9 Rhoicissus tridentata 9
Gojo Euphorbia tirucalli 10 Zersi Cynodon dactylon 10
Gaya Ukuma Tribulus terrestris 11 Enku Lablab purpureus 11
Sepety Rhoicissus tridentata 12 Metsa Achyranthes aspara 12
Mesta Achyranthes aspara 13 Zaki Vigna unguiculate 13
Malo Capparis tomentosa 14 Genteta Cido obata 14
Ganaya Tribulus terrestris 15 Malo Capparis tomentosa 15
Pelik Digitaria abyssinica 16 Tiri Lawsonia inermis 16
Melkela Dovyalis abyssinica 17 Gera Hyparrhenia hirta 17
Gali Tephrosia species 18 Buska Sporobolus pyramidalis 18
Tire Lawsonia inermis? 19 Okilibuko Commelina benghalensis 19
Menzo Lantana camara 20 Gali Tephrosia species 20
Ago Oresoschimperella verrucosa 21
Gaya Ukuma Tribulus terrestris 22
Table 1: List of major herbaceous species and their ranking in order of importance as goats feed in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay

assigned by participating herders.
Major crop residues for goats
The major crop residues used as goats feed resource in Hamer
and Bena-Tsemay Woreda during harvesting time is listed in table
    
     
being fed to goats as major goats feeds for Hamer and Bena-Tse-
may Woredas respectively. Agro pastoralists from these areas had
grouped crop type used as goats feed into cereals, legumes and
roots and ranked them in order of their importance as goat feed re-
sources. Accordingly, Phaseolus vulgaris (L), Eleusine coracana (L.),
Ipomoea batatas (L), Sorghum bicolor (L) and Zea mays (L) were
ranked 1 up to 5th by Hamer agro pastoralists and whereas, Phaseo-
lus vulgaris (L), Sorghum bicolor, Ipomoea batatas (L) and Zea mays
(L), were ranked 1 up to 4th by Bena-Tsemay agro pastoralists.
Herbaceous goat feed resource availability
As expected, pastoralists and agro-pastoralists in the study ar-
eas reported that dry matter from the herbaceous feed resources
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
31
e Ranking   Ranking
Tulungo Sclerocarya birrea 1 Maga Annona senegalensis 1
Pulanti Acacia seyal 2 Zuriguma Avicennia manna 2
Zurguma Avicennia manna 3 Kena Ekebergia capensis 3
Zergo Acacia brevispica 4 Zergo Acacia brevispica 4
Ara Terminalia brownie fresen 5 Kilansa Acacia polyacantha 5
Mega Annona senegalensis 6 Dile Dichro stachys cinerea 6
Banaki Cenearia diacrostadilia 7 Lola Acacia nilotica 7
Kelansa Acacia polyacantha 8 Jamo Entada abyssinica 8
Arike Acacia sieberiana 8Ara Terminalia brownie fresen 9
Menzo Brachimia discolor 9 Baraza Bridelia micrantha 10
Goleli Acacia toritilis 10 Mudakale Boscia coriacea 11
Dile Dichro stachys cinerea 11 Banaki Cenearia diacrostadilia 12
Jamo Entada abyssinica 12 Manzo Brachimia discolor 13
Domoko Belanites aegyptila 12 Galansa Acacia albida 14
Galansa Acacia albida 13 Gedaki Dalbemergia melanoxylon 15
Moshiko Indigofera spicata spira 14 Golali Acacia nilotica 16
Lelo Acacia nilotica 15 Tubaki Rhus vulgaris 17
Kenya Ekebergia capensis 16 Bitsobitso Mytenus ovatus 18
Anshali Crotolaria spinosa 17 Keyi Rhus natalensis 19
Briza Bridelia micrantha 18 Gergeta Vitellaria paradoxa 20
Bitsobitso Mytenus ovatus 18 Seftiy Bridelia micrantha 21
Gedake Dalbemergia melanoxylon 19 Mekela Grewia tenax 22
 Bridelia micrantha 20 Rubi Delonix regia 23
Gelife Combretum molle 21 Ter a Acacia toritils 24
Gergeta Vitellaria paradoxa 22 Giri Calpurnia subdecandara 25
Mekela Grewia tenax 23 Wuchembe Pithecellobium dulce 26
Kufre Albizia lophantha 24 Arke Acacia sieberiana 27
Chakanti Grewia tenax 25 Anishali Crotolaria spinosa 28
Akmba Acokanthera schimper 26  Morus alba 29
shaf Morus alba 27 Pulanti Acacia seyal 30
Lola Acacia Oerfota 28 Kufri Albizia lophantha 31
Dekalo Acacaia lahali 29 Hanshela Rhoicissus revoilii 32
Kalikala Hevea brasiliensis 30 Genteta Sida ovata 33
Key Rhus natalensis 31 Chakanti Grewia tenax 34
Tubakey Rhus vulgaris 32 Sebe Cordia gharaf 35
Keja Acacia nubica 32 Dita Dalbergia sissoo 36
Onoki Sarcocephalus latifolius 32 Gumeza Commiphora erlangerana 37
Tseleko Albizia grandibracteata 34 Akmba Acokanthera schimper 38
Zinak Allophylus abyssinicus 35 Kaja Acacia nubica 39
Gerigecha Grewia villosa 36  Combretum molle 40
Omoa Ficus sycomorus 37 - --
Wuchembe Pithecellobium dulce 38 Rubi Delonix regia 41
Ter a Acacia toritilis 39 Domoko Belanites aegyptila 42
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
32
Olopo Piliostgma thonningii 40 Tsaki Albizia grandibracteata 43
--- Kalikali Hevea brasiliensis 44
- - - Kachikache Seurinega virosa 45
- - - Dakali Acacaia lahali 46
- - - Gerigisha Grewia villosa 47
- - - Zinaki Allophylus abyssinicus 48
--- Lelo Acacia Oerfota 49
- - - Moshike Indigofera spicata spira 50
- - - Onoka Sarcocephalus latifolius 51
Table 2: The list of major browse species for goats ranked in order of importance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas.
oBenagna  Ranking Hameregna  Ranking
1 Bokolo Zea mays (L) 4 Bokolo Zea mays (L) 5
2 Alaph Sorghum bicolor (L) 2 Ensi Sorghum bicolor (L) 4
3 Fecha Phaseolus vulgaris (L) 1 Ficha Phaseolus vulgaris (L) 1
4 Ayishitaro Phaseolus vulgaris (L) 1 - - -
5 Badala Phaseolus vulgaris (L) 1 - - -
6 Dincha Ipomoea batatas (L) 3 Dinsha Ipomoea batatas (L.) 3
7 - - - Barga Eleusine coracana (L.) 2
Table 3: Major sources of crop residues for goats within study regions.
declined during dry seasons, but and it was became readily avail-
able after the end of the dry seasons. Interviewees both districts
also reported that the availability of important herbaceous forages
species such as Tetrapogon teneullus, Tribulus terrestris, Eupherbia
tirucalli, Ormocarpum mimosoides, Tephrosia species and Lantana
camara          
pastoralists in Hamer Woreda, one older pastoralist (65 years old)
reported that when he was around 14 years of age, herbaceous
-
toralists as a land management tool, whereas nowadays much of

Browse goat feed resource availability
The availability of browse goat feed resources reported by pas-
toralists in the study areas are presented in table 5 below. Herders
during FGD reported that the dry matter availability was low dur-
ing dry seasons and surplus during the rainy season. They noted
that the availability of browse species: Avicennia manna, Mytenus
ovatus, Indigofera spicata spira, Acacia nilotica, Dichro stachys ci-
nerea, Pithecellobium dulce, Albizia lophantha, Acacia albida, Seu-
rinega virosa, Acacaia lahali and Grewia villosa had declined in
  
availability, forcing herders to graze goats on unusual patches of
land, along riverbanks and forcing them to loop browse leaf and
pods from trees for the animals during dry seasons. Furthermore,
herders from Bena-Tsemay district reported that Bridelia micran-
tha, Dichro stachys cinerea, Acacia sieberiana, Vitellaria paradoxa,
Belanites aegyptila, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ficus sycomorus, Piliostgma
thonningii and Sclerocarya birrea did not provide goat forage dur-
-
cies as being moderately available to goats during dry seasons. This
variation in seasonal availability is likely to be due to the fact that in
Bena-Tsemay Woreda, most of the communities have transitioned
from purely pastoralist livelihoods and into agro pastoralism. This
has resulted in much of the former browsing rangelands being con-
verted to farmland and this is likely to have led to an increase in
stocking pressures on remaining rangeland.
Crop residues availability for goats
Agro-pastoralist in the study areas reported that crop residues
for goat feeds were only available during crop harvesting time.
However, they also reported that due to the increasing rates of land
conversion to cropping, crop residue dry matter supplies increas-

Seasonal dynamics of herbaceous feeds
The seasonal dynamics of herbaceous forages for goats in the
study districts are presented in table 7. Herders from both study
districts reported that dry matter from major herbaceous species
are completely unavailable to goats from January to February ex-
cept those herbaceous species such as Eupherbia tirucalli and Cap-
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
33
Benagna Availability Hameregna  Availability
Mara Tettrapogion cincroform * Mara Tettrapogion cincroform **
Kontsala Cyperus bulbosus * Kuntsale Cyperus bulbosus ***
Turna Endigophora spinosis * Turina Endigophora spinosis *
Garant Vernonia natalensis * Garanti Vernonia natalensis *
Ganaya Tribulus terrestris * Genya Tribulus terrestris **
Gojo Eupherbia tirucalli * Gojo Eupherbia tirucalli **
Erbo Ormocarpum mimosoides ** Eribo Ormocarpum mimosoides ***
Zersi Cynodon dactylon * Zersi Cynodon dactylon ***
Sepety Rhoicissus tridentata **  Rhoicissus tridentata ***
Mugr Colotoria enkana * Mugri Colotoria enkana ***
Gali Tephrosia species ** Gali Tephrosia species ***
Mesta Achentis aspara * Metsa Achentis aspara ***
Gaya Ukuma Tribulus terrestris *** Gaya Ukuma Tribulus terrestris ***
- - - Gera Hyparrhenia hirta ***
- - - Ago Oresoschimperella verrucosa ***
- - - Buska Sporobolus pyramidalis ***
Malo Capparis tomentosa * Melo Capparis tomentosa *
- - - Genteta Cido obata ***
- - - Okilibuko Commelina benghalensis ***
Enku Lablab purpureus * Enku Lablab purpureus *
Tire Lawsonia inermisis * Tiri Lawsonia inermisis ***
Melkela Dovyalis abyssinica * - - -
Menzo Lantana camara ** - - -
Pelik Digitaria abyssinica * - - -
Zaki Vaginea ungulatium * Zaki Vaginea ungulatium *
Table 4: Herbaceous feed resource availability for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda.
Marks= *: Not available; **: Low availability; ***: Moderately available.
e Its dynamics Hameregna  Its dynamics
Mega Annona senegalensis ** Maga Annona senegalensis **
Zurguma Avicennia manna ** Zuriguma Avicennia manna **
Kenya Ekebergia capensis *** Kena Ekebergia capensis ***
Zergo Acacia brevispica *** Zergo Acacia brevispica ***
Kelansa Dichro stachys cinerea * Kilansa Dichro stachys cinerea ***
Dile Dichro stachys cinerea ** Dile Dichro stachys cinerea ***
Lelo Acacia nilotica ** Lola Acacia nilotica **
Jamo Entada abyssinica *** Jamo Entada abyssinica ***
Ara Terminalia brownie fresen *** Ara Terminalia brownie fresen ***
Briza Bridelia micrantha * Baraza Bridelia micrantha ***
--- Mudakale Boscia coriacea ***
Banaki Acacia sieberiene * Banaki Acacia sieberiene ***
Menzo Brachimia discolor * Manzo Brachimia discolor ***
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
34
Moshiko Indigofera spicata spira *** Moshike Indigofera spicata spira **
Gedake Dalbemergia melanoxylon *** Gedaki Dalbemergia melanoxylon ***
Goleli Acacia toritilis *** Golali Acacia toritilis ***
Tubakey Rhus vulgaris *** Tubaki Rhus vulgaris **
- - - Dita Dalbergia sissoo **
 Bridelia micrantha *** Seftiy Bridelia micrantha ***
Bitsobitso Mytenus ovatus ** Bitsobitso Mytenus ovatus **
Arike Acacia sieberiana *Arke Acacia sieberiana ***
Anshali Crotolaria spinosa ** Anishali Crotolaria spinosa ***
shaf Morus alba * Morus alba ***
Akmba Acokanthera schimper *** Akmba Acokanthera schimper ***
- - - Giri Calpurnia subdecandara ***
Wuchembe Pithecellobium dulce ** Wuchembe Pithecellobium dulce **
- - - Sebe Combretum molle ***
Gelife Combretum molle **  Combretum molle **
Domoko Belanites aegyptila * Domoko Belanites aegyptila **
Pulanti Acacia seyal *** Pulanti Acacia seyal ***
Kufre Albizia lophantha ** Kufri Albizia lophantha **
- - - Hanshela Rhoicissus revoilii *
--- Genteta Sida ovata ***
Metele Acacia brevispica *** Metele Acacia brevispica ***
Chakanti Vitellaria paradoxa * Chakanti Vitellaria paradoxa **
Gergeta Rhus natalensis *** Gergeta Rhus natalensis **
Key - *** Keyi Commiphora erlangerana ***
-Grewia tenax - Gumeza Grewia tenax ***
Mekela Ekebergia capensis ** Mekela Ekebergia capensis **
Keja - *** Kaja Delonix regia ***
- - - Rubi Grewia bicolor ***
Tra Albizia grandibracteata *** Tera Albizia grandibracteata ***
Tseleko Hevea brasiliensis *** Tsaki Hevea brasiliensis ***
Kalikala - - Kalikali Seurinega virosa **
-Acacaia lahali - Kachikache Acacaia lahali **
Dekalo Grewia villosa ** Dakali Grewia villosa **
Gerigecha Allophylus abyssinicus *** Gerigisha Allophylus abyssinicus ***
Zinak Acacia Oerfota *** Zinaki Acacia Oerfota ***
Lola Acacia albida ** Lelo Acacia albida ***
Galansa Sarcocephalus latifolius *** Galansa Sarcocephalus latifolius ***
Onoki Ficus sycomorus * Onoka - ***
Omoa Piliostgma thonningii * - - -
Olopo Sclerocarya birrea *** - - -
Tulungo Sclerocarya birrea * - - -
Table 5: Browse feed resource availability for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda.
Marks = *: No available; **: Low available; ***: Moderately available.
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
35
paris tomentosa which were highly available. It was mentioned
in the FGDs that during critical dry seasons, all goats were fed on
browse species, and leaves and stems shattered from herbaceous
feed resource base as mitigation strategies. On the other hand,
they reported that availability of dry matter to goats from herba-
ceous feed resource base is low in December and then moderately
available as from September, October, November and March. These
were however more readily available from April up to August. Fur-
thermore, they also reported that rains start in moderately and in-
crease from April to August. During these periods, all disappeared
herbaceous forage begins to re-emerge and is available in plenty as
from July and August.
e It’s dynamics Hamergna  It’s dynamics
Bokolo Zea mays (L) * Bokolo Zea mays (L) *
Alaph Sorghum bicolor (L) * Ensi Sorghum bicolor (L) *
Fecha Phaseolus vulgaris (L) * Ficha Phaseolus vulgaris (L) *
Ayishitaro Phaseolus vulgaris (L) * - - -
Badala Phaseolus vulgaris (L) * - - -
Dincha Ipomoea batatas (L) * Dinsha Ipomoea batatas (L) *
- - - Barga Eieusine coracana *
Table 6: Major sources of crop residues availability for goats.
Marks= *: Increasing; -: Not reported.
Seasonal dynamic of browse species for goats
The seasonal dynamic of browse species in the study areas have
shown similar seasonal dynamic trends to those of herbaceous spe-
cies shown in table 7. During FGDs herders reported that browse
    
year round as dry matter to goats. However, the seasonal dynamics
-
able during some months of the year as detailed in table 8, totally
declined from January to February. Pastoralists also reported a sim-
ilar seasonal dynamic trend for feeds from the all browses in the
study areas from April to August and a moderate feed availability
from September to October except for deciduous browse species.
BenagnaHamergna  Months in year
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct.  Dec.
Mara Mara Tettrapogion cincroform * * *** *** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** **
Kontsala Kuntsale Cyperus bulbosus * * * **** **** **** **** **** *** *** *** **
Turna Turina Endigophora spinosis * * * **** **** **** **** **** *** *** *** **
Garant Garanti Vernonia natalensis * * ** ** *** *** **** **** **** **** **** *
Ganaya Genya Tribulus terrestris * * ** ** *** *** **** **** **** **** **** *
Gojo Gojo Eupherbia tirucalli **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Erbo Eribo Ormocarpummimosoides * * * ** ** **** **** **** *** *** ** *
Zersi Zersi Cynodon dactylon * * * **** **** **** **** **** *** *** *** **
Sepety  Rhoicissus tridentata * * *** *** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** **
Mugr Mugri Colotoria enkana * * * **** **** **** **** ** ** *** *** **
Gali Gali Tephrosia species * * * **** **** **** **** ** ** *** *** **
Mesta Metsa Achentis aspara * * * **** **** **** **** ** ** *** *** **
Gaya Ukuma Gaya Ukuma Tribulus terrestris * * * **** **** **** **** ** ** *** *** **
- Gera Hyparrhenia hirta * * *** *** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** **
- Ago Oresoschimperella
verrucosa
* * *** *** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** **
- Buska Sporobolus pyramidalis * * *** *** **** **** **** **** **** **** ** **
Malo Melo Capparis tomentosa **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
- Genteta Cido obata * * *** *** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** **
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
36
- Okilibuko Commelina benghalensis * * * *** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** *
Enku Enku Lablab purpureus * * *** *** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** **
Tire Tiri Lawsonia inermisis * * * *** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** **
Melkela - Dovyalis abyssinica * * * *** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** **
Menzo - Lantana camara * * * *** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** **
Palik - Digitaria abyssinica ** ** ** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** *** **
Zaki Zaki Vaginea ungulatium ** ** ** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** *** **
Table 7: The seasonal dynamic of herbaceous goats feed resources in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay.
Marks: *: Not available; **: Low Available; ***: Moderately Available; ****: Highly Available.
Seasonal dynamic of crop residues for goat
The seasonal dynamic of crop residues is presented in table 9.
The herders in the study area reported during FGDs that dry mat-
ter supply from crop residues is generally highest from June to July
while being completely unavailable from November to May. They
also reported that crop residues are highly available in the study
BenagnaHamergna  Months in year
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct.  Dec.
Mega Maga Annona senegalensis * * *** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** **
Zurguma Zuriguma Avicennia manna ** ** ** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ***
Kenya Kena Ekebergia capensis **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Zergo Zergo Acacia brevispica * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** *
Kelansa Kilansa Dichro stachys cinerea * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ** **
Dile Dile Dichro stachys cinerea * * *** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ** **
Lelo Lola Acacia nilotica * * * * **** **** **** **** **** *** *** *
Jamo Jamo Entada abyssinica **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Ara Ara Terminalia brownie fresen **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Briza Baraza Bridelia micrantha **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
- Mudakale Boscia coriacea **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Banaki Banaki Acacia sieberiene * ** ** **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** *
Menzo Manzo Brachimia discolor **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Moshiko Moshike Indigofera spicata spira * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** * * *
Gedake Gedaki Dalbemergia melanoxylon **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Goleli Golali Acacia toritilis * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ** **
Tubakey Tubaki Rhus vulgaris **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
- Dita Dalbergia sissoo * * **** **** **** **** **** **** **** * * *
 Seftiy Bridelia micrantha **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Bitsobitso Bitsobitso Mytenus ovatus **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Arike Arke Acacia sieberiana * * * *** **** **** **** *** *** ** ** *
Anshali Anishali Crotolaria spinosa * * * **** **** **** **** **** ** ** ** *
shaf  Morus alba * * **** **** **** **** **** **** ** ** ** *
Akmba Akmba Acokanthera schimper **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Wuchembe Wuchimbe Calpurnia subdecandara **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
areas from August to October. This is due to the fact that this pe-
riod coincides with the short rainy season when many of the agro-
pastoralists plant crops.
Herbaceous plant parts utilized by goats
Morphological parts of the herbaceous forage species utilized
by goats in the study areas are presented in table 10.
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
37
BenagnaHamergna  Months in year
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct.  Dec.
Bokolo Bokolo Zea mays (L) * * * * * **** **** *** *** *** * *
Alaph Ensi Sofghum bicolor (L) * * * * * **** **** *** *** *** * *
Fecha Ficha Phaseolus vulgaris (L) * * * * * **** **** *** *** *** * *
Ayishitaro - Phaseolus vulgaris (L) * * * * * **** **** *** *** *** * *
Badala - Phaseolus vulgaris (L) * * * * * **** **** *** *** *** * *
Dincha Dinsha Ipomoea batatas (L) * * * * * **** **** *** *** *** * *
- Barga Eleusine coracana (L) * * * * * **** **** *** *** *** * *
- Sebe Pithecellobium dulce **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Gelife  Combretum molle **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Domoko Domoko Combretum molle **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Pulanti Pulanti Belanites aegyptila **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Kufre Kufri Acacia seyal *** * * *** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ***
- Hanshela Albizia lophantha *** * * *** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ***
- Genteta Rhoicissus revoilii *** ** ** ** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Metele Metele Sida ovata * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Chakanti Chakanti Acacia brevispica * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Gergeta Gergeta Vitellaria paradoxa * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Key Keyi Rhus natalensis * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
- Gumeza Commiphora erlangerana * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Mekela Mekela Grewia tenax * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Keja Kaja Ekebergia capensis * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
- Rumbi Delonix regia * * **** **** * ** ** ** **** * * *
- Gera Grewia bicolor * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Tseleko Tsaki Albizia grandibracteata * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Kalikala Kalikali Hevea brasiliensis *** *** *** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
- Ka-
chikache
Seurinega virosa * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Dekalo Dakali Acacaia lahali **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Gerigecha Gerigisha Grewia villosa * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Zinak Zinaki Allophylus abyssinicus * * **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Lola Lelo Acacia Oerfota * * **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
- Galansa Acacia albida * * **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Onoki Onoka Sarcocephalus latifolius * * **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Omoa - Ficus sycomorus * * **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Olopo - Piliostgma thonningii **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****
Tulungo - Sclerocarya birrea * * * **** **** **** **** **** **** *** *** ***
Table 8: The seasonal dynamic of browse goat feed resources in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda.
Marks= *: Not Available; **: Low Available; ***: Moderately Available; ****: Highly Available.
Table 9: The seasonal dynamic of Crop residues as goat feed resources in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay districts.
****: Months with high Crop residues availability; ***: Months with good Crop residues availability; -*: Months with no Crop residues
availability.
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
38
s  Morphological herbaceous forages parts
Leaf Stem Seed Pod
Mara Mara Tettrapogion cincroform * *
Kontsala Kuntsale Cyperus bulbosus *
Turna Turina Endigophora spinosis * * * *
Garant Garanti Vernonia natalensis * * * *
Ganaya Genya Tribulus terrestris * * * *
Gojo Gojo Eupherbia tirucalli * * * *
Erbo Eribo Ormocarpum mimosoides * * * *
Zersi Zersi Cynodon dactylon * * *
Sepety  Rhoicissus tridentata * * * *
Mugr Mugri Colotoria enkana * * * *
Gali Gali Tephrosia species * * * *
Mesta Metsa Achentis aspara * * * *
Gaya Ukuma Gaya Ukuma Tribulus terrestris * * * *
- Gera Dovyalis abyssinica * * * *
- Ago Lantana camara * * * *
- Buska Digitaria abyssinica * *
Malo Melo Capparis tomentosa *
- Genteta Cido obata * * * *
- Okilibuko Commilina benghalensis * * * *
Enku Eniku Lablab purpureus * * * *
Tire Tiri Lawsonia inermisis * * * *
Mekela - Dovyalis abyssinica * * * *
Menzo - Lantana camara * * * *
Palik - Digitaria abyssinica *
Zaki Zaki Vaginea ungulatium * * * *
Table 10: List of Morphological parts of herbaceous forages utilized by goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda.
Browse plant parts utilized by goats
The browse plant parts that are eaten by the goats in the study
areas are presented in table 11. Herders reported that during
wet seasons (April to August), goats show a preference for eat-
ing leaves over other plant parts, as the leaves are readily acces-
sible, highly palatable and rich in more nutrients. The pastoralists
also, reported that the pods and seeds are readily consumed by
goats in the study areas at the beginning of dry seasons. During
this time most of herbaceous and browse plants disappear from
the grazing areas and the goats begin to experience nutrient de-
 
generally only consumed by goats in the study areas towards the
end of harsh dry seasons that usually intensify in February, and
sometimes extend into mid-March. During this period, the useful
parts of most plants (leafs, seed and pods) have disappeared and
pastoralists are often forced to rely only on stem and bark to keep
goats alive until rains arrive.
Annual dry matter production for goats
Total estimated annual dry matter production from different
land use systems in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay are presented in table
12. In Hamer Woreda, the highest contributor to overall dry matter
production was estimated to be communal browsing land, whereas
in Bena-Tsemay Woreda, private browsing areas account for the
highest proportion of dry matter. For both districts, it is estimated
that the lowest contributor to overall dry matter production for
goats is forest/woody land.
Annual dry matter production from crops
The total estimated annual dry matter productions from differ-
ent major food crops for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay are presented
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
39
s  Morphological herbaceous plant parts
Leaf Stem Seed Pod
Mega Maga Annona senegalensis *
Zurguma Zuriguma Avicennia manna *
Kenya Kena Ekebergia capensis *
Zergo Zergo Acacia brevispica * * *
Kelansa Kilansa Dichro stachys cinerea * *
Dile Dile Dichro stachys cinerea * *
Lelo Lola Acacia nilotica * *
Jamo Jamo Entada abyssinica * *
Ara Ara Terminalia brownie fresen *
Briza Baraza Bridelia micrantha *
- Mudakale Boscia coriacea * *
Banaki Banaki Acacia sieberiene * * * *
Menzo Manzo Brachimia discolor *
Moshiko Moshike Indigofera spicata spira *
Gedake Gedaki Dalbemergia melanoxylon *
Goleli Golali Acacia toritilis * *
Tubakey Tubaki Rhus vulgaris *
- Dita Dalbergia sissoo *
 Seftiy Bridelia micrantha *
Bitsobitso Bitsobitso Mytenus ovatus * *
Arike Arke Acacia sieberiana *
Anshali Anishali Crotolaria spinosa *
shaf  Morus alba *
Akmba Akmba Acokanthera schimper *
- Giri Calpurnia subdecandara *
Wuchembe Wuchimbe Pithecellobium dulce * * * *
- Sebe Combretum molle * *
Gelife  Combretum molle *
Domoko Domoko Belanites aegyptila * *
Pulanti Pulanti Acacia seyal *
Kufre Kufri Albizia lophantha * * * *
- Hanshela Rhoicissus revoilii *
- Genteta Sida ovata *
Chakanti Chakanti Acacia brevispica * * * *
Gergeta Gergeta Vitellaria paradoxa *
Key Keyi Rhus natalensis *
- Gumeza Commiphora erlangerana *
Mekela Mekela Grewia tenax *
Keja Kaja Ekebergia capensis * * * *
- Rumb Delonix regia *
- Gera Grewia bicolor *
Tseleko Tsaki Albizia grandibracteata * * * *
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
40
Kalikala Kalikali Hevea brasiliensis * * * *
- Kachikache Seurinega virosa * * * *
Dekalo Dakali Acacaia lahali *
Gerigecha Gerigisha Grewia villosa
Zinak Zinaki Allophylus abyssinicus * * * *
Lola Lelo Acacia Oerfota * * * *
- Galansa Acacia albida * * * *
Onoki Onoka Sarcocephalus latifolius * * *
Omoa - Ficus sycomorus *
Olopo - Piliostgma thonningii *
Tulungo - Sclerocarya birrea * * * *
Table 11: List of Morphological herbaceous plant parts utilized by goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda.
Land use typeAmount(ha) Productivity (t/ha) Total dry matter(t)
Hamer Bena-Tsemay Hamer Total DM as % Bena-Tsemay Total DM as %
Private browsing 10,759.5 1, 182 3 32,278.5 8.9 3, 546 54.38
Communal browsing 150, 400.2 1, 288 2 300,800.40 82.95 2,576 39.51
Road side browsing 7,951.8 77.25 1.8 14,313.24 3.95 139.05 2.13
Fallow land browsing 6,648.7 152 1.5 9, 972 2.75 228 3.50
Forest/woody land 7,500 44.75 0.7 5, 250 1.45 31.33 0.50
Total 548, 673.75 2,744 - 362, 614.14 100 6, 520.34 100
Table 12: The total estimated annual dry matter productions from different land use system in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay.
table 13. The estimated highest amount of dry matter production
for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas comes from sor-
ghum and the lowest dry matter comes from Finger millet and
Banana leaf for Hamer and Bena-Tseamy respectively. Generally,
from this study it is observed that higher amount of crop residues
is produced from Bena-Tsemay than Hamer. This is because most
of communities in Bena-Tsemay Woreda have gradually shifted
into crop farming from pastoralism in order to secure self-food
and hence higher crop residues have produced than that of Hamer.
Dry matter requirements by goats
    -
port, Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda have 2,053,006 and 755,732
live goats population respectively which is equivalent to 205,3000
and 75, 573.20 tropical livestock units and need 468,085.37 and
172, 306.89 total dry matter per year.
Feed balance for goats in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
By assuming that dry matter requirement for maintenance of
one TLU is 6.25 kg/day, the total annual the maintenance dry mat-
ter requirement of goats in Hamer and Bana-Tsemay is about 468,
085.37 and 172, 306.89 tons respectively. It is estimated that the
dry matter produced in the study Woredas were 373, 473.38 and
42,987.24 for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively. Calculation of
   
and 129, 373.65 tons of dry matter for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay
Woreda respectively. Accordingly, the estimated feed balance sheet

than goats reared by Hamer pastoralist which indicated that goats
that reared by Bena-Tsemay have been more nutritional severed
than goats reared by Hamer pastoralists and this is clearly shows
the higher gap between dry matter supply and goats dry matter
requirements.
Discussion
Major herbaceous species
Herbaceous forage is the non-woody component of the vegeta-
tion, which includes all grass and forbs [11] 
our study, Admasu Teferi., et al. [4] had reported about 32 species
of grasses, three species of legumes, two species of sedges and
seven species of other herbaceous plants into study areas that is
used as livestock feeds. Moreover, Worku Bedeke and Nigatu L [12]

herbaceous plant species which used as livestock feed were identi-

Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
41
Major browse forages for goats
Browse plants, which may be trees and shrubs, are the main im-
portant component of the forage for goats [13]. Admasu Teferi., et
al. [4] reported that there were 19 and 29 woody (browse) species
used as livestock feeds in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay districts respec-

Worku Bedeke and Nigatu L [12] reported 21 woody (browses)
species which have used as livestock feeds for Dassench communi-

Major crop residues for goats
Crop residues represent a large part of feed resources, most of
which are underutilized in Ethiopia [14]. Crop residues described
as roughages become available for livestock feed after crops have
been harvested [15]. Goats are able to subsist and make appre-
ciable gains in long dry season with crop residue based diets that
compare favourably with conventional concentrate rations [16].
Some of the crop residues and by-products available are poten-
tially good feed resources which degrade readily in the rumen and
some however, have shown poor degradability and hence require
some treatments before they can contribute to animal nutrition.
Berhanu Tekleyohannes., et al. [5] report had demonstrated that
some agro-pastoral households in Bena-Tsemay and Hamer dis-
tricts listed crop residues mainly from Zea mays (L) and Sorghum
bicolor harvests as livestock feed resources next to natural pasture
 -
ings from our study, Admasu Teferi., et al. [4] also reported that
the Bena-Tsemay and some of the Hamer pastoralists who live
in higher altitude areas where cropping is more prevalent listed
maize, sorghum, wheat, teff and barley as supplementary sources
of livestock feed for a number of weeks per year during harvesting
season.
Herbaceous feed availability to goats
The availability and quality of dry matter from herbaceous feed
resources for goats in Ethiopia are not favourable year round. In
CropsAmount(ha) Productivity/ha Total dry matter (tons /ha)
Hamer Bena-Tsemay Hamer Total DM as % Bena-Tsemay Total DM as %
Zea mays (L) 1565 7539 2 3, 130 28.82 15,078 41.35
Sofghum bicolor (L) 2769.65 6493 2.5 6,924 63.76 16,232.5 44.52
Teff - 752 1.5 - - 1, 128 3.09
Eleusine coracana 23.49 - 0.7 16.44 0.15 - -
Phasseolus vulgaris 657.33 3182 1.2 788.79 7.26 3,818.40 10.47
Cajanus cajan - 152 0.7 - - - -
Banana Leaf and Stem - 13 8 - - 104 0.28
Total 5,015.5 18, 131 - 10,859 100 36, 466.90 100
Table 13: Estimated dry matter produced from different major crop types grown in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas.
most years, any productivity gains made in the wet seasons are to-
tally or partially lost in the dry seasons [17]. Inadequate feed sup-
ply is a major cause of dry season productivity declines in in goats
within study regions [5]. The feed availability within the study ar-
eas is also strongly affected by variations in rainfall amount, dis-
tribution, and climate change [5,6,18]. The availability of major

Pastoralist and agro pastoralists mentioned that overgrazing, the
conversion of browsing land into cropping land and climate change
were major shocks that induced declines in the availability of her-
baceous goat forage species. The Berhanu Tekleyohannes., et al. [5]
and Admasu Teferi [4] also reported that frequent droughts, over-
grazing and the expansion of cultivation are important determi-
nants in the decrease of herbaceous forage availability within the
rangelands in South Omo. Other research reports have indicated
that availability and quality of grazing resources in the pastoral
areas of Ethiopia vary with altitude, rainfall, soil type, cropping
 
droughts [19-21].
Browse feed resource availability for goat
Along with herbaceous plants, browse species are among the
cheapest goat feed resources available to goat producers in South-
ern Ethiopia as they which are evergreen, high in nutritional value
with abundant nutritional and available all year round [21]. Most
browse species have the advantage of maintaining their greenness
and nutritive value throughout the dry season when herbaceous
vegetation has dried out and deteriorated both in quality and quan-
tity. In alignment with previous research reported by Denbela Hi-
dosa., et al. [6], the pastoralists reported that dry matter availabil-
ity of browse species declines during dry seasons and are available
in surplus during the rainy seasons. The low dry matter available to
goats from browse species in the study areas has been attributed to
-
wood, house construction, fencing and the expansion of cropping
Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
42

by Denbela Hidosa., et al. [6] shows that during wet seasons, there
is surplus biomass production from the open grazing land while
during dry seasons, there are frequent reductions in biomass pro-
     
which aggravated by the climate variability. Other studies have re-
ported that poor management of rangelands; inappropriate graz-

browse species dry matter for goats [21].
Browse plant parts utilized by goats
Morphological browse parts (leaves, stem, pods and seeds) can
provide valuable nutrients to goats [22]. Due to the lengthy dry sea-
sons and highly irregular rainfall patterns within the study areas,
very few nutritious grasses persist into the dry seasons and hence
trees and shrubs provide an alternative source of energy, protein
and nutrients for goats [6]. The study by Samson Hailemariam., et
al. [22] and Hodgson RJ [23] demonstrated that Acacia pods and
leaves are a common feed supplement in many pastoral areas of

provided by pastoralists during the present study. Moreover, Buza-
yehu Ayele and Denbela Hidosa [18] reported that Hamer pastoral-
ists supplement new born kids, calves and sick animal with acacia
pods and leaves from a range of locally available trees during the
dry seasons which supports ideas reported by the pastoralist from
this study. Similarly, the Borana pastoralists in Southern Ethiopia
have used pods and leave of native leguminous browse trees such
as Acacia tortilis and Acacia nilotica as dry feed resource supple-
ments [24].
Conclusion and Recommendation
The overwhelming majority of goat feed resources within the
two study Woredas are derived from browsing lands. These ar-
eas are likely to be declining in productivity as a result of climate
 
house construction, fencing and the expansion of cropping activi-
ties. With pastoralist households having such a heavy reliance on
this resource it is imperative that policy makers, researchers and
development agencies work to address the issue of rangeland deg-
radation. Strategies could include establishing enclosure for opti-
mum durations. Presently, communities within the study areas are
only using crop residues as goat feeds during immediately follow-
ing harvest, with no storage or feed treatment being undertaken.
In this regard, it is important to train and advise communities to
conserve crop residues during periods of surplus production in the
form of silage and hay. In the study areas, dry season feed short-
ages are critical problem for goat production and hence forage
banking should be developed through harvesting the herbage from
rangeland at the optimum stage of maturity. Furthermore, results
from this study also indicated that communities have no trends of
growing cultivated fodder species for goats. Therefore, it is recom-
mended that the emphasis should be put in planting adaptable
cultivated fodder. Similarly, from the forage inventory, it is obvious
that herders are not in a position to properly supplement their goat
with protein and energy rich feeds sources that might be required
the use of nutritious browse trees. Such supplementation could aid
in offsetting could production losses associated with dry season de-
clines in the nutritive value of the native grass and browse species.
Acknowledgments
This study was made possible with funding from Department
for International Development (DFID) to Farm Africa for the Live-
stock for Livelihoods project in pastoral areas of Ethiopia and
Uganda. Authors are extremely thankful to the Farm Africa, Live-

for providing logistical support. We are grateful to and acknowl-
edge Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda Livestock and Fisheries Of-

and secondary information that included in this study. Finally, we
would like thanks the trained botanists Mr Bediru Roba from the
Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Centre for assigned botanical
names of forage species.
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Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia
43
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Citation: Denbela Hidosa., et al. “Goat Feed Inventory and Feed Balance in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia”.
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 2.6 (2020): 28-43.
... Ethiopia has an approximately 38.94 million goat's population [1] which have been contributing the vigorous role over providing foods (milk and meat) and immediate cash incomes for smallholder rural communities [2]. Despite of vigorous role to rural communities, the outputs from goat production system in Bena-Tsemay district is generally quite poor due to the deficits in quantity and poor quality of goat feeds [3,4]. In this district, the goat production systems are seldom allowed to express their genetic potentials due to poor feeding and husbandry practices. ...
... Thus, understanding qualities and nutritive values of browse plant species is a quite an indispensable for the designing the long-term utilization of browse species which will be targeted to properly balance their levels in goat diets. However, with above merits, the browse plant species used as goat feeds were identified and well documented for Bena-tsemay district [4], but not their chemical composition have not assessed for future use in goat diet. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess chemical composition of selected browse plant species used as goat feed in Bena-Tsemay district for possible utilization as protein supplement. ...
... An area is characterized by semi-arid and arid climatic condition, with mean annual rainfall averaged from 350-838mm with bimodal distribution and has an ambient temperature ranged from 26-35 O C [14]. The vegetation of the study district is dominated by varying densities of Acacia, Grewia, and Solanum woody species [4,15]. The dominant type of land-use is agro-pastoralism [3,4] and total land is used for grazing and browsing by cattle and goats, respectively [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The browse species are an important source of nutrients for goats in arid range-land. However, the chemical compositions of browse species used as goat feed in Bena-Tsemay district have not studied and documented for future long-term utilization which target to properly balance their inclusion levels in animal diets. Thus, this study was conducted to assess chemical compositions of selected browse species browsed by goats. The leaves of fourteen browse species samples were collected from range-land and analyzed for chemical compositions in completely randomized block design by using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS. The higher (p<0.05) crude protein (CP) (198g/kg, DM) was observed in A. marina leaves, while the lower CP levels (125g/kg, DM) and (126g/kg, DM) were observed in A. tortilis and G. tenax leaves, respectively. The S. bir-rea leaves had higher (p<0.05) estimated dry matter intake (94.05g/kg, DM), while it was lower (58.57g/kg, DM) for A. tortilis leaves. However, the digestible dry matter (DDM), total digestible nutrients (TDN), relative feed value (RFV) and metablisable energy (ME) values were similar (p<0.05) among the all studied browse plant species. Based on result from this study, it can be concluded that all studied browse plants had high-quality-protein to supplement poor-quality-roughage feeds for enhanced livestock production. Also, it is suggested that future research will consider the supplementation effects of browse plant on animal performances (meat, milk and growth rate).
... "The overall productive and reproductive performances of livestock in Ethiopia are generally very low" [1][2][3]. Likewise, the poor-quality feeds and inadequate supply of feed biomass from the grazing-land (natural-pasture) to livestock in South Omo Zone are one of the important element that are contributing to low outputs (milk, meat and growth rates) from the livestock [4,5]. It seems that the nutritive values generated from the grazing-lands are seriously affected by dynamics of pasture-forages [5,6]. ...
... The supplementary feeding system is the addition of some feeds that are rich with vital nutrients to low-quality-forage to improve the intake and digestibility of low-quality forages aimed for higher outputs from animals. The evaluating and familiarizing of locally adaptable improved forages-crops to supplement the extensive-pasture-grazing system for pastoral and agro-pastoral areas is only the way to engulf feed shortages [4,5]. The Leucaena species is one of legume fodder trees, which is evergreen, highly branched and have a fast-growing potential, which grows up to a height of 5m to 20m [9]. ...
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... The district is characterized by semi-arid and arid climatic conditions, with mean annual rainfall averaging from 350-838 mm in bimodal distribution with the long rainy season from March to June while the small rains between September and October with an ambient temperature ranging from 26-35 º C [12]. The vegetation of the study area is dominated by varying densities of Acacia, Grewia, and Solanum woody species [4,13]. The dominant type of land-use is agro-pastoralism [5,13] and more than 48% of the total land area of the district is used for grazing and browsing by cattle and goats, respectively [4]. ...
... The vegetation of the study area is dominated by varying densities of Acacia, Grewia, and Solanum woody species [4,13]. The dominant type of land-use is agro-pastoralism [5,13] and more than 48% of the total land area of the district is used for grazing and browsing by cattle and goats, respectively [4]. Depending on the agroecologies, the agro-pastoralists in the study district are practicing rainfed agriculture and sorghum, maize, millet, bean, wheat, barley, and vegetables are the major crops grown in the study area [4]. ...
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