Chapter

Degus

Authors:
  • Jekl & Hauptman Veterinary Clinic , Brno, Czech Republic & University of Veterinary Sciences Brno Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
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Abstract

Degus have become popular as pets in many European countries, are becoming more popular in North America, and are exhibited in many zoos. Degus (Octodon degus) are social diurnal porcupine-like rodents and belong to the family Octodontidae. Compared with other commonly kept pet rodents, information on the medical management of degus is limited but increasing over the past decade. This chapter summarized the published information and the authors clinical experience in degu medicine and brings here objective information regarding anatomy, husbandry, nutrition and common diseases management.

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Article
Objective: The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical and histopathological findings associated with intranasal tumours in degus. Materials and methods: Medical records of degus diagnosed with intranasal neoplasms on histopathological examination between the years 2007 and 2020 at one hospital were included in the study. Results medical records of degus: Twenty degus (10 males and 10 females) were eligible for inclusion. Initial clinical signs included sneezing, abnormal nasal sounds, and nasal discharge, followed by anorexia and frequent nose rubbing. On radiography, 15 out of 20 animals showed space-occupying lesions in the nasal cavity. CT was performed in 16 animals and revealed various degrees of changes, including abnormal radiopacity within the nasal cavity and damaged nasal septum. Rhinostomy and excisional biopsy was performed in all 20 animals. Six out of 20 patients died during the perioperative period. Six and seven degus survived for 3 months and 1 year, respectively. One animal was lost to follow-up. In 16 cases the histological diagnosis was consistent with fibromas, while in 4 cases with osteomas. Clinical significance: Intranasal neoplasms in degus are mostly benign mesenchymal tumours with various degrees of bone formation, which is unique to this animal species. This occurrence should be considered as an important differential diagnosis for upper respiratory tract disease in degus.
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AbstractThis article describes a case of severe acquired dental disease with elodontoma formation in the nasal cavity of a 3.5-year-old degu (Octodon degus). Physical examination revealed cachexia, bilateral serous nasal discharge, dehydration, inspiratory dyspnea and severe acquired dental disease. Diagnostic investigation revealed severe apical elongation of all cheek teeth, dental caries of the occlusal surface of the first right mandibular premolar, exposed crown lysis (osteoresorption) of the mandibular premolars, and multiple areas of increased opacity of the right nasal cavity with loss of conchal detail. Because of general poor condition and severity of disease, the animal was euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed a mass in the nasal cavity associated with the right maxillary incisor. The mass was characterized on histopathology as an elodontoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first described case of elodontoma in this species.
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A 6-year-old pet female degu (Octodon degus), in good body condition, was referred to a clinic with the presence of a large tumour in the anogenital area. The mass was bluntly dissected from the surrounding skin and muscles. The medial part of the tumour was associated with the vaginal wall which was also excised with 2 mm margins. No visible changes on the inner vaginal surface were seen. On gross examination the surface of the mass was glossy and pink-coloured; the cut surface was grey to red with greyish-white foci in a part of the mass. Histopathological examination showed a tumour composed of pleomorphic spindle to ovoid cells forming interlacing bundles and variably dense fibrous connective tissue separated by streams of neoplastic cells. Several smaller foci of coagulation necrosis were present within the tumour tissue. The neoplastic cells exhibited a high mitotic index, which ranged from six to seven mitoses per 10 high power fields. By immunohistochemical examination the positivity of neoplastic cells was demonstrated with smooth muscle actin (SMA) and vimentin, while no immunoreactivity was acquired for cytokeratins. Based on morphological features of the tumour and immunohistochemical examination a diagnosis of vaginal leiomyosarcoma was made. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a vaginal leiomyosarcoma in a degu.
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Thirty-five juvenile (mean age 6.3 weeks) and 35 adult (mean age 2.0 years) healthy degus (Octodon degus) were studied to investigate selected haematological and plasma biochemistry parameters. Animals were anaesthetised with isoflurane, and blood was withdrawn from the cranial vena cava. Erythrocyte, haematocrit and neutrophil counts (including the percentage of neutrophils) were significantly higher in the adult degus than in the juveniles. In contrast, the reticulocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, number of platelets and percentage of lymphocytes were significantly lower in the adult animals. Total protein and globulin levels were significantly higher in the adult degus. The albumin:globulin ratio and plasma levels of urea nitrogen, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, potassium, total calcium and inorganic phosphorus were significantly lower in adults than in juveniles.
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Animals must match their foraging and digestion to seasonal changes in availability and quality of food. When these parameters decline, the animal's performance limits for extracting energy and nutrients may be challenged. In the laboratory, we investigated daily patterns of food processing on a low-quality (high-fiber) diet of alfalfa in an herbivorous, day-active rodent, the degu (Octodon degus), which inhabits semiarid central Chile. We manipulated timing of food availability, from continuous availability down to as little as 5 h/d. Degus maintained weight while digesting only 53% of dry-matter consumption. With food continuously available in a metabolic cage, the animals ate more food and deposited about twice as much feces in the day as at night. Continuous 24-h behavioral observation revealed that degus were actually defecating at the same rate both night and day but then ingesting most of the feces they produced at night. Further experimental treatments challenged animals with limited periods of food availability that matched natural foraging patterns. With either 11 h of daytime food availability or only 5 h (in morning and afternoon periods of 2.5 h each), degus consumed as much food as those with 24-h food availability. Continuous 24-h behavioral observations revealed in the 11-h group that nearly all feces produced at night were reingested and nearly none were reingested in the day, whereas the 5-h group resorted to further coprophagy during the 6-h midday interval with no food. Despite these differences in timing of food intake and coprophagy in response to the three experimental treatments, the degus were defecating at the same rate both night and day, which indicated a constant rate of output from the colon. This suggests a range of adjustments of digestive physiology to the timing of gut function by balancing coprophagy with ingestion of food. Overall, 38% of 24-h feces production was reingested, and 87% of this coprophagy occurred at night. The ingestion of feces during parts of the day when food is unavailable provides for continued intake into the digestive tract and appears to represent an increase in overall efficiency of gut use.
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Communal nesting is a fundamental component of many animal societies. Because the fitness consequences of this behavior vary with the relatedness among nest mates, understanding the kin structure of communally nesting groups is critical to understanding why such groups form. Observations of captive degus (Octodon degus) indicate that multiple females nest together, even when supplied with several nest boxes. To determine whether free-living degus also engage in communal nesting, we used radiotelemetry to monitor spatial relationships among adult females in a population of O. degus in central Chile. These analyses revealed that females formed stable associations of > 2-4 individuals, all of whom shared the same nest site at night. During the daytime, spatial overlap and frequency of social interactions were greatest among co-nesting females, suggesting that nesting associations represent distinct social units. To assess kinship among co-nesting females, we examined genotypic variation in our study animals at six microsatellite loci. These analyses indicated that mean pairwise relatedness among members of a nesting association (r=0.25) was significantly greater than that among randomly selected females (r=-0.03). Thus, communally nesting groups of degus are composed of female kin, making it possible for indirect as well as direct fitness benefits to contribute to sociality in this species.
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Insulin is a conservative molecule among mammals, maintaining both its structure and function. Rodents that belong to the Suborder Hystricognathi represent an exception, having a very divergent molecule with unusual physiological properties. In this work, we analyzed the evolutionary pattern of the insulin gene in caviomorph rodents (South American hystricomorph rodents). We found that these rodents have higher rates of nonsynonymous:synonymous substitutions (d(N)/d(S)) than nonhystricomorph rodents and that values are heterogeneous inside the group. We estimated codons under positive selection, specifically the second binding site (A13 and B17) and others related with hexamerization (B18, B20, and B22). In the monomer structure, all selected sites formed a single patch around the second binding site. In the hexamer structure, these amino acids were grouped into three major patches. In this structure, contacts between B chains involved all selected sites (except B18), and between faces in the center of the molecule, all contacts were among selected sites. While there is no clear hypothesis regarding the cause of this drastic change, experimental evidence does show that this group of rodents has some peculiarities in growth function, and, whether coincidental or not, these changes appeared together with important changes in life-history traits.
Dental disease is among the most common causes for chinchillas and degus to present to veterinarians. Most animals with dental disease present with weight loss, reduced food intake/anorexia, and drooling. Degus commonly present with dyspnea. Dental disease has been primarily referred to as elongation and malocclusion of the cheek teeth. Periodontal disease, caries, and tooth resorption are common diseases in chinchillas, but are missed frequently during routine intraoral examination, even performed under general anesthesia. A diagnostic evaluation, including endoscopy-guided intraoral examination and diagnostic imaging of the skull, is necessary to detect oral disorders and to perform the appropriate therapy.
Article
An adult 2-year-old 173 g intact male degu (Octodon degus) was presented to the authors’ clinic with a 2-week history of reduced food intake, weight loss, epiphora, and dyspnea. Physical examination revealed lethargy, cachexia, bilateral serous ocular discharge, dehydration, inspiratory dyspnea, and severe dental disease. Diagnostic investigation showed extensive apical elongation of premolars causing partial nasal cavity obstruction by masses of increased opacity, and loss of conchal detail. The animal was euthanized due to general poor condition and the severity of disease. Postmortem micro computed tomography showed marked reserve crown elongation of all premolars and molars. All cheek teeth were abnormally curved and had widened interdental spaces. The apex of the maxillary left premolar nearly penetrated the left nasal bone. Both maxillary premolars penetrated into the nasal cavity and caused complete left and partial right nasal cavity obstruction. Apices of all premolars were dysplastic.
Article
In this study, we epidemiologically investigated on clinical isolates of Arthroderma benhamiae from humans and animals in Japan by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence analysis and mating type (MAT)-specific PCR. Seven of 8 A. benhamiae isolates from a human, rabbits and guinea pigs were identified as group I (white phenotype) by morphological characters and ITS region sequence analysis. One strain isolated from a degus (Octodon degus) produced colonies with few irregular folds and yellow velvety mycelium without macro- and microconidia. This strain resembled to group II (yellow phenotype) strain. ITS sequence analysis was also 100 % identical to that of group II. MAT-specific PCR indicated that 6 of these 7 isolates of group I contained an alpha-box gene and that one strain contained high-mobility-group (HMG) gene. One strain of group II was revealed to have an alpha-box gene and no HMG gene. To our knowledge, it is the first A. benhamiae isolate of group II found in Japan. The A. benhamiae may be more widespread in worldwide than our surpassing what is common or usual or expected.
Article
By comparison with murine rodents such as rats, the middle ear structures of many subterranean mammals appear to be enlarged and thus adapted toward low-frequency sound transmission. However, comparison with closely related terrestrial outgroups has not always been undertaken, and apparent specializations in some cases might reflect phylogeny rather than habitat. Examination of the middle ear of the nonsubterranean degu (Octodon degus) under light microscopy revealed a septated middle ear cavity, a circular tympanic membrane lacking a pars flaccida, a malleus with elongated head, synostosed with the incus, a typically bicrurate stapes, and no stapedius muscle. Many of these features are shared with closely related, subterranean octodontoids in the genera Ctenomys (tuco-tucos) and Spalacopus (coruro). Caviomorph rodents in general share a very similar middle ear morphology, regardless of habitat, which suggests that sensitive low-frequency hearing is plesiomorphic for this group, rather than being specifically associated with a subterranean lifestyle.
Article
Five captive adult female degus (Octodon degus) were offered leaves and twigs to eat from three woody (Adesmia bedwellii,Porlieria chilensisandProustia pungens) and two suffruticose (Baccharis paniculataandChenopodium petiolase) shrubs that provide cover in their natural habitat. The degus discriminated among the plant species, consuming lower amounts ofP. chilensis. Daily body mass losses of degus were significantly higher when they were fed uponP. pungensandP. chilensis. The nutritional value of plants, concomitant with degu nutritional requirements, may explain changes in shrub cover previously found to follow removal of degus from experimental plots.
Article
The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pelleted diet of different mineral composition on the sonographic and CT appearance of kidneys in degus (Octodon degus). A total of 35 animals were randomly divided into five groups, fed diets containing different calcium and phosphorus contents (13.5 g/kg calcium and 6.3 g/kg phosphorus, or 9.1 g/kg calcium and 9.5 g/kg phosphorus) and given different amounts of exposure to UV light. Endoscopic examination of the oral cavity as well as renal ultrasonography and CT was performed four times at four-month intervals throughout the study. After 14 months of feeding an experimental diet, all degus were euthanased and subsequently all kidneys were collected for histopathological examination. Animals fed a diet with high dietary phosphate and improper calcium to phosphorus ratio showed severe nephrocalcinosis. Ultrasonographic and CT kidney abnormalities presented as hyperechogenicity and hyperdensity (interpreted as nephrocalcinosis), respectively. The most striking changes were seen at the corticomedullary zone. Ultrasonography and CT correlated in all cases with histopathological findings. Dental disease developed quickly in groups fed diets with an improper calcium and phosphorus content, with obvious apical and coronal elongation of all the teeth. A possible influence of UV light access could not be proved in this study.
Article
The impact of pelleted diets with different mineral compositions on the crown size of the mandibular cheek teeth, as well as the mandibular bone and cheek teeth density, in degus (Octodon degus) was investigated. A total of 28 animals were randomly divided into four groups and fed different calcium or phosphorous dietary content, in the presence or absence of UV light, for 14 months. Dental radiographs and CT images of the head were taken, and the crown size of premolar and molar teeth was recorded. Apical and coronal crown elongation of all cheek teeth and significantly smaller relative cheek teeth and mandibular densities were recorded in degus fed a high-phosphorus diet with an improper calcium:phosphorus ratio. A diet with a calcium:phosphorus ratio of 1:1 was also responsible for the rapid development of dental disease with subsequent severe health impairment.
Article
Degus are commonly used as laboratory animals; however, over the past few years, they have become increasingly popular as pets. Objectives: The aim of this article was to present disease prevalence in 300 pet degus divided in two age groups (under and above two years). Medical records of degus (Octodon degus), which were presented to the author's clinic in the period from January 2007 to December 2009, were reviewed. The most common diseases in degus were (1) acquired dental disease (60·0%) with significantly higher prevalence in older animals (P<0.001), (2) skin alopecia due to fur chewing (13·33%) and (3) lens cataracts (13·33%). Other common disorders included traumatic injuries to soft tissues (bite wounds and tail slip), traumatic fractures and dietary diarrhoea. Reproductive disorders were most commonly associated with dystocia and pathological changes in the post-natal period. Only 38 degus in a total of 300 animals were healthy. This is the first study to describe the disease prevalence in two age groups of pet degus. The majority of diseases were caused by improper diet, self-mutilation and improper handling; as such client education is necessary to avoid such a high disease prevalence.
Octodon degus are herbivorous rodents that are adapted anatomically and behaviorally to utilize a fibrous diet with moderate-to-low levels of nonstructural carbohydrate. Captive degus should consume foods containing nutrients comparable to those consumed by free-ranging animals. The species is highly social, demonstrating a broad array of communication methods that make them appealing as a companion animal species. Controlled research studies with degus have produced a wealth of information that facilitates the care of this species in captivity.
1. Digestibilities of feed and turnover time (1/k), Transit time (TT) and mean retention time (MRT: 1/k + TT) of fluid and particle markers were measured in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus), degu (Octodon degus) and leaf-eared mouse (Phyllotis darwini) fed a diet containing 50% alfalfa. 2. The digestibility of fibre and the retention time of digesta were highest in the guinea-pig followed by the degu and lowest in the leaf-eared mouse. 3. The difference in the retention time of digesta, resulting from the variation in the digestibility of fibre, between the three animals can be considered to be related to their body mass.
Article
A primary bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with renal and hepatic metastases was diagnosed in a mature male degu (Octodon degus) that was found dead in a zoological exhibit (Buffalo Zoological Gardens, Buffalo, New York, USA). Grossly, a discrete 0.5 cm diameter nodule was seen in the lung. Smaller, but similar nodules were present scattered in the liver and kidneys. Histologically, nests and sheets of an infiltrating population of cuboidal to low columnar neoplastic epithelial cells partially effaced pulmonary architecture. Vascular invasion was evident. Similar nests and sheets of neoplastic cells were present within the renal cortex and medulla, and a small nest was present within the hepatic parenchyma. This is the first record of this neoplasm in a degu.
Article
The Octodon degus has been reported to have higher aldose reductase activity in the lens compared to the gerbil and rat. When made diabetic the degus develop cataracts within 4 weeks. We have been able to completely prevent cataract formation in diabetic degus using Pfizer's sorbinil for up to 6 months. This is further evidence of the role of aldose reductase in the formation of cataracts in diabetes.
Article
O. degus reproductive tract is characterized externally by a perianal circle with the penis pointing posteriorly. Beneath the perianal circle is the cremasteric sac. Testes are always inside the abdomen, with the epididymis attached to them but the cauda epididymis lays inside the cremasteric sac. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles open independently into the urethra. Three pairs of lateral prostatic lobes open by many ducts into the urethra. The corpora spongiosa holds the urethra in the ventral groove of the corpus cavernosum. The corpus cavernosa are inserted into the bulbo cavernosum muscle and at its distal end are attached to the base of the baculum, that lay under the dorsal face of the glans. The glans has two openings: the urinary meatus and the intromittent sac. The characteristics of the testicular artery agree with the anatomy expected for animals with intrabdominal testes; it is relatively short, with few loops and a wide diameter. Many of these anatomical features are shared by other caviomorphal rodents. If testicular temperature is similar to body temperature in these animals as in O. degus (36.0 degrees and 37.2 degrees C respectively), they would exhibit little testicular thermal sensibility. Among these rodents O. degus has the lowest body temperature. Moreover this work reinforces the hypothesis that descent of the testis into the scrotum has occurred secondarily to the immigration of the cauda epididymis.
Article
Mechanisms differentiating diurnal from nocturnal species are thought to be innate components of the circadian timekeeping system and may be located downstream from the circadian pacemaker within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. In the present study, we found that the dominant phase of behavioral activity and body temperature (Tb) is susceptible to modification by a specific modality of behavioral activity (wheel-running activity) in Octodon degus, a mammal that exhibits multiple chronotypes. Seven Octodon degus exhibited diurnal Tb and locomotor activity (LMA) circadian rhythms while entrained to a 24 h light/dark cycle (LD 12:12). When the diurnal animals were provided unrestricted access to a running wheel, the overt daily rhythms in these animals inverted to nocturnal. This nocturnal pattern was sustained in constant darkness and returned to diurnal after removal of the running wheel. Six additional animals exhibited nocturnal chronotypes in LD 12:12 regardless of access to running wheels. Wheel-running activity inverted the phase preference in the diurnal animals without changing the 24 hr mean LMA or Tb levels. Because wheel running did not increase the amplitude of the pre-existing diurnal pattern, simple masking effects on LMA and Tb cannot explain the rhythm inversion. The diurnal-nocturnal inversion occurred without reversing crepuscular-timed episodes of activity, suggesting that diurnal or nocturnal phase preference is controlled separately from the intrinsic timing mechanisms within the SCN and can be dependent on behavioral or environmental factors.
Article
A new nomenclature of the lung lobes and of the bronchial tree is presented, with which the lungs in 40 species of 11 rodent families are described. Whole, fixed lungs and silicone casts of the bronchial tree are tested for 23 characters, based on the distribution of lung lobes, the number and geometry of first order bronchi, the pulmonary blood supply, and lung symmetry. Ten lung morphotypes are recognized, seven of them representing one or more families: Castor type (Castoridae), Cryptomys type (Bathyergidae), Ctenodactylus type (Ctenodactylidae), Eliomys type (Gliridae), Myocastor type (Myocastoridae), Octodon type (Octodontidae and Echimyidae) and Rattus type (Sciuridae, Muridae pt. and Dipodidae). The Hydromys type is found only in Hydromys chrysogaster (Muridae), while Galea type A and B both appear in Galea musteloides (Caviidae). The data are phylogenetically analyzed by the program PAUP 4.0 using as outgroup Lagomorpha or Insectivora. On the species level, there are no well-resolved cladograms. On the family level, the cladograms do not contradict traditional rodent systematics with one exception: the Caviidae do not fall within Caviomorpha or even within the Hystricomorpha, but form a sister group to Dipodidae (Myomorpha). This appears to be a result of convergence. The lungs of Gliridae are more similar to those of Muridae than to those of Sciuridae. Included in the ingroup, Oryctolagus (Lagomorpha) forms a clade with Caviidae + Dipodidae. Thus, the "Glires hypothesis" is neither supported nor refuted.
Article
Octodon degus is a moderate-sized, precocious, but slowly maturing, hystricomorph rodent from central Chile. We have used this species to study a variety of questions about circadian rhythms in a diurnal mammal that readily adapts to most laboratory settings. In collaboration with others, we have found that a number of fundamental features of circadian function differ in this diurnal rodent compared with nocturnal rodents, specifically rats or hamsters. We have also discovered that many aspects of the circadian system are sexually dimorphic in this species. However, the sexual dimorphisms develop in the presence of pubertal hormones, and the sex differences do not appear until after gonadal puberty is complete. The developmental timing of the sex differences is much later than in the previously studied altricial, rapidly developing rat, mouse, or hamster. This developmental timing of circadian function is reminiscent of that reported for adolescent humans. In addition, we have developed a model that demonstrates how nonphotic stimuli, specifically conspecific odors, can interact with the circadian system to hasten recovery from a phase-shift of the light:dark cycle (jet lag). Interestingly, the production of the odor-based social signal and sensitivity to it are modulated by adult gonadal hormones. Data from degu circadian studies have led us to conclude that treatment of some circadian disorders in humans will likely need to be both age and gender specific. Degus will continue to be valuable research animals for resolving other questions regarding reproduction, diabetes, and cataract development.
A 4.5-year-old female degu (Octodon degus) was minimally responsive with a poor body condition, a rough haircoat, and moderate dehydration. Blood was present around its urethral orifice and on the cage bedding. Laboratory analyses revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and anemia; hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia; hyperglycemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevated alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine; and hematuria and pyuria with occasional squamous and transitional epithelial cells. A urine culture was positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp. On gross necropsy, the right kidney was enlarged, cystic, and greenish-brown, with a 10-mm, hemorrhagic, granular mass extending from the renal pelvis into the cranial cortex. Only a small amount of renal cortex appeared normal. The urinary bladder had focal areas of hemorrhage and contained frank blood. Histologically, the papillary mass in the right renal pelvis comprised basophilic, moderately anaplastic, clustered epithelial transition cells consistent with a transitional cell carcinoma. Internally, the tumor showed squamous metaplasia and moderate multifocal interstitial fibrosis. The right kidney cortex contained a choristoma comprising trabecular bone, mature adipocytes, and cellular infiltrates suggestive of osteocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. The urinary bladder had mild to moderate, focal, hemorrhage with neutrophilic inflammation and contained focal areas of mild transitional cell epithelial hyperplasia; these changes may have been secondary to irritation by hemorrhage in the renal pelvis. There was no evidence of metastasis. Renal transitional cell tumors are rare in rodents. This is the first report of both a renal transitional cell carcinoma and a renal choristoma in a degu.
Article
A 2-month-old male degu was treated for preputial damage and lateral penile displacement that occurred during attempted castration. Bruising and swelling of the prepuce and severe edema to the left of the prepuce were evident. The penis could not be extruded from the prepuce. Radiography revealed a large bladder. Contrast medium injected into the prepuce filled the peripreputial subcutaneous tissues. During surgical exploration through a peripreputial approach, the penis was found to be completely separated from the prepuce and located in the adjacent subcutaneous tissue. The penis was repositioned in the prepuce and anchored with a suture at its base. The following day, the preputial orifice was crusted over, urine was leaking from the incision, and the penis could not be extruded from the prepuce. The anchoring suture was removed, and the tip of the penis was sutured to the preputial orifice so that the penis protruded slightly from the prepuce. Urination was normal after the second surgery. Two years later, the preputial orifice remained adhered to the distal portion of the penis and the exposed penile tissue was healthy. Penile displacement from the prepuce is an unusual complication of castration in degus. The surgical technique used in this animal may be an effective means of repair. Permanent exposure of the tip of the penis may be well-tolerated in degus.
Infraorder Hystricognathi
  • Woods
Parathyroid adenocarcinoma with metastasis and pulmonary adenocarcinoma in a degu (Octodon degus)
  • Smith