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BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is deeply integrated in social life, and the majority of employees consume alcohol regularly. Alcohol represents a major public health challenge related to both health and participation, on individual as well as on societal levels. Although alcohol prevention programmes mostly have demonstrated favourable effects in research, such programmes have proved difficult to implement in practice. AIMS: This thesis aimed to generate a better understanding of employee alcohol consumption and intervention needs, impaired work performance associated with alcohol consumption, and current practices and barriers against implementing alcohol prevention programmes in occupational health services (OHS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The thesis utilised data from three sources with the national WIRUS project (Workplace Interventions preventing Risky alcohol Use and Sick leave). Risky drinking and employee intervention needs were explored in a cross-sectional study of 3571 employees in 14 Norwegian companies (Paper I). The relationship between alcohol consumption and impaired work performance (alcohol-related presenteeism) was examined by reviewing the existing research literature (Paper II), as well as empirically in a cross-sectional study of 3278 employees in 14 Norwegian companies (Paper III). Current alcohol prevention activity in OHS' and associations between implementation barriers and prevention activity were explored in a cross-sectional study of 295 OHS professionals in 69 Norwegian OHS units (Paper IV). RESULTS: First, supporting the notion of alcohol-related presenteeism, employee alcohol consumption seemed to be associated with impaired work performance (Papers II and III). Drinking intensity (binge drinking) was more strongly associated with performance decrements than drinking frequency (Paper III). Second, a considerable proportion of employees (1-3 out of 10) were identified as risky drinkers that would benefit from interventions (Paper I), yet the majority (7 out of 10) of OHS professionals worked with alcohol prevention less than on a monthly basis (Paper IV). Risky drinking was associated with male gender, younger age, low education, being unmarried and not having children (Paper I). Competence, time and resources constituted the primary barriers against implementation of alcohol prevention programmes in OHS' (Paper IV). Third, the vast majority of risky drinkers (9 out of 10) would, according to international intervention guidelines, benefit from simple secondary prevention interventions (Paper I), yet OHS' alcohol prevention activity was more focused on tertiary than on secondary prevention (Paper IV). CONCLUSIONS: The thesis suggests that alcohol consumption is associated with impaired work performance, and that there seems to be a mismatch between employee intervention needs and OHS' prevention activity. Although further research is warranted, the thesis carries the promising message that OHS' may constitute an abeyant asset for preventing alcohol problems in the workforce, insofar that OHS professionals are ensured adequate training, time and resources.
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... Study selection analyses of the WIRUS screening data indicate that the final study sample was similar to the invited sample (ie, all employees in the included companies) regarding distributions of gender and age. 90 However, compared with the entire Norwegian workforce, female, older and well-educated employees were over-represented in our study. Moreover, it must be noted that public sector employees were largely over-represented, resulting in a limited potential of generalising results across employment sectors. ...
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Objectives Sociodemographic predictors of employee alcohol use are well established in the literature, but knowledge about associations between workplace factors and alcohol use is less explored. The aim of this study was to explore whether workplace factors were associated with employee alcohol use (consumption and alcohol-related problems). Design Cross-sectional study. Linear and binary logistic regression analyses. Setting Heterogeneous sample of employees (workers and supervisors) from 22 companies across geographical locations and work divisions in Norway. Participants Employees (N=5388) responded on survey items measuring workplace factors and alcohol use. Outcomes Data on alcohol use were collected with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Consumption was measured with the AUDIT-C (the first three items), and alcohol-related problems were operationalised as a sum score of 8 or higher on the full 10-item AUDIT. Results Higher levels of alcohol consumption were associated with more liberal workplace drinking social norms (b=1.37, p<0.001), working full-time (b=0.18, p<0.001), working from holiday home (b=0.40, p<0.01), being a supervisor (b=0.25, p<0.001), having supervisors with less desired leadership qualities (b=−0.10, p<0.01), shorter working hours (b=−0.03, p<0.05), higher workplace social support (b=0.13, p<0.05) and higher income (b=0.02, p<0.001). Alcohol-related problems were associated with more liberal workplace drinking social norms (OR=3.52, p<0.001) and shorter working hours (OR=0.94, p<0.05). Conclusions Workplace drinking social norms were the supremely most dominant predictor of both consumption and alcohol-related problems. Results suggest that some workplace factors may play a role in explaining employee alcohol consumption, although the predictive ability of these factors was limited. This study points to the importance of drinking social norms, workplace drinking culture and leadership for understanding employee alcohol use.
... Andel (%) ansatte som ofte eller svaert ofte opplever positive virkninger Øvrige WIRUS-virksomheter Virksomheten (Skogen mfl., 2019;Thørrisen, 2020). Verktøyene vi har benyttet for å måle holdninger til arbeidsrelatert alkoholbruk (Drinking Social Norms Scale) og forventninger til virkninger av alkoholbruk (Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire) representerer anerkjente og validerte redskaper som har demonstrert gode måleegenskaper (Barrientos-Gutierrez mfl., 2007;Brown mfl., 1987). ...
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BAKGRUNN: WIRUS er et nasjonalt forskningsprosjekt om alkohol, arbeidsliv, sykefravær, sykenærvær og arbeidsplassbaserte intervensjoner. Prosjektet består av flere delstudier. Én av disse er en screeningstudie der ansatte i ulike virksomheter, på tvers av sektorer og bransjer, svarer på et spørreskjema som handler om bl.a. alkoholbruk, holdninger til arbeidsrelatert alkoholbruk og forventninger til virkninger av alkoholbruk. Én av virksomhetene som deltar i WIRUS er en kommune i Rogaland. I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra spørreundersøkelsen blant ansatte i denne virksomheten. MÅLET med denne rapporten er å beskrive alkoholbruk, holdninger til arbeidsrelatert alkoholbruk og forventninger til alkoholbruk blant ansatte i virksomheten. Alkoholbruk er kartlagt ved hjelp av Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), som er utviklet av Verdens helseorganisasjon (WHO). Virksomhetens resultater sammenliknes med de øvrige virksomhetene i WIRUS, og også resultater fra en tidligere utført befolkningsstudie i Norge. Rapporten kan brukes som et kunnskapsgrunnlag for arbeid med alkoholpolicy på arbeidsplassen, og for situasjoner i gråsonen mellom jobb og fritid. RESULTATENE for alkoholbruk viser at virksomhetens ansatte i gjennomsnitt rapporterte et marginalt lavere alkoholbruk enn ansatte i de øvrige virksomhetene i WIRUS (3,97 mot 4,02 av 40 mulige poeng på AUDIT-skalaen). Forskjellen var imidlertid ikke statistisk signifikant. Forekomsten av risikofylt alkoholbruk blant de ansatte var tilsvarende for virksomheten (11,8 %) som i de øvrige WIRUS-virksomhetene (11,4 %), men likevel lavere enn hva tidligere forskning har funnet i den generelle norske befolkningen (16,9 %). Den helt marginale forskjellen i andel risikodrikkere mellom virksomheten og de øvrige WIRUS-virksomhetene (0,4 prosentpoeng) var ikke statistisk signifikant. Virksomhetens ansatte rapporterte å ha noe mer negative (restriktive) holdninger til arbeidsrelatert alkoholbruk enn ansatte i de øvrige WIRUS-virksomhetene (2,12 mot 2,16 av 4 poeng). Forskjellen på 0,04 poeng var statistisk signifikant. Virksomhetens ansatte rapporterte om tilsvarende forventninger til virkninger av alkoholbruk som ansatte i de øvrige WIRUS-virksomhetene (1,74 mot 1,75 av 4 poeng). Den marginale forskjellen på 0,1 poeng var ikke statistisk signifikant. KONKLUSJON OG ANBEFALINGER: Resultatene fra denne undersøkelsen viste at virksomheten var sammenliknbar med de øvrige virksomhetene som deltar i WIRUS-prosjektet hva gjelder alkoholbruk og forventninger til virkninger av alkoholbruk. Virksomhetens ansatte hadde noe mer negative (restriktive) holdninger til jobbrelatert alkoholbruk enn ansatte i de øvrige virksomhetene, men forskjellen må betraktes som liten. Denne undersøkelsen gir ikke grunnlag for å anbefale særskilte tiltak for denne virksomheten, utover det som generelt kan betraktes som hensiktsmessig alkoholforebyggende arbeid i arbeidslivet.
... Andel (%) ansatte som ofte eller svaert ofte opplever positive virkninger Øvrige WIRUS-virksomheter Virksomheten norske oversettelsen av AUDIT som er benyttet i WIRUS-prosjektet har vist gode måleegenskaper (Skogen mfl., 2019;Thørrisen, 2020). Verktøyene vi har benyttet for å måle holdninger til arbeidsrelatert alkoholbruk (Drinking Social Norms Scale) og forventninger til virkninger av alkoholbruk (Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire) representerer anerkjente og validerte redskaper som har demonstrert gode måleegenskaper (Barrientos-Gutierrez mfl., 2007;Brown mfl., 1987). ...
Research
Full-text available
BAKGRUNN: WIRUS er et nasjonalt forskningsprosjekt om alkohol, arbeidsliv, sykefravær, sykenærvær og arbeidsplassbaserte intervensjoner. Prosjektet består av flere delstudier. Én av disse er en screeningstudie der ansatte i ulike virksomheter, på tvers av sektorer og bransjer, svarer på et spørreskjema som handler om bl.a. alkoholbruk, holdninger til arbeidsrelatert alkoholbruk og forventninger til virkninger av alkoholbruk. Én av virksomhetene som deltar i WIRUS er et forvaltningsorgan i Rogaland. I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra spørreundersøkelsen blant ansatte i denne virksomheten. MÅLET med denne rapporten er å beskrive alkoholbruk, holdninger til arbeidsrelatert alkoholbruk og forventninger til virkninger av alkoholbruk blant ansatte i virksomheten. Alkoholbruk er kartlagt ved hjelp av Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), som er utviklet av Verdens helseorganisasjon (WHO). Virksomhetens resultater sammenliknes med de øvrige virksomhetene i WIRUS, og også resultater fra en tidligere utført befolkningsstudie i Norge. Rapporten kan brukes som et kunnskapsgrunnlag for arbeid med alkoholpolicy på arbeidsplassen, og for situasjoner i gråsonen mellom jobb og fritid. RESULTATENE for alkoholbruk viser at virksomhetens ansatte i gjennomsnitt rapporterte et noe høyere alkoholbruk enn ansatte i de øvrige virksomhetene i WIRUS (4,31 mot 4,00 av 40 mulige poeng på AUDIT-skalaen). Forskjellen var statistisk signifikant. Forekomsten av risikofylt alkoholbruk blant de ansatte var også noe høyere i virksomheten (12,5 %) enn hva som er funnet i de øvrige WIRUS-virksomhetene (11,4 %), men likevel lavere enn hva tidligere forskning har funnet i den generelle norske befolkningen (16,9 %). Forskjellen i andel risikodrikkere mellom virksomheten og de øvrige WIRUS-virksomhetene er imidlertid ikke statistisk signifikant. Virksomhetens ansatte rapporterte å ha noe mer positive (liberale) holdninger til arbeidsrelatert alkoholbruk enn ansatte i de øvrige WIRUS-virksomhetene (2,26 mot 2,14 av 4 poeng). Forskjellen var statistisk signifikant. Virksomhetens ansatte rapporterte også om marginalt mer positive forventninger til virkninger av alkoholbruk enn ansatte i de øvrige WIRUS-virksomhetene (1,80 mot 1,74 av 4 poeng), men denne forskjellen var ikke statistisk signifikant. KONKLUSJON OG ANBEFALINGER: Resultatene fra denne undersøkelsen tyder på at virksomhetens ansatte hadde noe høyere alkoholforbruk og noe mer positive (liberale) holdninger til jobbrelatert alkoholbruk enn alle ansatte i virksomhetene som deltar i WIRUS-prosjektet. Forekomsten av risikofylt alkoholbruk og forventninger til virkninger av alkoholbruk var imidlertid ikke signifikant forskjellig. Det var også svært få ansatte med høy risiko i virksomheten, og ingen som skåret ut med trolig avhengighet. Denne undersøkelsen gir i så måte ikke grunnlag for å anbefale særskilte tiltak for denne virksomheten, utover det som generelt kan betraktes som hensiktsmessig alkoholforebyggende arbeid i arbeidslivet.
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Aaron Antonovsky’s salutogenic model is starting to impact health promotion at the level of theory and research. However, the benefits of Antonovsky’s theory for population health promotion practices and health care restructuring are unrealized. This analysis uses the definition of health derived from complexity science as a lifelong, multidimensional adaptive process comprised of intersecting biological, psychological, social, environmental, and spiritual systems as a starting point for a salutogenic analysis of formal healthcare. Following Antonovsky’s criticism of contemporary healthcare as resting upon a pathogenic paradigm, I outline four general shortcomings associated with the pathogenic approach to healthcare. The basic elements of a healthcare system designed according to principles derived from Antonovsky’s salutogenic model of health are then presented. It is argued that Antonovsky’s theory offers a productive basis for conceptualizing health and healthcare systems in that it allows us to grasp that debates between population health promotion and providing medical care, are, at their root, unproductive debates predicated on a false dichotomy. A salutogenic healthcare system is one which pays credence to the nested complexity of human health and strives to strike an adaptive balance between health production and the provision of medical care.
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BACKGROUND: Harmful alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for ill-health on an individual level, a global public health challenge, and associated with workplace productivity loss. This study aimed to explore the proportion of risky drinkers in a sample of employees, investigate sociodemographic associations with risky drinking, and examine implications for intervention needs, according to recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, sociodemographic data were collected from Norwegian employees in 14 companies (n = 3571) across sectors and branches. Risky drinking was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The threshold for risky drinking was set at ≥8 scores on the AUDIT. Based on WHO guidelines, risky drinkers were divided into three risk categories (moderate risk: scores 8–15, high risk: scores 16–19, and dependence likely risk: scores 20–40). The association between sociodemographic variables and risky drinking were explored with chi square tests for independence and adjusted logistic regression. The risk groups were then examined according to the WHO intervention recommendations. RESULTS: 11.0% of the total sample reported risky drinking. Risky drinking was associated with male gender (OR = 2.97, p < .001), younger age (OR = 1.03, p < .001), low education (OR = 1.17, p < .05), being unmarried (OR = 1.38, p < .05) and not having children (OR = 1.62, p < .05). Risky drinking was most common among males without children (33.5%), males living alone (31.4%) and males aged ≤39 (26.5%). 94.6% of risky drinkers scored within the lowest risk category. Based on WHO guidelines, approximately one out of ten employees need simple advice, targeting risky drinking. In high-risk groups, one out of three employees need interventions. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable amount of employees (one to three out of ten), particularly young, unmarried males without children and higher education, may be characterised as risky drinkers. This group may benefit from low-cost interventions, based on recommendations from the WHO guidelines.
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Presenteeism is defined as employees being present at work but unable to be fully engaged in the work environment. Although presenteeism is pervasive in the workplace, the effects of the condition on employee health and productivity are less well understood. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the concept of presenteeism, including research and management practices.
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Background: Alcohol use by employees is associated with negative consequences for the workplace in terms of absence and poor work performance. The aims of this study were to map the prevalence of alcohol-related absence and inefficiency using survey data from a broad sample of employees, and to explore how alcohol-related absence and presenteeism are experienced and handled using data from qualitative interviews. Methods: The prevalence data stems from a web survey completed by 1940 Norwegian employees aged 20-74 years. The qualitative data consists of analyses of 24 interviews with managers, co-workers of heavy drinking employees, and heavy drinking employees, from various lines of businesses. Results: 1-2% reported alcohol-related full day absence in the last 12 months, and 2% reported partial day absence; 11% reported inefficiency due to drinking the previous day. Analyses of interview data revealed that alcohol-related absence and presenteeism may cause a range of economic and practical problems. Managers reported spending a lot of resources and effort on single cases. In addition, the results showed how the presence of a heavy drinking employee may have a negative impact on the broader psychosocial environment, and cause concern for workplace safety. Due to consideration of the drinker's well-being and fear of negative reactions, problem cases can last for years. Conclusions: Despite the relatively low prevalence of alcohol-related absence and inefficiency, the study suggest that the alcohol-related problems of a few, or only one, employee may still have substantial and far-reaching negative consequences for the workplace.