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Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) and social media’s impact on daily-life and productivity at work: Do WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat Use Disorders mediate that association?

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Abstract

Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) is the tendency to experience anxiety over missing out on rewarding experiences of others. It has been associated with daily-life disruptions, such as distractions during driving. FoMO has also consistently been a predictor of Internet, smartphone, and social networks use disorders. In the current work, we investigated the association between FoMO and social media use's impact on daily-life and productivity at work. In addition, we aimed to determine whether WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat Use Disorders mediate that relationship. The effective sample comprised 748 German-speaking study participants from the general population (age M = 38.63, SD = 12.10; 336 men, 412 women) who took part in an online survey study. Bivariate analyses showed that severity of all social networks use disorders were positively correlated with FoMO and social media's negative impact on daily-life and productivity at work. Furthermore, controlling for age and gender, mediation analyses showed that out of all platforms, only Snapchat Use Disorder did not mediate the association between FoMO and social media's negative impact on daily-life and productivity at work. These results provide further evidence about FoMO's central role in digital technology use-related disorders.

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... In the first study, Buckner et al. (2012) found conscientiousness, typically a positive personality trait, to be negatively associated with problematic IT use. In the second study, Rozgonjuk et al. (2020) found fear of missing out to be a contributor to problematic use of social media (see Appendix 1). Here, we observe an important research potential because the antecedents of problematic IT use in non-work and organizational contexts are likely to differ given the differences in the respective IT use environments. ...
... Second, we investigate fear of missing out, defined as the perception that an individual runs the risk of missing out on crucial work-related information if they do not use IT enough (Andreassen et al., 2012;Rutherford, 2001). Prior studies on non-work use of IT have demonstrated that fear of missing out leads to problematic IT use (Elhai et al., 2020). It can also increase the frequency of disruptive interruptions (Rozgonjuk et al., 2019a). ...
... Although to our best knowledge, prior studies have not explicitly examined the relationship of fear of missing to problematic use of IT in organizations; they do highlight its significance in the organizational context of IT use. The study of Rozgonjuk et al. (2020), for example, examined the daily use of social media and demonstrated that fear of missing out increases social media-related problematic use and reduces work-related productivity. Furthermore, research shows that individuals feel highly pressured to keep up with organizational communication using IT (Andreassen et al., 2012;Mazmanian et al., 2013). ...
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Purpose Excessive use of work-related information technology (IT) devices can lead to major performance and well-being concerns for organizations. Extant research has provided evidence of the incidence of such problematic IT use in organizations. We extend the understanding of problematic IT use by examining its individual (proximal) and organizational (distal) antecedents. Design/methodology/approach Drawing from the self-worth theory and the concept of fear of being left behind, we address proximal antecedents that lead to problematic IT use. Drawing from the concept of autonomy paradox, we address distal antecedents of problematic IT use through a positive association with the two proximal antecedents. We report the results of a field study involving 846 individuals who use IT for work. Structural equation modeling was employed to analyze the data. Findings The results indicate that the proximal antecedents (IT insecurity and fear of missing out) are positively associated with problematic IT use. The distal antecedents (IT use autonomy and involvement facilitation) are positively associated with the proximal antecedents except for the relationship between IT use autonomy and IT insecurity, which was found statistically non-significant. Furthermore, fear of missing out fully mediates the effect of IT use autonomy on problematic IT use, whereas IT insecurity and fear of missing out fully mediate the effects of involvement facilitation on problematic IT use. Originality/value The paper theoretically extends the understanding of problematic IT use and identifies novel its proximal and distal antecedents.
... Namun penggunaan media sosial berlebihan akan berdampak kecanduan pada kecanduan pada teknologi itu sendiri (Putri, Nurwati & Budiarti, 2016). Ketika sudah mengalami kecanduan maka akan muncul dampak negatif dari pemakaiannya seperti tidak percaya diri pada lingkungan sosial (Ponnusamy, Iranmanesh, Foroughi & Hyun, 2020), kecemasan sosial (Soliha, 2015), termasuk stres (Fabris, Marengo, Longobadri & Settanni, 2020) yang semua itu bermuara pada penurunan rasa sosial (Rozgonjuk et al., 2020;Sindermann et al., 2020). Maka permasalahan sosial pasca pandemi dapat terjadi pada anak didik kita yaitu siswa. ...
... Tabel 1 diatas merupakan gambaran hasil reduksi dan rangkuman data dari wawancara dan kuisioner perencanaan kepada kepala sekolah pasca pandemi covid-19. Maka dapat digambarkan, bahwa perencanaan yang akan dilakukan kepala sekolah dalam menanggulangi dampak penggunaan media sosial berlebihan pasca pandemi virus corona dengan pengembangan perencanaan proses pembelajaran. ...
Article
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Rendahnya kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa pada mata pelajaran IPA terlihat pada saat pembelajaran daring disaat ini pendidik tidak mudah mengukur kemampuan berpikir kitis pada waktu pandemic disaat ini. terlebih sudah di abad ke-21 pastinya generasi disaat ini bisa dapat mendongkrak pola pikir yang mononton. Penelitian ini dicoba dengan tujuan buat mengenali terdapatnya ataupun tidak pengaruh penerapan model Flipped Classroom pada materi gaya dikelas IV di SDN Pinang Ranti 02. Penelitian ini memakai prosedur penelitian quasi eksperimen dengan desain penelitian pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design . Jumlah populasi dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 95 siswa dipecah dalam tiga kelas. Sampel pada penelitian ini 63 siswa dimana siswa kelas IVB selaku kelas eksperimen berjumlah 31 siswa serta siswa kelas IVC selaku kelas kontrol berjumlah 32 siswa. Metode pengambilan sampel pada penelitian ini ialah metode Non Probability Sampling dengan teknik sampel yang diambil adalah Sampling Purposive . Metode pengumpulan informasi pada penelitian ini memakai instrument tes. Hasil pengujian persyaratan analisis pada penelitian ini dengan berbantuan aplikasi spss tipe 26 dan excel. Uji normalitas memakai rumus uji lillifors, pada pretest eksperimen didapat L<sub>hitung</sub> < L<sub>tabel</sub> = 0,115 < 0,161, pretest kelas kontrol L<sub>hitung</sub> < L<sub>tabel</sub> = 0,031 < 0,161, posttes t kelas eksperimen L<sub>hitung</sub> < L<sub>tabel</sub> = 0,117 < 0,156, posttest kelas kontrol Lhitung < Ltabel = -0,002 < 0,156, hingga informasi dari kedua kelas dinyatakan berdistribusi normal. Berikutnya dicoba uji hipotesis Independent t Test berbantuan spss tipe 26 berlandaskan nilai signifikansi (sig) < 0,05 = 0,000 < 0,05 hingga dinyatakan terdapatnya pengaruh positif pada model pembelajaran Flipped Classroom terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa pada materi gaya dikelas IV SDN Pinang Ranti 02.
... Fear of Missing Out (FoMO). The Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMO Scale; original version: [62]; German language version: [93]) assessed FoMO with ten items (e.g., "I get anxious when I don't know what my friends are up to"). The items are rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = not at all true of me, 5 = extremely true of me). ...
... Earlier reported scale reliability was α = .770 [93]; the scale reliability in the present study was α = .831. ...
Article
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Since the outbreak of Covid-19, the use of digital devices, especially smartphones, remarkably increased. Smartphone use belongs to one’s daily routine, but can negatively impact physical and mental health, performance, and relationships if used excessively. The present study aimed to investigate potential correlates of problematic smartphone use (PSU) severity and the mechanisms underlying its development. Data of 516 smartphone users from Germany ( M age = 31.91, SD age = 12.96) were assessed via online surveys in April and May 2021. PSU severity was significantly negatively associated with sense of control. In contrast, it was significantly positively linked to fear of missing out (FoMO), repetitive negative thinking (RNT), and daily time spent on smartphone use. In a moderated mediation analysis, the negative relationship between sense of control and PSU severity was significantly mediated by FoMO. RNT significantly moderated the positive association between FoMO and PSU severity. Specifically, the higher the RNT, the stronger the relationship between FoMO and PSU. The present findings disclose potential mechanisms that could contribute to PSU. Potential ways of how to reduce PSU severity are discussed.
... Prior studies have reported direct and indirect associations of FoMO with PSU (e.g., Elhai, Dvorak, Levine, & Hall, 2017;Elhai, Levine, Dvorak, & Hall, 2016;Przybylski et al., 2013;Rozgonjuk, Sindermann, Elhai, & Montag, 2020;Servidio, 2019Servidio, , 2021Wang et al., 2019). Moreover, SCO has been recently demonstrated to be associated with FoMO, given the underlying relationship with the social comparison process (Reer, Tang, & Quandt, 2019). ...
... However, given the lack of prior data on this association, future research should support the preliminary finding in the present study. The relationship between FoMO and PSU was also confirmed (H4b), therefore replicating the results of previous studies (e.g., Elhai, Dvorak, Levine, & Hall, 2017;Elhai, Levine, Dvorak, & Hall, 2016;Przybylski et al., 2013;Rozgonjuk, Sindermann, Elhai, & Montag, 2020;Servidio, 2019Servidio, , 2021Wang et al., 2019). The mediating role of FoMO within the SCC-PSU relationship was also supported (H5), although results indicated partial mediation. ...
Article
The present study sought to provide empirical evidence for the sequential mediating role of social comparison orientation and fear of missing out (FoMO) in the relationship between self-concept clarity (SCC) and problematic smartphone use (PSU) within the framework of the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model. A sample of 474 Italian participants (Mage = 29.48; 52.7% females) completed a battery of self-report scales including the Self-Concept Clarity Scale, the Iowa–Netherlands Comparison Orientation, the Fear of Missing Out Scale, and the Smartphone Addiction Scale. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and structural equation modelling analyses were conducted. Results confirmed the hypothesized relationships and indicated that SCC was negatively associated with PSU use and that this association was partially and sequentially mediated by social comparison orientation and FoMO. Both mediators could therefore be considered as proximal factors of PSU. Implications and further research suggestions are provided.
... Namun penggunaan media sosial berlebihan akan berdampak kecanduan pada kecanduan pada teknologi itu sendiri (Putri, Nurwati & Budiarti, 2016). Ketika sudah mengalami kecanduan maka akan muncul dampak negatif dari pemakaiannya seperti tidak percaya diri pada lingkungan sosial (Ponnusamy, Iranmanesh, Foroughi & Hyun, 2020), kecemasan sosial (Soliha, 2015), termasuk stres (Fabris, Marengo, Longobadri & Settanni, 2020) yang semua itu bermuara pada penurunan rasa sosial (Rozgonjuk et al., 2020;Sindermann et al., 2020). Maka permasalahan sosial pasca pandemi dapat terjadi pada anak didik kita yaitu siswa. ...
... Tabel 1 diatas merupakan gambaran hasil reduksi dan rangkuman data dari wawancara dan kuisioner perencanaan kepada kepala sekolah pasca pandemi covid-19. Maka dapat digambarkan, bahwa perencanaan yang akan dilakukan kepala sekolah dalam menanggulangi dampak penggunaan media sosial berlebihan pasca pandemi virus corona dengan pengembangan perencanaan proses pembelajaran. ...
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p class="western" lang="en-AU" align="justify">Penggunaan media sosial mengalami peningkatan pada masa pandemi covid-19. Penggunaan media sosial yang berlebih dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif seperti kecanduan yang berujung pada tidak percaya diri, kecemasan sosial, stres, turunnya interaksi sosial. Maka dari itu tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis perencanaan kepala sekolah dalam menanggulangi dampak negatif penggunaan media sosial pasca pandemi covid-19 di lingkungan pendidikan. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini ialah analisis deskriptif dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Sampel penelitian ialah kepala sekolah di SD/MI PKM Kecamatan Kapongan Kabupaten Situbondo. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan kuisioner dan wawancara dengan bantuan google form. Berdasarkan analisis ditemukan hasil sebaagai berikut: 1. Mengembangkan kurikulum dengan memetakan pengembangan KI-2 (Kopetesi Inti Sikap Sosial) agar dapat menemukan materi dan tema yang akan diintegrasikan untuk meningkatkan sikap sosial siswa, 2. Berdiskusi dengan guru terkait penggunaan model pembelajaran yang inovatif khusus meningkatkan kopetensi sikap (afektif), 3. Membuat kebijakan tentang lebih menekankan penggunaan penilaian dan evaluasi di ranah kopetensi sikap (afektif). Diharapkan dengan hasil ini perbandingan model pembelajaran dan pengembangan penilaian yang lebih mengarah pada ranah sikap (afektif) pasca covid-19 dapat dilaksanakan. </p
... Because, it is thought that an individual who has no intention to buy or has a low level of purchase due to the fear of Covid-19 will not have a concern about missing opportunities. Literatür incelendiğinde, araştırmada ölçümü yapılan değişkenler ile tek ya da birden çok değişkeni bir arada inceleyen çeşitli çalışmalara rastlanılmıştır (Alt, 2015;Aydın, 2018a;Aydın, 2018b;Biber, 2020;Çelik ve Diker, 2021;Buglass, Binder, Betts ve Underwood, 2017;Çetinkaya ve Şahbaz, 2019;Çınar ve Mutlu, 2018;Dossey, 2014;Erdoğan ve Şanlı, 2019;Eşitti, 2015;Gökler vd., 2015;Hoşgör, vd., 2017;Kaçik ve Acar, 2020;Koçak, 2021;Marlina, 2017;McGinnis, 2004;Milyavskaya, Saffran, Hope ve Koestner, 2018;Özcan ve Koç, 2019;Przybylski, vd., 2013;Rozgonjuk, Sindermann • Bu araştırma pandemi süreci ile sınırlıdır. ...
... içeren araştırmada, tüm sosyal ağ kullanım bozukluklarının şiddetinin FoMO ve sosyal medyanın günlük yaşam ve işyerindeki verimlilik üzerindeki etkisi ile pozitif yönde ilişkili olduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca, yaş ve cinsiyeti kontrol eden arabuluculuk analizleri, tüm platformlardan sadece Snapchat kullanım bozukluğunun FoMO ile sosyal medyanın günlük yaşam ve işyerindeki verimlilik üzerindeki etkisi arasındaki ilişkiye aracılık etmediğini göstermiştir(Rozgonjuk, 2020).Erdoğan ve Şanlı (2020) ise üniversite öğrencileri üzerinde yapmış oldukları çalışmada, öğrencilerin sosyal medyaya dair tutumları ile gelişmeleri kaçırma korkuları arasında anlamlı ve pozitif yönlü bir ilişkinin olduğunu tespit etmişlerdir(Erdoğan ve Şanlı, 2020, s. 615). Kavramı ilk tanımlayan Dan Herman'ın FoMO'yu pazarlama alanında ele almış olması ve kavramın pazarlama alanındaki öneminin Amerika'nın önde gelen reklam ajanslarından biri olan J. Walter Thompson Intelligence tarafından raporlanarak vurgulanmış olmasına rağmen literatürde bu konuda yeterli çalışmanın olmadığı söylenebilir. ...
Thesis
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Tüketiciler yaşamları süresince birçok olağanüstü olayla (Doğal afetler, savaşlar, ekonomik krizler, salgınlar vb.) karşılaşmakta ve bu olaylar nezdinde çeşitli durumsal (ruh hali, hisleri, tutumu) uyarıcıya maruz kalmaktadır. Bu uyarıcılar tüketicilerin davranışları üzerinde etkili olmakta, olumlu ya da olumsuz kararlar almalarına neden olmaktadır. Tüketici davranışında satın alma niyeti ve satın alma kararında etkili olan önemli faktörlerden birinin de durumsal faktörler olduğu söylenebilir. Bu süreçte “durumsal faktörlerin tüketicinin satın alma niyeti ve satın alma kararı üzerindeki etkisi nedir?” sorusu akla gelmektedir. Günümüzde birçok endüstri gibi turizm endüstrisi de pazarlama stratejilerini bu sorunun cevabı üzerinden oluşturmaktadır. Özellikle Covid-19 pandemi sürecinde bu sorunun yanıtını bulmak tüketici davranışını etkileyen faktörleri bu döneme özgü değişkenlere göre değerlendirmekle mümkün görünmektedir. Bu çalışmada, tüketici davranışını etkileyen durumsal faktörler kapsamında Covid-19 Korkusu ve Fırsatları Kaçırma Korkusu (FoMO) pandemi süreci içerisinde ele alınmıştır. Pandemi sürecinde kişilerin tatil satın alma niyetlerinin Covid-19 Korkusu ve Fırsatları Kaçırma Korkusu (FoMO) üzerinden karşılaştırmalı olarak değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada Covid-19 Korkusu, içinde bulunduğumuz pandemi sürecinin kişiler üzerinde yarattığı durumsal etkiyi ifade eden bir değişkeni, Fırsatları Kaçırma Korkusu (FoMO) ise günümüz yeni nesil pazarlama stratejileri içerisinde yer alan insan algısının manipülasyonu üzerine etki eden durumsal bir değişkeni ifade etmektedir. Bu araştırmaya toplamda 714 kişi katılmıştır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak “Covid-19 Korkusu Ölçeği, Fırsatları Kaçırma Korkusu Ölçeği (FoMO) ve Satın Alma Niyeti Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler istatistiksel olarak değerlendirilmiş olup, çeşitli sonuçlara ulaşılmıştır. Bu sonuçlar kapsamında, araştırmaya katılan kişilerin Covid-19 korkularının tatil satın alma niyetleri üzerinde negatif yönlü bir etkiye sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Bu bağlamda, Covid-19 korku düzeyi yükseldikçe kişilerin tatil satın alma niyetinin düşmekte olduğu, dolayısıyla Covid-19 korkusu yüksek kişilerin tatil satın alma niyeti içerisinde olmadıkları sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Yine, bu sonuçlara ek olarak, FoMO korkusunun ise tatil satın alma niyeti üzerinde ne negatif ne de pozitif yönlü bir etkisinin olmadığı belirlenmiştir. Çünkü, Covid-19 korkusuna bağlı olarak satın alma niyeti olmayan ya da düşük düzeyde olan bir bireyin fırsatları kaçırma ile ilgili bir endişesinin olmayacağı düşünülmektedir.
... . However, there is a dilemma of creating an effective social media policy. Despite the well-documented benefits of social media use on knowledge management and interpersonal collaborations (Leonardi & Vaast, 2017), the march of social media also makes social media use become one of the biggest "productivity killers" in the workplace (Rozgonjuk et al., 2020). However, little empirical attention has been paid to exploring the underlying mechanisms between social media use at work and potential undesirable employee outcomes. ...
... The self-regulatory perspective helps to address the underlying mechanisms between daily social media use at work and work engagement. As mentioned above, though previous empirical studies have revealed the dark sides of workplace social media use (e.g., Becton et al., 2019;Duke & Montag, 2017;Rozgonjuk et al., 2020), limited attention has been given to exploring the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that social media use can lead to interruptions and procrastination; procrastination directly reduced work engagement as expected, while interruptions did not. ...
Article
Despite the wide use of social media in the workplace, only limited research has addressed how social media use at work would influence employees’ work and affective outcomes. Building upon the self-regulatory perspective, the current study proposes that social media use at work will induce interruptions and procrastination, which in turn will reduce employees’ work engagement; individuals then will show the feeling of guilt because of decreased work engagement. This study examines the proposed theoretical model with an experience sample methodology (ESM), moving beyond predominant between-person designs in the social media use literature. 155 full-time employees were recruited and asked to report their daily experiences for ten consecutive workdays, finally resulting in 1165 data points at the within-person level. Results showed that daily social media use at work exerted a negative indirect effect on work engagement via procrastination, and it also had a positive indirect effect on guilt via interruption and procrastination. This study helps to elucidate the underlying mechanisms between social media use at work and employee outcomes, as well as enriching the literature by examining guilt as the psychological cost of using social media in the workplace.
... It is described as more addictive and as negatively impacting young people's health, including low sleep quality, over-concern about body image, FOMO (fear of missing out), cyberbullying, anxiety, depression, and loneliness (RSPH, May 1997). Nowadays, after more than twenty years later, accumulated studies still reported these detrimental effects of excessive Instagram usage in connection with problematic Instagram use (e.g., Balta et al., 2020;Feltman & Szymanski, 2018;Pittman & Reich, 2016;Rozgonjuk, Sindermann, et al., 2020). Also, systematic review of the research recently confirmed the relationship between Instagram use and mental health wherein (intensity of) Instagram use is related to more social comparison, negative body image, and disordered eating (Faelens et al., 2021). ...
... Also, systematic review of the research recently confirmed the relationship between Instagram use and mental health wherein (intensity of) Instagram use is related to more social comparison, negative body image, and disordered eating (Faelens et al., 2021). Although significant progress has been made in exploring the relation of (excessive) Instagram uses to health outcomes, the mechanism of how excessive Instagram use develops and leads to addictive behaviors remains vague (e.g., Rozgonjuk, Sindermann, et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Accumulated reports have revealed the dark side of Social Networking Site (SNS) usages: compulsive use. How compulsive SNS use develops should receive more concern, so as to find a way to decrease its harmful effects. Based on uses & gratifications (U&G) theory and mindfulness, the present study aims to develop an integrated research model to investigate the enablers and inhibitors of compulsive Instagram use. Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach was employed to analyze data from 143 students in a northern Taiwan university who use Instagram as their preferred SNS to gratify their needs online in terms of self-documentation, entertainment, passing time, and self-expression. The findings conclude that: 1) users' gratifications of self-documentation, entertainment, passing time, and self-expression are directly related to users' stickiness toward Instagram; 2) stickiness is an important mediator in the process of forming compulsive Instagram use; 3) users' trait of mindfulness can decrease their compulsive use; 4) users' mindfulness can mitigate the effect of stickiness on compulsive Instagram use. This study, with U&G theory and mindfulness as its underpinning, thus, explains the formation of compulsive Instagram use and confirms the inhibiting effect of mindfulness on the compulsive use. It contributes to the understanding of two opposite forces, mindfulness and stickiness, acting on the compulsive use of SNSs, particularly for compulsive use of Instagram. Research and managerial implications  such as studying samples from adults and different populations, SNS operators fostering specific gratifications, and policy actions promoting mindfulness training  are articulated.
... Se estima que actualmente hay aproximadamente 3,73 mil millones de usuarios activos de redes sociales en el mundo, es decir, cerca del 48 % de la población total (We Are Social Ltd., 2020). Las redes sociales permiten a los usuarios conectarse entre sí (Matinfar, 2020), ya sea por videollamadas, mensajes de texto o por consumir, crear y compartir contenido (Nuriman Izudin et al., 2020;Rozgonjuk et al., 2020), razón por la que muchas empresas adoptaron su estrategia digital en redes sociales donde la fotografía y las imágenes son las protagonistas y generan un llamado a la acción en un público cautivo, el cual está atento a generar y revisar el contenido de las cuentas que sigue (Gummerus et al., 2012). Estas acciones de marketing digital proveen herramientas a las marcas para cautivar de una forma no convencional a sus consumidores potenciales (Armstrong y Kotler, 2011), así como también permite que se difunda una imagen positiva de la marca a una audiencia (Bakhshi et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Las redes sociales son espacios de socialización e interacción, y tienen, dentro de sus muchas características, la posibilidad de que las personas se expresen y hagan Referencia a la cotidianidad de sus vidas. Por tal motivo, durante el confinamiento por la pandemia de la COVID 19, muchas personas encontraron en las redes sociales espacios alternos de socialización y entretenimiento. De esta forma, las marcas ampliaron su marco de acción hacia el marketing digital, siendo las redes sociales las de mayor interacción por parte de los usuarios y el espacio ideal para propiciar la comercialización de bienes y servicios. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar los segmentos por estilo de vida de los centennials usuarios de TikTok y su percepción frente a la publicidad en dicha red social. Se tomó como referencia la segmentación psicográfica y se desarrolló un cuestionario que indagó las actividades, intereses y opiniones, el cual se aplicó a 226 usuarios activos de TikTok durante el periodo de confinamiento por COVID 19. Por medio de la metodología de clústeres jerárquicos se identificaron tres segmentos, así como los aspectos asociados a la percepción frente a la publicidad en la red social, considerándola irrelevante, poco apropiada, repetitiva e invasiva, lo que se convierte en una oportunidad para plantear y ejecutar estrategias de contenido publicitarias con impactos diferentes de acuerdo con el segmento.
... SM platforms include websites, wireless internet connections, and video or photo-sharing sites. At the moment, it is not just advantageous to participate in digital media sharing and social networking-it also enables social contact and communication through the development of brands and professional possibilities [41,42]. According to Wodzicki, Schwämmlein, and Moskaliuk, social networking offers a variety of resources that may be used for instant access to learning and information [43]. ...
Article
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Numerous studies have examined the role of social media as an open-learning (OL) tool in the field of education, but the empirical evidence necessary to validate such OL tools is scant, specifically in terms of student academic performance (AP). In today’s digital age, social media platforms are most popular among the student community, and they provide opportunities for OL where they can easily communicate, interact, and collaborate with each other. The authors of this study aimed to minimize the literature gap among student communities who adopt social media for OL, which has positive impacts on their AP in Chinese higher education. We adopted social constructivism theory (SCT) and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to formulate a conceptual framework. Primary data containing 233 questionnaires of international medical students in China were collected in January 2021 through the survey method. The gathered data were analyzed through structural equation modeling techniques with SmartPLS 3. The results revealed that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and interactions with peers have positive and significant influence on OL. In addition, OL was found to have positive and significant influence on students’ AP and engagement. Lastly, engagement showed a positive impact on students’ AP. Thus, this study shows that social media serves as a dynamic tool to expedite the development of OL settings by encouraging collaboration, group discussion, and the exchange of ideas between students that reinforce their learning behavior and performance.
... Regarding the concurrent validity of Przybylski's FoMO scale, previous studies have found that FoMO is not only positively associated with online problematic behaviors, such as social media disorder [22], smartphone addiction [23], and problematic internet use [14], but also has associated with psychopathological symptoms [24] and leads to negative consequences such as more phubbing behavior [2], poorer academic performance [25], more sleep problems [26], and lower well-being [27]. Therefore, it was expected that FoMO is positively associated with smartphone addiction but negatively associated with subjective well-being. ...
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Objectives: The present study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of Przybylski's 10-item Fear of Missing Out scale and to investigate the measurement invariance across age and gender among Chinese adolescents and emerging adults. Methods: A convenient sample of 2886 subjects (Mage = 14.79, SD = 4.03; 47.96% male) was recruited in south China. Item analysis, EFA, CFA, testing of measurement invariance across gender and age, reliability analysis, and concurrent validity analysis were conducted. A subsample of 154 subjects (Mage = 15.3, SD = 2.22; 54% male) completed the scale again after 6 months to assess the test-retest reliability. Results: The EFA strongly indicated a two-dimensional solution, including fear of missing novel information and fear of missing social opportunities, for the Chinese version of the FoMO scale, which the CFA confirmed. Adequate internal consistency was found. Concurrent validity and discriminant validity were also demonstrated. Conclusions: Based on the results, the Chinese version of the FoMO scale is suitable for use among young Chinese people.
... For instance, the (small-to-moderate) correlations between excessive digital technology use and depression and anxiety symptom severity are well-documented (Elhai et al., 2017(Elhai et al., , 2020aRozgonjuk et al., 2018). In addition, correlations have been found with variables that are closely associated with depression and anxiety, such as emotion dysregulation (Hoffner and Lee, 2015;Spada and Marino, 2017;Rozgonjuk and Elhai, 2020), fear of missing out (Hamutoglu et al., 2020;Rozgonjuk et al., 2020c;Servidio, 2021), and negative affectivity Li et al., 2020;Zeng et al., 2021). These findings may hint that individual differences in personality traits-relatively stable characteristics over time-could drive these relationships (Marengo et al., 2020). ...
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Problematic Internet and smartphone use (PIU and PSU, respectively) have received significant attention over the past years. In the current work, we studied the associations between PIU and PSU, primary emotional systems, and need satisfaction. The effective sample comprised 399 people who responded to scales measuring these variables. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that both PSU and PIU were positively associated with negative primary emotion traits (FEAR, ANGER, SADNESS) as well as lower scores on most of the need satisfaction factors. Network analysis showed that while PIU and PSU have a strong association with each other, in general, there were not many significant correlations between PSU, PIU, and other variables in the network. The associations being present were rather weak. Network analysis showed that PSU was positively associated with FEAR, ANGER, PLAY primary emotional systems. Both PSU and PIU had a negative association with safety and security and physiological needs satisfaction. Moreover, PSU had a positive link with belongingness need satisfaction, while higher PIU was associated with lower esteem and self-actualization need satisfaction. Addressing those unmet needs may be helpful in reducing problematic technology use, but further research testing this would be necessary.
... mean "fear of internet deprivation," is defined as "the individual's being unable to stay in an environment without Internet and being anxious about Internet deprivation, rather than excessive use of the internet" (Alt & Boniel-Nissim, 2018;Brand et al., 2014;Rozgonjuk et al., 2020). ...
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Purpose The present study aimed to determine the level of Netlessphobia in the general population by developing the “Fırat Netlessphobia Scale.” Design and Measures Trial form consisting of 19 items, which was tested in terms of language and psychometric validity, was applied to a sample group of 690 people. The reliability of the scale was verified by evaluating Cronbach's α reliability coefficient and test-retest consistency. Results The developed “Fırat Netlessphobia Scale” can account for 60.7% of the variance related to Netlessphobia. Cronbach's α reliability coefficient of the scale was calculated as 0.93. Conclusions According to the findings, the Fırat Netlessphobia Scale is a cost-effective scale that facilitates the valid and reliable estimation of high variance and a low number of items. Practice Implications This practical and cost-effective scale is widely applied owing to its small number of items and short expressions. The present study emphasizes the importance of exploring Netlessphobia and the need for future research in this area to recognize the risk groups and establish protection strategies.
... There is increasing recognition that technological distractions in the workplace (Orhan et al., 2021), e.g., due to social media use and FoMO, are negatively associated with users' decreased work engagement (Orhan et al., 2021) and productivity in daily life . For instance, Rozgonjuk et al. (2020a) discussed that social media-related use disorders (e.g., WhatsApp and Facebook) due to FoMO can increase users' pre-occupation with these platforms and lead to reduced productivity. Zivnuska et al. (2019) also found social media addictions and reactions to be negatively correlated with job performance, contingent upon the mediating effect of work-family balance, burnout, and work-family conflict. ...
Article
The intense proliferation of social media platforms into every facet of human lives has engaged researchers' attention towards understanding their adverse influences, referred to as the dark side of social media (DoSM) in the evolving literature. A relatively unexplored context in this regard is employees' personal use of social media during work hours and its impact on work-related outcomes. Since using social media during work hours can have implications for work performance and productivity, the lack of research in the area needs to be addressed by scholars sooner rather than later. Specifically, it is important to understand the drivers and outcomes of such behaviour. We have thus conceptualized a theoretical model based on the associations among individual tendencies (exhibitionism and voyeurism), fear of missing out (FoMO), and individual-level psychological (compulsive use of social media) and behavioral (work performance decrement and procrastination) outcomes of social media use during work hours. Grounded in the stressor-strain-outcomes (SSO) framework, the hypothesized associations were tested by a path analysis of 312 responses collected from individuals working in the United States. The results confirmed significant relationships between individual tendencies and FoMO, as well as psychological and behavioural outcomes. The findings contribute to the evolving literature around DoSM in the workplace and offer useful and practical insights.
... However, it is worth noting that individual differences (e.g., impulsivity, reward-seeking behavior) also play an important role in smartphones' influence on behavior (Brown et al., 2021) as well as in reward-based distraction (see Bourgeois et al., 2016;Failing and Theeuwes, 2018). In this framework, Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) is an emerging factor that has been shown to be associated with problematic internet and smartphone use in several studies (e.g., Elhai et al., 2016;Dempsey et al., 2019;Rozgonjuk et al., 2020;Wolniewicz et al., 2020). FoMO is defined as the pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent, and is characterized by the desire to stay continually connected with what others are doing (Przybylski et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Smartphones are particularly likely to elicit driver distraction with obvious negative repercussions on road safety. Recent selective attention models lead to expect that smartphones might be very effective in capturing attention due to their social reward history. Hence, individual differences in terms of Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) – i.e., of the apprehension of missing out on socially rewarding experiences – should play an important role in driver distraction. This factor has already been associated with self-reported estimations of greater attention paid to smartphones while driving, but the potential link between FoMO and smartphone-induced distraction has never been tested empirically. Therefore, we conducted a preliminary study to investigate whether FoMO would modulate attentional capture by reward distractors displayed on a smartphone. First, participants performed a classical visual search task in which neutral stimuli (colored circles) were associated with high or low social reward outcomes. Then, they had to detect a pedestrian or a roe deer in driving scenes with various levels of fog density. The social reward stimuli were displayed as distractors on the screen of a smartphone embedded in the pictures. The results showed a significant three-way interaction between FoMO, social reward distraction, and task difficulty. More precisely, under attention-demanding conditions (i.e., high-fog density), individual FoMO scores predicted attentional capture by social reward distractors, with longer reaction times (RTs) for high rather than low social reward distractors. These results highlight the importance to consider reward history and FoMO when investigating smartphone-based distraction. Limitations are discussed, notably regarding our sample characteristics (i.e., mainly young females) that might hamper the generalization of our findings to the overall population. Future research directions are provided.
... "In fact, with the wider diffusion of PSMU, researchers began studying individuals who reported feeling addicted to social media use" [18]. "While researchers have moved away from addiction terminology regarding digital technology use" [19]) "the potentially negative effects of social media overuse have nonetheless received substantial attention over the past years" [20]. ...
Preprint
This study examines the relationship of fear of missing out (FOMO) with heavy social networking among Turkish university students (aged 17 - 55). The perception of the possible role of parental supervision on online activities is also investigated. Factor analysis of FOMO scale led us to evaluate the construct under two dimensions as (1) fear of missing experience and (2) fear of missing activity. The results revealed that fear of missing activity increases social media intrusion while fear of missing experience is found to have no significant effect. The reverse relationship is also valid: an urge to use social media predicts fear of missing out (activity and experience). Fear of missing experience is associated with problematic social media use (PSMU) and a high desire to use social media. The results additionally demonstrate that students aged 30 and older believe more in the requirement of parental control than those aged 17-22.
... For our research, it is of interest that increasing amounts of evidence indicate that image-based apps such as Instagram and Snapchat may exert stronger detrimental effects on adverse health-related outcomes, including sleep problems, psychological distress, and problematic behaviors, compared to those exerted by more traditional SN platforms such as Facebook and Twitter [16][17][18]. Interestingly, a new study by Rozgonjuk et al [19] reported that the problematic use of WhatsApp and Instagram was the factor that was the most strongly linked to productivity loss in everyday life (ie, compared to Facebook and Snapchat use). Another work has also shown that these two platforms might be associated with the most problematic consequences for smartphone users [20]. ...
Article
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Background Social communication via instant messaging (IM) and social networking (SN) apps makes up a large part of the time that smartphone users spend on their devices. Previous research has indicated that the excessive use of these apps is positively associated with problematic smartphone use behaviors. In particular, image-based SN apps, such as Instagram (Facebook Inc) and Snapchat (Snap Inc), have been shown to exert stronger detrimental effects than those exerted by traditional apps, such as Facebook (Facebook Inc) and Twitter (Twitter Inc). Objective In this study, we investigated the correlation between individuals’ tendencies toward smartphone use disorder (SmUD) and objective measures of the frequency of smartphone usage. Additionally, we put to test the hypothesis that the pathway linking the frequency of actual smartphone usage to self-reported tendencies toward SmUD was mediated by the increased frequency of IM and SN app usage. Methods We recruited a sample of 124 adult smartphone users (females: 78/124, 62.9%; age: mean 23.84 years, SD 8.29 years) and collected objective information about the frequency of smartphone and SN app usage over 1 week. Participants also filled in a self-report measure for assessing the multiple components of tendencies toward SmUD. Bivariate associations were investigated by using Spearman correlation analyses. A parallel mediation analysis was conducted via multiple regression analysis. Results The frequency of smartphone usage, as well as the use of IM apps (Messenger, Telegram, and WhatsApp [Facebook Inc]), Facebook, and image-based apps (Instagram and Snapchat), had significant positive associations with at least 1 component of SmUD, and the cyberspace-oriented relationships factor exhibited the strongest associations overall. We found support for an indirect effect that linked actual smartphone usage to SmUD tendencies via the frequency of the use of image-based SN apps. Conclusions Our novel results shed light on the factors that promote SmUD tendencies and essentially indicate that image-based SN apps seem to be more strongly associated with problematic smartphone behaviors compared to IM apps and traditional SN apps, such as Facebook.
... To conclude, for many people it is nowadays hard to withstand the temptation of social media and other attention seeking apps on one's smart phone (Du, Kerkhof, & van Koningsbruggen, 2019). A fear of missing out (Rozgonjuk, Sindermann, Elhai, & Montag, 2020), an expectation of constant availability from friends (Miller-Ott & Kelly, 2017), or even the mere presence of a phone (Misra et al., 2016;Przybylski & Weinstein, 2013) can draw attention away from an interaction one is having with a co-present partner. The present studies highlight that the use of one's phone in the presence of a partner (pphubbing), has an, often unintentional, detrimental relationship effect, as a partner feels excluded and it harms the experienced responsiveness and intimacy in the interactions one is in. ...
Article
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Previous research showed that phone use during co-present interactions with one’s partner (partner phubbing) is negatively related to relationship satisfaction. In two cross-sectional surveys (N = 507 and N = 386) we confirmed this finding and also extended it by focusing on the mediating role of feelings of exclusion, perceived partner responsiveness, perceived intimacy, conflict about phone use, and feelings of jealousy. Results of both studies demonstrate that the link between partner phubbing and relationship satisfaction was mediated by feelings of exclusion, less perceived partner responsiveness, and less intimacy. We observed no significant mediation effects of conflict over phone use and jealousy when the three significant mediators were taken into account. In contrast to previous work, this suggests that conflict and jealousy are not the primary mechanism through which pphubbing results in reduced relationship satisfaction. Moreover, we demonstrated that shared phone use moderates the adverse effects of pphubbing. This means that by involving and informing a partner about one’s phone activities, it is possible to reduce feelings of exclusion, maintain more responsiveness and intimacy in the conversation, and consequently reduce detrimental relationship effects. Full article (open access) here: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106932
... For example, spending time in entertainment and social networking (apps and sites like Facebook and Twitter) each had an independent and substantial negative relationship with college GPA. Our finding of the negative relationship between time spent on social networking and GPA is also consistent with previous studies on the relationship between social networking and grades (Wood et al., 2012;Junco, 2012;Judd, 2014; see also a work linking problematic social media use to lower productivity, Rozgonjuk et al., 2020). ...
Article
This study was designed to measure the impact of smartphone usage among college students on their current academic success. We report the results from a survey among 99 undergraduate student iPhone users in a large Midwestern U.S. university. The survey combines objective smartphone use time directly obtained from Apple's ScreenTime feature with official GPA and ACT/SAT scores from university records. We evaluate how GPA and self-reported measures of academic success are determined by ACT/SAT scores, demographics, school-related variables, study-related variables, socio-economic variables and time spent using one's smartphone. Our results suggest that one additional hour of phone use per day lowered current term GPA by 0.152 points on average. Time spent using a smartphone significantly reduces GPA and self-reported measures of academic productivity.
... Many studies have found that FOMO has a close relationship with SUF and PSU severity. People who score higher in FOMO are more likely to overuse their smartphones to satisfy the desire to stay connected (32). FOMO and PSU are positively correlated, and higher FOMO can be a driver of PSU (33). ...
Article
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Problematic smartphone use (PSU) has been linked with stress. Higher levels of stress likely increased problematic smartphone use. We investigated relations between stress, fear of missing out, and problematic smartphone use. The aim of the current study was to analyze the mediating role of fear of missing out (FOMO) and smartphone use frequency (SUF) between stress and PSU. We surveyed a broad sample of 2,276 Chinese undergraduate students in July 2019, using the FOMO Scale, Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, Smartphone Use Frequency Scale, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. The results showed that stress was associated with PSU severity. Gender differences were found in PSU severity. Furthermore, FOMO was positively associated with SUF and PSU severity. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that FOMO acted as a mediator between stress and PSU severity. FOMO and SUF acted as a chain of mediators between stress and PSU severity. SUF did not account for relations between stress and PSU severity. The study indicates that FOMO may be an important variable accounting for why some people with increased stress levels may overuse their smartphones.
... Recently there is a trend in past findings where researchers started to investigate the negative consequences concerning FOMO experienced by social media users (Dhir et al. 2018;Fabris et al. 2020;Rozgonjuk et al. 2020). Studies show that social media users with high FOMO are likely to spend more time on social media and suffer from depression and negative emotions (Baker et al. 2016), insomnia, compulsive social media use, eating disorders (Beyens et al. 2016), low life satisfaction, competency and personal interconnection (Elhai et al. 2016); and deterioration of physical and mental wellbeing (Alt 2015). ...
Chapter
The growth of social media usage and its utilization in marketing campaigns has created a new class of community leaders online, called influencers. Influencers appeared on social media as relevant content creators on a certain niche topic such as sports, comedy, make-up etc. The make-up industry has completely adopted the trend of influencers which ended up disrupting the entire industry. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effects that influencer marketing has had on the make-up industry and how it has become essential for marketers with a focus on that industry. This includes a comparison of influencer marketing to other marketing options such as TV and Online Paid Ads, the cost of advertisement, effectiveness and ability to influence consumer behavior, primary data, data obtained from secondary sources as well as personal contact with influencer agencies.
... The majority of information interactions consist of one or two steps at most and many information interactions are non-purposive or serendipitous. The current study, seeks to explicate an activity that research shows people engage in multiple times a day (Rozgonjuk et al., 2020) in a simple manner and yet where the information encounter may be more meaningful than they (or information theorists) might have imagined. In doing so, the study focuses on Instagram as an extensively used form of social media that has been little examined by information behaviour researchers. ...
Article
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User information behaviour on Instagram was explored via 274 responses to an online survey. Instagram is recognised as a powerful visual platform and consistently reports high engagement statistics across its variety of users. Research on Instagram to date has focussed on marketing communications theory, in particular its production of influencers as a new type of celebrity and source. The authors undertook an exploratory study to examine user interaction with the platform from the perspective of information behaviour research. The survey sought data relating to the rich body of information behaviour theory, particularly in relation to the needs or motivations underpinning information seeking, preferred sources of information and criteria for their evaluation, trust of Instagram creators and purposive and non-purposive engagement with information. An evolutionary model of information behaviour on Instagram is proposed, which draws on previous studies of information behaviour. The credibility of information on Instagram was a key theme in the survey findings, with respondents varying in the degree to which they trusted information on the platform and adopting complex, time-consuming and sometimes conflicting strategies to fact check where they felt reliability was important; future research exploring this further is recommended, to help understand the role and motivations of the information seeker in this process. The research also reveals a heightened blurring in comprehension surrounding the concepts of information and opinion amongst users and academics.
... Significant positive associations between FoMO, smartphone addiction, and Facebook intensity have also been reported among Turkish university students (Traş & Ö ztemel, 2019). A recent study also indicated that FoMO was related to problematic use of WhatApp, Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat (Rozgonjuk, Sindermann, Elhai, & Montag, 2020). In addition, state-FoMO had higher correlation coefficients with other variables than trait-FoMO in the present study. ...
Article
Background and aims Previous research has explored the relationship between fear of missing out (FoMO), social network site (SNS) use, and/or smartphone addiction by correlation analysis and construction of latent variables model. However, smartphone addiction may also intensify negative emotion (e.g., fear of missing out, anxiety, and depression) and risky behavior (e.g., excessive social media use and problematic smartphone game activities). To date, few studies have adopted a network analysis approach to investigate the reciprocal action between the aforementioned variables. Therefore, the present study used network analysis to evaluate the relationship between FoMO, SNS use, and smartphone addiction among a sample of Chinese university students. Methods A sample comprising 1258 Chinese university students (502 males) completed a survey including the Chinese Trait-State Fear of Missing Out Scale (T-SFoMOSC), Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI), and Social Network Site Intensity Scale (SNSIS). Results Inability to control craving and productivity loss had the closest edge intensity. Feeling anxious and lost was the strongest central node (betweenness = 1.903, closeness = 1.853, strength = 1.287) in the domain-level network. The item-level network analysis showed that FoMO was positively associated with SNS use and smartphone addiction. There were no significant gender differences in the network structure and the global edge strength. Conclusions The findings here indicate that there is a close relationship between FoMO, SNS use, and smartphone addiction. Excessive social media use and higher level of FoMO appear to play a contributory role in smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction may also further increase excessive SNS use and increase the level of FoMO. A bidirectional influence between smartphone addiction, SNS use and FOMO should be considered. Gender differences in FoMO, smartphone addiction, and motivation of SNS use should be investigated in future research.
... Recently there is a trend in past findings where researchers started to investigate the negative consequences concerning FOMO experienced by social media users (Dhir et al. 2018;Fabris et al. 2020;Rozgonjuk et al. 2020). Studies show that social media users with high FOMO are likely to spend more time on social media and suffer from depression and negative emotions (Baker et al. 2016), insomnia, compulsive social media use, eating disorders (Beyens et al. 2016), low life satisfaction, competency and personal interconnection (Elhai et al. 2016); and deterioration of physical and mental wellbeing (Alt 2015). ...
Chapter
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The underlying principle of digital inclusiveness is to enable accessibility for everyone from all walks of life. However, the question arises on how digital inclusiveness support, maintain or improve the wellbeing of an ageing society when communication technology slowly taking effect in their life? Also, are the existing social media platforms adequate to sustain the demand for better communication and ensure their essential communication needs are met without marginalising them? This issue is of particular concern to the old age group, which is growing due to low population growth and an increasingly long-life span of 71.7 years for males and 75 years for females. Considering the context, the social media usage of the elderly needs further scrutinisation to help digital marketers continuously understand the ageing market segment and discourage the burnout effect from occurring to them. This is important to ensure the geriatric market experience a worthy customer journey from the marketing communication targeted to them on the digital front. Henceforward, this research generates new knowledge on the social media usage of the elderly and revisits the Stressor-Strain-Outcome (SSO) model where the aspect of social media fatigue and isolation are addressed.
... The I-PACE model includes three main steps. The P-component represents a person's predispositional characteristics, such as FOMO (Brand et al., 2016;Rozgonjuk et al., 2020). Affect (A-), and cognition (C-) are potential inner mediator mechanisms of the predispositional tendency and lead to decisions to perform maladaptive behaviors such as addictive behavior (Brand et al., 2016(Brand et al., , 2019. ...
Article
Recently, there has been growing interest in how individual differences in FOMO affect personal and individual outcomes. However, there is a lack of understanding regarding the impact of FOMO in the workplace. The current study examined whether individual differences in fear of missing out (FOMO) affect employee job performance. This was accomplished by investigating the mediating role of burnout and social media engagement (SME). Furthermore, we also examined whether amotivation moderates the mediation process. Data were gathered from 214 Israeli employees by using the following scales: Fear of Missing Out (FOMOs), Burnout, Social Media Engagement (SME), Multidimensional Work Motivation (MWMS), and Job Performance. The results indicated that individual differences in FOMO are associated with relatively low levels of job performance. The relationship is mediated by burnout but not by SME. Amotivation was found to moderate the mediation effect of burnout. Interpretation of these results and practical implications are discussed.
... In fact, with the wider diffusion of PSMU, researchers began studying individuals who reported feeling addicted to social media use (Rozgonjuk et. al., 2020). While researchers have moved away from addiction terminology regarding digital technology use (see Panova & Carbonell, 2018) the potentially negative effects of social media overuse have nonetheless received substantial attention over the past years (Montag et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the relationship of fear of missing out (FOMO) with heavy social networking among Turkish university students (aged 17 - 55). Factor analysis of FOMO scale led us to evaluate the construct under two dimensions as (1) fear of missing experience and (2) fear of missing activity. The results revealed that fear of missing activity increases social media intrusion while fear of missing experience is found to have no significant effect. The reverse relationship is also valid: an urge to use social media predicts fear of missing out (activity and experience). Fear of missing experience is associated with problematic social media use (PSMU) and a high desire to use social media.
... This sense of loss or missing out on something virtually makes an individual go through FoMO (Abel et al., 2016). Therefore, when people cannot access their social media accounts, they feel as if they are being socially excluded from a group, which evokes a fear that they are being ostracized (Abel et al., 2016;Rozgonjuk et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The amount of time spent on Instagram by young people in India has grown exponentially. This social media platform is a sea of visuals that reflect the activities people are engaging in. The constant viewing of other people’s lives can lead to a feeling of dissatisfaction about one’s own life. The Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) emerges when an individual who is unable to participate in or engage with the activities of others, experiences feelings of loneliness and isolation. This study aims to examine the association between the time spent on Instagram and its effect on FoMO and Loneliness. The study sample consisted of 401 participants, primarily 18–24 years old, collected via convenience sampling methods. The single item Fear of Missing Out short form (FoMOsf) and the three-item Loneliness scale were administered to participants to measure FoMO and loneliness, respectively. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. A one-way analysis of variance was computed between the time one spends on Instagram and the variables of FoMO and loneliness. The analysis uncovered a statistically significant difference between the increasing amount of time spent on Instagram, that is, less than one hour, 1–2 hours, and three or more hours for FoMO [F (2,398) = 17.92, p < 0.05] and loneliness [F (2,398) = 3.57, p ≤ 0.029]. Therefore, more time spent on Instagram results in individuals experiencing significantly greater levels of FoMO and loneliness.
... Traditionally, a community is defined as a group of people who are willing to get together or take on a common responsibility (1). Today's social media are platforms created in the virtual world of the Internet which allow users to freely create their own unique accounts, discuss, share, and exchange information in this cyberspace via text, images, audio, and video (2,3). The rise of online social media has thus created a different mode of interpersonal interaction than traditional ones, and the use of social media sites has become one of the most popular social behaviors today (4). ...
Article
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The popularity of online social media in recent years has not only brought information and social convenience to people's lives, but has also given rise to many problems, among which social media addiction (SMA) has become a concern of many scholars and experts. Past research has shown that regular exercise (REx) can have many health benefits for the body, so numerous scholars and experts believe that this may be one possible strategy for reducing the health effects of online community addiction and Internet use (IU). Therefore, this study adopted a secondary data research approach to explore and predict the effect of age on social media use and personal health, and therefore included age as a control variable to investigate whether the intervention of REx, excluding the effect of age, moderates the effect of SMA on IU and on perceived health (PH). The participants of this study were adults aged 18 years or older in Taiwan, using the 2019 “Survey Research Data Archive,” Vol. 7, No. 5 data. A total of 1,933 questionnaires were retrieved, and after elimination of invalid responses, 1,163 data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling, PLS-SEM. The results were as follows: (1) SMA positively affected IU, (2) SMA could negatively affect PH, (3) there was no statistical effect of IU on PH, (4) SMA did not indirectly affect PH through IU, (5) REx had a moderating effect on SMA and IU, and (6) REx did not regulate the effect of SMA on PH. First, from these results, it is clear that the negative health effects of SMA may not be simply due to prolonged IU. Secondly, while it is true that the moderating effect for people with low levels of SMA can reduce IU, for people with high levels of SMA, the moderating effect of REx becomes a catalyst for increased Internet usage behavior. Finally, we draw conclusions based on the results of the study and propose directions and recommendations for follow-up research.
... However, our results did not indicate that phubbing mediates the relationship between FoMO and excessive Instagram use. We did, however, find that both FoMO and phubbing significantly influence excessive Instagram use, with a plethora of studies that confirm the significant relationship between FoMO and a variety of outcomes related to the excessive use of Instagram (e.g., addiction to and problematic use of social media and the internet; Alt & Boniel-Nissim, 2018; Rozgonjuk et al., 2020;Savci et al., 2020;Shen et al., 2020;Van Rooij et al., 2018). The same applies to phubbing, with recent studies reporting significant relationships with problematic (and addictive) forms of social media use (Chi et al., 2022;Davey et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Social media platforms can deliver benefits for their users. They help people to stay in touch with each other and to have control over how they present themselves to their contacts on these platforms. In some cases, these benefits lead to excessive usage, which can diminish individual wellbeing, and compromise relationships with significant others. We surveyed 275 respondents to investigate the influence of and interactions between (1) self-presentation (specifically false self-presentation), (2) FoMO (fear of missing out), and (3) phubbing (ignoring someone by diverting attention to a mobile phone) in the context of excessive Instagram use. We found that phubbing mediates the relationship between false self-presentation and excessive Instagram use but did not find evidence that phubbing mediates the relationship between FoMO and excessive Instagram use. We also found a positive relationship between excessive Instagram use and educational level. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical and practical implications of the results. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
... Social media is increasingly penetrating every aspect of people's lives and affects their health and wellbeing (79), be it personal, social or professional (108). In this regard, this study evidenced intervention of employee's personal and social life into their professional lives such as effortreward imbalance through social media activities. ...
Article
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Background Social media activities affect every aspect of human life, be it personal, social or professional. Previous studies have confirmed the role of social media in affecting health in terms of releasing stress and providing social support. Increased occupational health disorders and increased time spent on social media activities motivate us to investigate this phenomenon in the context of occupational health. Therefore, the objective of this study is to measure the effects of social media activities related to personal and social life as well as work-life on health and wellbeing of office employees, on their job efforts and job rewards, and in moderating the effect of effort-reward imbalance on health and wellbeing. Methods Initially, to develop constructs related to social media activities, web-based structured interviews were conducted with five office employees working in the oil and gas industry for the last 5 years. Then, using an online questionnaire survey, data was collected from 424 office employees working in the oil and gas industry in Malaysia. Using statistical software for social science (SPSS) and Smart PLS, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to identify reliability and validity (discriminant validity, convergent validity and composite validity) of the constructs. Following this, path analysis was conducted and the moderating effects were identified. Results Social media activities related to work-life decrease health and wellbeing by 11% and weaken the negative effect of effort-reward-imbalance on health and wellbeing by 17.6% at a 1% level of significance. The results of social media activities related to personal and social life strengthen the negative effect of effort-reward imbalance on health and wellbeing by 12% and negatively affects health and wellbeing and job rewards by 13, 55%, respectively. The direct effect of effort-reward imbalance and job efforts is significantly negative on health and wellbeing by 59 and 10%, respectively. Conclusion It is concluded that social media activities of the office employees significantly moderate the effect of effort-reward imbalance on health and wellbeing and intervene in job rewards in the organizations. Hence, the effect of social media activities reduces the health and wellbeing of office employees.
... Thus, future studies should consider whether this is also true in the current COVID-19 situation. Furthermore, even though available research emphasized the potential negative impact of SM activity on user's emotional state and well-being Marino et al., 2018;Rozgonjuk et al., 2020), due to the cross-sectional design of the present study, we cannot exclude alternative constellations of the investigated variables. Therefore, future European Psychologist (2021), 26(4), 373-386 Ó 2021 Hogrefe Publishing experimental studies should investigate the mediation model that includes stress symptoms as a predictor, burden as mediator, and use of SM as COVID-19 information source as an outcome, as well as the model that includes burden as a predictor, stress symptoms as mediator, and SMU as outcome. ...
Article
This cross-national study investigated the extent of social media use (SMU) as a source of information about COVID-19, and its relationship with the experienced burden caused by the pandemic. Representative data from eight countries (France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, the UK, the USA) were collected online (end of May to the beginning of June 2020). Of the overall 8,302 participants, 48.1% frequently used social media (SM) as a COVID-19 information source (range: 31.8% in Germany, to 65.4% in Poland). In the overall samples and in all country-specific samples, regression analyses revealed the experienced burden caused by COVID-19 to be positively associated with SMU and stress symptoms. Furthermore, stress symptoms partly mediated the relationship between SMU and the burden. The results emphasize the significant association between the use of SM as a source of information, individual emotional state, and behavior during the pandemic, as well as the significance of conscious and accurate use of SM specifically during the COVID-19 outbreak.
... When evaluated in this context, FoMO is generally accepted as a maladaptive psychological state (Wang et al., 2019). In the studies, while FoMO is positively associated with neuroticism, anxiety, depression, loneliness, and stress (Baker et al., 2016;Beyens et al., 2016;Dossey, 2014;Rozgonjuk et al., 2020a); it is negatively correlated with self-discipline (Rozgonjuk et al., 2020b), life satisfaction (Przybylski et al., 2013); self-esteem, well-being (Buglass et al., 2017) quality of life (Elhai et al., 2018). ...
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Purpose The present research examines self-disclosure as a negative behavior arising from excessive engagement on social media as well as social media addiction and fear of missing out. Design/methodology/approach A convenience sample of 2,333 Snapchat and Instagram users in Kuwait collected using a snowball sampling procedure was utilized to validate the research model and test the proposed relationships using two-stage structural equation modeling. Findings A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis across Snapchat and Instagram users showed that the measurement invariance was statistically nonsignificant. In addition, path analysis confirmed both a significant direct relationship between user engagement and self-disclosure and indirect relationships through social media addiction and fear of missing out as mediators. Practical implications Ethicists and consumer protection agencies must increase public awareness about the danger of overdisclosure of personal information on social media. The desire to be popular like fashionistas and influencers has pushed some young users to expose themselves to the public at extreme levels. Serious steps must be taken to educate young users about the negative consequences of self-disclosure on social media and healthy ways to capitalize their social presence on social media. Originality/value This study focuses on Snapchat and Instagram as underexplored social media applications with excessive engagement and potentially negative consequences on society.
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Covid-19 döneminde bireylerin karantina tedbirlerine maruz kalması, bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin kullanımını zorunlu olarak arttırmıştır. Sosyal medya platformları da bireylerin bilgi edinme ihtiyacının daha fazla olduğu bu kriz döneminde bilginin en kolay ve hızlı şekilde erişilebildiği platformlar olarak önemli bir rol üstlenmiştir. Kitabın bu bölümünde, Covid-19 döneminde gerçekleştirilen sosyal medya çalışmalarının bir portesini çıkartarak literatürün genel bir değerlendirmesini yapmak amaçlanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda ilk olarak ‘Web of Science’ veritabanından erişilen, “sosyal medya” ve “Covid-19” konularını birlikte işleyen 818 makalenin anahtar kelimelerinin frekans analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Daha sonra tüm makalelerin özetlerinden metin madenciliği yöntemiyle temalar çıkartılmıştır. “Twitter”, “duygu analizi”, “kamu sağlığı”, “infodemiyoloji” ve “Facebook” kelimeleri en fazla kullanılan anahtar kelimeler olarak sıralanmıştır. Özetler ise “Metodoloji”, “Tweet analizleri”, “yanlış bilginin yayılması”, “salgın başlangıcı”, ruh sağlığı ve kaygı”, “Youtube videoları” konu başlıklarıyla ilişkili 6 tematik yapıya ayrılmıştır. Analiz sonuçları değerlendirme bölümünde derinlemesine tartışılmıştır.
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The research concentrates on describing how emotions are shared on private and public digital affect cultures. Two case study units are selected from private and public environments. Further, the Facebook page of both units is analyzed and data are collected using Netvizz.App. The collected data are processed using sentiment analysis and social network analysis; the former brings forward the type of emotions that are disseminated within the digital affect communities while the latter is used for emphasizing how the emotions flow among members. The results show that several differences occur between the two entities in terms of behavior and emotional content. The former provides the environment and supports members’ interactions; as a consequence, its members share neutral, positive, and negative emotions with the moderator and also with one another. The latter provides the environment and fosters members’ interaction with the moderator; as a consequence, it is the main emotional generator while its members act as receivers. These findings have heoretical andpractical implications; on the one hand, they extend the literature on digital affect cultures while on the other hand, they help managers understand how their stakeholders feel and how do they chose to share their emotions through social media.
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Recently, the fact that the majority of communication and interaction between people is carried out through the internet and mobile devices and the widespread use of social media has brought new disadvantages as well as certain advantages to people’s lives. In the literature, a type of anxiety called Fear of Missing Out (FoMO), referred as Gelişmeleri Kaçırma Korkusu (GKK) in Turkish, is an important concept underlying many of these disadvantages. In order to understand this type of anxiety well, to take preventive steps and to carry out correct intervention studies, its theoretical framework should be put forward well. In this context, the purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive theoretical study on the subject, to draw attention to the fact that FoMO has a significant negative effect especially in the education, social, economic and psychological lives of young people and young adults, and to form a basic perspective on the importance of knowing this concept, its causes, symptoms, negative effects and how to tackle it in dealing with this problem. In this study, which was presented by making a literature review, the results of national and international studies on the subject were compiled. Fear of Missing Out can be defined as the constant desire to follow the exciting and glorious lives of others through the internet and a state of constant anxiety about it. Understanding the reasons as well as the consequences of this fear is important at this point. As a result of the study, there are suggestions on what should be done for understanding the subject well and the steps to be taken.
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Research on the dark side of social media usage has explored the fear of missing out (FoMO), social media fatigue (fatigue), social media stalking (stalking), and online social comparison (social comparison) independently. Accordingly, the complex interrelationships among these phenomena have remained understudied, creating a chasm that hinders a clearer understanding of their drivers and the potential counterstrategies to mitigate the collateral damage they may cause. We attempt to bridge this gap by drawing upon the theory of social comparison and the theory of compensatory internet use to formulate a framework that hypothesizes the mechanism of interaction among these negative fallouts. The model, tested through analysis of data collected from 321 social media users from the United Kingdom (UK), takes into consideration the moderation effect of the frequency of posting social media status updates and social media envy, along with the mediation effect of social comparison and stalking. The results indicate that FoMO and social comparison are directly associated with fatigue. Furthermore, social comparison partially mediates the association of FoMO and fatigue, while social media envy negatively moderates the association of FoMO with social comparison. The results provide new insights into the dynamic interplay of these dark side manifestations of social media.
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Background and aims: FoMO has been considered a predisposing factor toward excessive internet use, and a great deal of literature has investigated the link between FoMO and internet use. However, there is still a lack of cohesion in the literature. Methods: The current study have been conducted and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Results: In the current systematic review and meta-analysis of 86 effect-sizes, representative of 55,134 participants (Meanage 5 22.07, SD 5 6.15, females 5 58.37%), we found that the strength of the trait FoMO- internet use association significantly varies from r 5 0.11 to r 5 0.63. In some populations, FoMO appears to increase with age and it is reverse in other populations. Facebook use was unrelated to FoMO in some populations, and higher FoMO was linked with stopping Instagram use for some individuals. The FoMO- internet use association was independent of their severity, as the interaction was not significant, and this association was neither linear nor curvilinear. The FoMO-internet use association does not appear to be associated with depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms or level of life satisfaction. The COVID-19 pandemic was the only significant moderator of the FoMO-internet use association, strengthening this relationship. Discussion and Conclusions: FoMO demonstrates a considerable role in internet use; however, there is no evidence of interaction or bi-directional association between the mentioned. Overall, we still don’t know what factors contribute to individuals exhibiting distinct patterns in the FoMO-internet use association.
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Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) is associated with self-reported problematic smartphone use (PSU) severity, but there is little investigation that includes objectively measured smartphone use. The aim of the current study was to provide insights into this domain. We combined the partially published data from two previous U.S.-based studies with college student samples that tracked smartphone use data with a different focus from the current study. Both data sets included socio-demographic measures, FoMO and PSU scale scores, and data for objectively measured screentime and frequency of screen unlocks over a week, amounting up to more than a thousand observations. FoMO had a strong correlation with self-reported PSU severity; however, FoMO was not associated with objectively measured smartphone use variables. FoMO did not predict behavioral smarthpone use over a week in multilevel modeling for repeated measures. Even though FoMO is a strong predictor of self-reported PSU severity, it does not predict objectively measured smartphone use.
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This study explored the relationship between Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) and irrational procrastination in a mobile social media environment and its underlying mechanism: the mediating role of cognitive failure. The study was conducted with 817 college students using the FoMO Scale, Irrational Procrastination Scale, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and Self-Control Scale. The results showed that (a) FoMO positively predicted irrational procrastination in the mobile social media environment; (b) cognitive failure had a complete mediating effect on the relationship between FoMO and irrational procrastination; and (c) self-control had a moderating effect on the relationship between FoMO and cognitive failure.
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Giriş ve Amaç: Sosyal medya, bireylere sağladığı kolaylıkların yanı sıra ‘Sosyal Ortamlarda Gelişmeleri Kaçırma Korkusu’ gibi ciddi bir sorunu da beraberinde getirmiştir. Teknoloji çağının yaşanılan ciddi bir Halk Sağlığı konusu olan sosyal ortamlarda gelişmeleri takip etmek ve bu gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu tıp öğrencileri için de oldukça önemlidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı dönem 3 öğrencilerinde “Sosyal Ortamlarda Gelişmeleri Kaçırma Korkusu” ve ilgili faktörleri belirlemektir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışma kesitsel nitelikte olup Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi (AUTF) 3. Sınıf öğrencilerinde Mart 2020 tarihinde gerçekleştirilmiş, 405 öğrenciden ulaşılan ve verileri tam olan 336 öğrenci ile tamamlanmıştır. Veriler 21 sorudan oluşan anket formu ve Przybylski tarafından geliştirilmiş (2013); Türkçe geçerlilik ve güvenilirliği yapılmış olan “Sosyal Ortamlarda Gelişmeleri Kaçırma Korkusu Ölçeği” (GKKÖ) uygulanarak toplanmıştır. Analizlerde tanımlayıcı istatistikler yanısıra Pearson ki-kare, t-testi, tek yönlü Anova, Pearson korelasyonu kullanılmıştır. AÜ Tıp Fakültesi Dekanlığı ve Öğrenci Araştırmaları Etik Kurulu izni ve öğrencilerin yazılı onamlarıyla çalışma uygulanmıştır. Bulgular: Öğrencilerin ortalama yaşı 20.9±1.5 yıl ve %52.4’ü kadındır. Gün içinde internette geçirilen süre ortalama 4.0±1.9 saattir ve derste telefonlarını kontrol etme sayısı ortalama 10.8±13.8, en çok kullandıkları üç sosyal medya WhatsApp (%82.7), Youtube (%79.5) ve İnstagram (%53.9)’dır. Öğrencilerin GKKÖ puan ortalamaları 24.0±6.6’dır. Ölçek puanı ile cinsiyet, uyruk, ebeveynlerinin öğrenim düzeyi ve gelir durumu arasında bir ilişki yokken, yaşamından memnun olanlarda ölçek puanları düşüktür. WhatsApp, Youtube, İnstagram, Twitter ve Snapchat uygulamalarını kullananlarda ve bildirim geldiğinde hemen bakanlarda GKKÖ puanları anlamlı olarak yüksek bulunmuştur. Sonuç: Öğrenciler günde ortalama 4 saati internette geçirmekte, derslerde sıklıkla telefonlarını kontrol etmekte olup GKK; yaşamından memnun olanlarda düşük, çeşitli sosyal medya araçlarını kullananlarda, bildirimlerine fazla bakanlarda yüksek bulunmuştur. Eğitim programları içerisinde sosyal medya bağımlılığı hakkında farkındalık sağlanmalı, yaşam memnuniyetlerini arttırıcı sosyal destek verilmelidir.
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Social networks have become a very important part of human life in recent years. This situation has led to new definitions such as the Fear of Missing Out (FOMO). FOMO can be defined as the concern that others can have a good experience when the person is absent and therefore the person wants to stay on social networks constantly to avoid missing anything. It is especially common in young people. Problematic internet use, psychosocial factors, social network use and anxiety are blamed in its etiology. Family conflicts, loneliness, depression, and low self-efficacy can be said as risk factors. People constantly want to spend time on social networks, daily life activities are blocked and the person's productivity decreases. It has no place in diagnostic classifications. For FOMO, the fear of missing out scale developed by Przybylski can be used. It is reported that FOMO has a significant positive relationship with nomophobia. There is no specific treatment method. There is a need for extensive research on FOMO.
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Tujuh artikel empiris telah dipublikasikan dalam Mediapsi edisi Desember 2021, volume 7 nomor 2. Topik yang dibahas dalam masing-masing artikel cukup bervariasi. Topik artikel pertama merupakan studi eksperimen dengan temuan bahwa career decision-making course (CDMC) efektif dalam mengurangi kesulitan siswa dalam menentukan karier mereka. Sementara itu, eksperimen dalam artikel kedua menunjukkan bahwa pelatihan pengenalan diri secara empiris berpengaruh signifikan dalam meningkatkan penerimaan diri siswa remaja dengan cerebral palsy. Artikel ketiga merupakan riset kualitatif yang menggunakan tinjauan sistematis untuk engidentifikasi dan menganalisis berbagai macam definisi dan tipe studi kasus, Artikel keempat meneliti fenomena fear of missing out (FoMO) dan menemukan bahwa variabel tersebut kurang berperan signifikan dibandingkan dengan trait self-control dalam menjelaskan aktivitas fisik di kalangan pengguna media sosial Instagram. Topik dalam artikel kelima berkaitan dengan masalah emosi dan perilaku remaja. Temuan dalam artikel kelima menunjukkan bahwa remaja laki-laki dan remaja perempuan memiliki permasalahan emosi dan perilaku yang relatif sama. Artikel keenam merupakan studi kuantitatif korelasional, yang melaporkan bahwa di kalangan guru sekolah swasta, semakin rendah masa kerja maka hubungan antara kepuasaan kerja dan turnover intentions atau keinginan meninggalkan organisasi atau tempat kerja semakin negatif. Artikel ketujuh sekaligus terakhir merupakan studi kuantitatif korelasional yang menemukan bahwa kepercayaan politik, efikasi politik, dan orientasi kandidat berperan signifikan baik secara simultan maupun secara parsial dalam menjelaskan partisipasi politik.
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The global outage of leading social media (SM) platforms on October 4th, 2021, had a significant impact on users all over the world. This paper reports data from a study investigating the role of self-esteem and fear of missing out (FoMO) in explaining women's mood in reaction to the SM outage. The results indicate that both FoMO and self-esteem are linked to mood after interruption of access to SM. Moreover, FoMO fully mediates the relationship between self-esteem and mood in reaction to SM outage.
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The penetration of smartphones and the subsequent social media use in modern workplaces have drawn scholars’ attention towards studying their influence on employees. This is a nascent yet critical field of study because initial inquiries have confirmed the significant adverse implications of smartphone and social media use for employee well-being and productivity. Acknowledging the need to better explicate the consequences of the so-called ‘dark side’ of social media use at work, we examine the association of FoMO and phubbing with both psychological (i.e. work exhaustion and creativity) and relational (i.e. workplace incivility) employee outcomes. We tested our proposed hypotheses, which rest on the theoretical tripod of the theory of compensatory Internet use, the limited capacity model and regulatory focus theory, through structural equation modelling (SEM) of data collected from 243 working professionals in the United States (US). The results suggest that FoMO has a positive association with phubbing, which, in turn, is positively associated with both psychological and relational responses. In addition, our analysis reveals the moderation effect of promotion focus on the association between phubbing and creativity. In comparison, we observe no moderation effect for prevention focus on any of the proposed associations. Our findings provide new insights into the impact of smartphone and social media use on employees and offer important implications for theory and practice.
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O objetivo foi desenvolver e validar a Escala de Atitudes Perante o Instagram, observando suas relações com tempo e frequência de uso da rede social, autoestima e variáveis sociodemográficas (gênero e idade). No estudo 1, formam realizadas as análises fatorial exploratória (que indicou uma organização unifatorial) e de confiabilidade (α= 0,84). Já no estudo 2, foram realizadas a análise fatorial confirmatória e as correlações bivariadas. Os resultados indicaram um ajustamento significativo do instrumento (CFI = 0,99; TLI = 0,99; GFI = 0,99; RMSEA = 0,03, com um intervalo de confiança entre 0,01 - 0,13; SRMR = 0,04).
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Çalışmanın amacı, üniversitede lisans öğrenimi gören öğrencilerin COVID-19 sürecinde sosyal medya kullanımlarına bağlı olarak gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu ile sosyal medya bağımlılıkları arasındaki ilişkinin cinsiyet, yaş, fakülte, sosyal medya kullanım süreleri ve sosyal medya kullanım amaçları değişkenlerine göre anlamlı farklılık gösterip göstermediğini içermektedir. İlişkisel tarama modeline dayanan bu araştırmada, örneklem grubunu 2020-2021 Eğitim-Öğretim döneminde Türkiye’de çeşitli üniversitelerde öğrenim gören 589 lisans öğrencisini oluşturmuştur ve çevrimiçi anket aracılığı ile veriler toplanmıştır. Veri toplama araçlarından; Aydın, Ünal ve Metintaş’ın (2016) Türkçe’ye uyarladıkları Gelişmeleri Kaçırma Korkusu Ölçeği (GKKÖ) ve Şahin ve Yağcı (2017) tarafından geliştirilen Sosyal Medya Bağımlılığı Ölçeği-Yetişkin Formu (SMBÖ-YF) uygulanmıştır. Veri analizlerinde; “T-test”, “Spearman Korelasyonu”, “Mann-Whitney U”, “Kruskal-Wallis H” ve “Tamhane’s T2” testleri ile betimsel istatistik analizinden yararlanılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgular sonucunda, öğrencilerin sosyal medyadaki gelişmeleri kaçırma korkusu ile sosyal medya bağımlılıkları arasında pozitif düzeyde anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu saptanmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre sonuç ve önerilere yer verilmiştir.
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Brands; in addition to its efforts to differentiate from its competitors and maintain its existence in an increasingly intense competitive environment, it resorts to various ways and methods to achieve its goals such as communicating with consumers, interacting, developing strong relationships, turning potential customers into loyal customers and protecting their loyal customers. As one of the ways and methods used, FoMO has been used as a strategy to activate the target audience in the field of marketing and advertising in recent years, although it is basically a psychology-based concept. As a marketing and advertising strategy, FoMO aims to directly appeal to consumers’ concerns and fears to accept an action. On the other hand, brand loyalty, which is one of the important and ultimate goals of a brand, expresses the loyalty of a customer towards a particular brand. Brand loyalty is considered in two dimensions, attitudinal loyalty and behavioral loyalty. Attitudinal loyalty refers to the existence of positive emotions that arise as a result of brand-oriented evaluations and the transformation of these emotions into purchasing action; behavioral loyalty refers to the repeated purchase of a brand. In addition, the concept of brand-self relationship also plays an important role in the formation of brand loyalty in consumers. In other words, the compatibility of individuals' self-perception with the brand can turn individuals into loyal users of the brand. In addition, in the self-brand connection, how the individual perceives himself, how the brand reflects himself and how it is perceived by 575 others are also important. In this context, it is aimed to evaluate the brand-self relationship, brand loyalty and FoMO levels of individuals and brand-self relationship, brand loyalty in the context of FoMO. To this end, a questionnaire was prepared based on Escalas (1996)’s “brand-self connections scale”, Chaudhuri and Holbrook (2001)’s “brand loyalty” scale and Zhang et al. (2020)'s “FOMO” scale. The data were interpreted by various statistical analyses. Key Words: FoMO, Brand Loyalty, Self-Brand Connection
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Currently, 2.7 billion people use at least one of the Facebook-owned social media platforms – Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram. Previous research investigating individual differences between users and non-users of these platforms has typically focused on one platform. However, individuals typically use a combination of Facebookowned platforms. Therefore, we aim (1) to identify the relative prevalence of different patterns of social media use, and (2) to evaluate potential between-group differences in the distributions of age, gender, education, and Big Five personality traits. Data collection was performed using a cross-sectional design. Specifically, we administered a survey assessing participants’ demographic variables, current use of Facebook-owned platforms, and Big Five personality traits. In N = 3003 participants from the general population (60.6% females; mean age = 35.53 years, SD = 13.53), WhatsApp emerged as the most widely used application in the sample, and hence, has the strongest reach. A pattern consisting of a combined use of WhatsApp and Instagram appeared to be most prevalent among the youngest participants. Further, individuals using at least one social media platform were generally younger, more often female, and more extraverted than non-users. Small differences in Conscientiousness and Neuroticism also emerged across groups reporting different combinations of social media use. Interestingly, when examined as control variables, we found demographic characteristics partially accounted for differences in broad personality factors and facets across different patterns of social media use. Our findings are relevant to researchers carrying out their studies via social media platforms, as sample characteristics appear to be different depending on the platform used.
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This article discusses the fear of missing out (FOMO) on rewarding experiences, an important psychological construct in contemporary times. We present an overview of the FOMO construct and its operational definition and measurement. Then, we review recent empirical research on FOMO’s relationship with levels of online social engagement, problematic technology and internet communication use, negative affectivity, and sociodemographic variables. Additionally, we discuss theoretical conceptualizations regarding possible causes of FOMO and how FOMO may drive problematic internet technology use. Finally, we discuss future directions for the empirical study of FOMO.
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Studies have demonstrated that social media use, as well as problematic smartphone use (PSU), are associated with psychopathology variables, such as depression and anxiety. However, it has not been studied how Instagram use frequency is associated with depression, anxiety, and PSU. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Instagram use frequency is related to these psychopathology variables. Three hundred and five active Instagram users (Mage = 23.61, SDage = 5.33; 82.2% female) comprised the effective sample in this study. They responded to an online survey that included questionnaires regarding their Instagram and smartphone use, as well as about experiencing depression and anxiety symptoms. We also retrieved objectively measured Instagram use data. The results showed that although Instagram use frequency, depression, and anxiety were associated with PSU in bivariate analysis, Instagram use frequency did not have indirect effects in the relations between psychopathology variables and PSU. Furthermore, while younger age and female sex predicted Instagram use frequency, these socio-demographic variables did not predict PSU. According to our findings Instagram use frequency contributes to PSU, but it is not related to depression and anxiety.
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Background: An increasing number of studies have investigated Social Networks Use Disorder (SNUD) among Western samples. In this context, the investigation of SNUD in Asia and especially in China has been much neglected. This poses a gap in the literature; it has been estimated that more than one billion Chinese people are using Chinese social networking sites (SNSs). Of note, many of these Chinese SNSs are rather unknown to researchers in Western countries. Aims: The primary objective of the present systematic review was to identify and evaluate studies that investigated Chinese SNS use and associations between SNUD and depression and anxiety symptoms. Method: A comprehensive search strategy identified relevant studies in PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI). Results: The search strategy identified 35 potential studies, 13 studies were identified after shortlisting and full-text reviews of the studies, and finally 10 studies were included in the full review. Associations between SNUD, depression, and anxiety were reported in 10 studies. In eight (of the 10) studies, symptom severity of SNUD was associated with depression. Four studies reported associations between SNUD and anxiety. Most studies had utilized cross-sectional survey designs. Conclusions: Most associations were found between SNUD and depression symptoms, but effect sizes were higher between SNUD and anxiety symptoms. The results have the potential to inform prevention and interventions on SNUD in Eastern cultures, although we explicitly state that our work focuses on China, the transfer of the present observations to other Asian countries (and their cultures) still needs to be established.
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Background and aims: Individuals with high level of negative mental health often tend to use the social platform Facebook to escape from daily stress. They are at risk to develop an emotional bond to Facebook linked to a need to stay permanently online. The current work investigated addictive use of Facebook and its conceptual framework in clinical context. Methods: In a longitudinal study design, duration of daily use of Facebook, addictive Facebook use, depressiveness, insomnia, and positive mental health (PMH) were assessed in a sample of 349 inpatients [Mage (SDage) = 50.13 (9.41)] of a psychosomatic rehabilitation clinic in Germany over a period of on average 6 weeks. Results: Regression analyses revealed that duration of daily Facebook use at the first measurement time point (T1) served as significant positive predictor of addictive Facebook use at the second measurement time point (T2). Addictive Facebook use (T1) significantly positively predicted depressiveness and insomnia (T2). Its prediction of PMH (T2) was significantly negative. Mediation analyses showed that PMH (T1) partially mediated the association between addictive Facebook use (T1) and depressiveness (T2), and fully mediated the relationship between addictive Facebook use (T1) and insomnia (T2). Discussion and conclusions: Current longitudinal results indicate that addictive Facebook use might negatively impact the recovery process of inpatients. Thus, it might be relevant to assess and consider addictive Facebook use in the clinical context. Therapeutic interventions are suggested to focus on the enhancement of inpatients' PMH level, which may buffer the negative effect of problematic Facebook use.
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Objective: The Internet can offer a seemingly safe haven for those being disappointed by relationships in the “offline world”. Although the Internet can provide lonely people with opportunities to seek for help and support online, complete withdrawal from the offline world comes with costs. It is discussed if people can even become “addicted” to the Internet. Of note, meanwhile, many researchers prefer the term Internet use disorder (IUD) instead of using the term “Internet addiction”. To illustrate the importance of one’s own social network supporting a person in everyday life, we investigated, for the first time to our knowledge, how social resources in terms of quality and quantity might represent a buffer against the development of IUD. Furthermore, anxiety related coping styles are investigated as a further independent variable likely impacting on the development of an IUD. Method: In the present work, N = 567 participants (n = 164 males and n = 403 females; Mage = 23.236; SDage = 8.334) filled in a personality questionnaire assessing individual differences in cognitive avoidant and vigilant anxiety processing, ergo, traits describing individual differences in everyday coping styles/modes. Moreover, all participants provided information on individual differences in tendencies toward IUD, the perceived quality of social support received, and the size of their social network (hence a quantity measure). Results: Participants with larger social networks and higher scores in the received social support reported the lowest tendencies toward IUD in our data. A vigilant coping style was positively correlated with tendencies toward IUD, whereas no robust associations could be observed between a cognitive avoidant coping style and tendencies toward IUD. Hierarchical linear regression underlined an important predictive role of the interaction term of vigilance in ego-threat scenarios and perceived quality of social support. Conclusion: The current study not only yields support for the hypothesis that the size of one’s own social network as well as the perceived quality of social support received in everyday life present putative resilience factors against developing IUD. It also supports the approach that special coping styles are needed to make use of the social support offered.
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The present work aims to replicate findings linking specific personality traits with Internet and Smartphone Use Disorder (IUD/SUD). Specifically, earlier research demonstrated that tendencies toward IUD and SUD are associated with high Neuroticism and both low Conscientiousness and low Agreeableness, while IUD (but not SUD) tendencies are negatively related to Extraversion and SUD (but not IUD) tendencies are negatively associated with Openness (1). In the aftermath of the replication crisis in psychology and related disciplines, it has become increasingly important to replicate findings in psychological research. Therefore, we revisited this earlier study by investigating (i) a sample from different countries and (ii) using different questionnaires to assess IUD, SUD and the Five Factor Model of Personality than the earlier work by Lachmann et al. (1). By applying such a design, we believe that replicating results from this earlier study hints toward generalizable associations being (largely) independent from that sample's specific cultural background and instrumentation. Importantly (iii) we used a larger sample consisting of N = 773 in the present study to have higher statistical power to observe the initially reported associations. Additionally, we investigated the role of impulsivity and social anxiety on IUD/SUD, further illuminating the nature of these potential new disorders. Indeed, we were able to reaffirm the aforementioned correlation patterns between personality and IUD/SUD in the present work to a large extent, with low Conscientiousness and high Neuroticism being most robustly associated with higher IUD/SUD. Furthermore, social anxiety and impulsivity showed positive correlations with IUD and SUD, as expected.
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Understanding how people use technology remains important, particularly when measuring the impact this might have on individuals and society. However, despite a growing body of resources that can quantify smartphone use, research within psychology and social science overwhelmingly relies on self-reported assessments. These have yet to convincingly demonstrate an ability to predict objective behavior. Here, and for the first time, we compare a variety of smartphone use and ‘addiction’ scales with objective behaviors derived from Apple's Screen Time application. While correlations between psychometric scales and objective behavior are generally poor, single estimates and measures that attempt to frame technology use as habitual rather than ‘addictive’ correlate more favorably with subsequent behavior. We conclude that existing self-report instruments are unlikely to be sensitive enough to accurately predict basic technology use related behaviors. As a result, conclusions regarding the psychological impact of technology are unreliable when relying solely on these measures to quantify typical usage.
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Previous research has shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to several affect-related psychopathology variables. Emotion dysregulation has been regarded as a central psychological factor associated with that type of psychopathology. In this paper, the association between expressive emotional suppression, a form of emotion dysregulation, with PSU was investigated. Furthermore, we tested if types of smartphone use (process and social use) mediated that association. Three hundred American college students participated in a web-based survey that included the Smartphone Addiction Scale (for problematic smartphone use), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (assessing suppression), and Process vs. Social Smartphone Usage scale. We found that expressive suppression was correlated with both process smartphone use and PSU severity. Mediation analysis showed that process smartphone use completely mediated relations between suppression and PSU severity. The findings suggest that dysfunctional emotion regulation could lead to more process smartphone use that, in turn, may manifest in PSU severity. Contributions and limitations of the study are discussed.
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Previous research on gaming disorder (GD) has highlighted key methodological and conceptual hindrances stemming from the heterogeneity of nomenclature and the use of non-standardized psychometric tools to assess this phenomenon. The recent recognition of GD as an official mental health disorder and behavioral addiction by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) opens up new possibilities to investigate further the psychosocial and mental health implications due to excessive and disordered gaming. However, before further research on GD can be conducted in a reliable way and within a robust cross-cultural context, a valid and reliable standardized psychometric tool to assess the construct as defined by the WHO should be developed. The aim of this study was to develop The Gaming Disorder Test (GDT), a brief four-item measure to assess GD and to further explore its psychometric properties. A sample of 236 Chinese (47% male, mean age 19.22 years, SD = 1.57) and 324 British (49.4% male, mean age 26.74 years, SD = 7.88) gamers was recruited online. Construct validity of the GDT was examined via factorial validity, nomological validity, alongside convergent and discriminant validity. Concurrent validity was also examined using the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale—Short-Form (IGDS9-SF). Finally, reliability indicators involving the Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability coefficients were estimated. Overall, the results indicated that GDT is best conceptualized within a single-factor structure. Additionally, the four items of the GDT are valid, reliable, and proved to be highly suitable for measuring GD within a cross-cultural context.
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Introduction: Prior research has found that psychopathology constructs such as depression and anxiety are associated with problematic use of Facebook (PFU). In the present study, we examined a structural equation model whereby depression, social anxiety and lower life satisfaction predicted PFU severity, while analyzing mediating variables including rumination, fear of missing out (FoMO), and frequency of Facebook use, as well as age and gender as covariates. Method: Participants were 296 college students administered a web survey of instruments measuring these constructs. Results: Modeling results demonstrate that FoMO and rumination were significantly related to PFU severity. Facebook use frequency was related to PFU severity. FoMO and rumination each mediated relations between social anxiety and PFU severity. Conclusions: Results are discussed in the context of prior work on FoMO and excessive technology use, as well as several relevant theoretical frameworks.
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Passive Facebook use, which involves engaging in non-socially orientated behavior on the popular social networking site, is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including social anxiety, loneliness, jealousy, and depressed mood. Research indicates that passive Facebook use may also be related to a tendency to engage in social comparison with others. In addition, there is some evidence that this tendency is more prevalent in individuals high in the personality trait neuroticism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between passive Facebook use, neuroticism, and social comparison orientation (SCO). In addition, we explored whether SCO mediates the potential relationship between neuroticism and passive Facebook use. In a cross-sectional study, 318 Estonian Facebook users completed the Multidimensional Scale of Facebook Use (to ascertain passive Facebook use), the Extra Short Big Five Personality Inventory, and the Iowa-Netherlands Comparison Orientation Scale. The results revealed positive bivariate-correlations between passive Facebook use, neuroticism, and SCO. In addition, SCO mediated the relationship between neuroticism and passive Facebook use. These findings suggest that people higher in neuroticism are more prone to social comparison, which is associated with passive Facebook use. These findings are discussed, and several directions for future research are provided.
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Background and aims Despite indications that the dark triad of personality might be associated with Internet-use disorder (IUD), research about these associations is lacking. Methods Two studies were performed to grasp the links between these variables. In the first study, a sample consisting of N = 468 participants (n = 130 males) filled in the Short Dark Triad Questionnaire to assess scores in the dark triad of personality and the short Internet Addiction Test to assess tendencies toward unspecified IUD. In the second study, another independent sample of N = 472 participants (n = 143 males) filled in the same questionnaires plus items about specific forms of IUD. Results Traits Machiavellianism and psychopathy were positively linked to tendencies toward unspecified IUD in both samples and males and females. Regarding the associations between tendencies toward specific IUDs and the dark triad of personality, no significant associations were found in males (at least not passing correction procedures for multiple testing). In females, trait Machiavellianism/psychopathy and tendencies toward Internet-shopping disorder, trait psychopathy, and tendencies toward Internet-pornography-use disorder as well as trait Machiavellianism and tendencies toward Internet-communication disorder were significantly positively correlated [at least one of the (sub)scales assessing the respective specific IUD was significantly associated with the respective dark triad trait even after correction procedures for multiple testing]. No robust pattern of associations between trait narcissism and unspecified/specific forms of IUD could be observed across (sub)samples. Discussion and conclusions These results indicate positive associations of the traits Machiavellianism and psychopathy (on a subclinical level) with tendencies toward IUD, especially unspecified IUD. The associations with tendencies toward specific forms of IUD seem more complex with differential personality correlates for each specific IUD. These associations need to be replicated.
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Introduction: Smartphones are ubiquitous in the digital society. Although this powerful device is useful because it supports and simplifies many tasks in everyday life, a growing number of researchers is concerned that smartphones might have detrimental effects on the human brain and related psychological processes. Evidence indicates that social media platforms such as WhatsApp and Facebook are essential drivers of smartphone usage. Thus, a critical, yet unexplored issue is how excessive use of those platforms is related to Smartphone Use Disorder (SUD). Furthermore, since the roles of life satisfaction and fear of missing out (FoMo) have been demonstrated to be of particular importance for Internet Use and Internet Communication Disorder, those constructs were examined in the context of SUD. Methods: In total, n = 2299 participants filled in questionnaires assessing SUD, WhatsApp and Facebook Use Disorder, FoMO, life satisfaction, and reported owning a WhatsApp and Facebook account. Results: The study revealed that SUD was linked to WhatsApp Use Disorder, and to a lesser extent, to Facebook Use Disorder. Associations between SUD and WhatsApp Use Disorder were most strongly pronounced in females. Additionally, FoMo predicted SUD, WhatsApp, Facebook Use Disorder, and (fully) mediated the relationship between life satisfaction and those variables. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that WhatsApp use plays an important role to understand SUD. Regarding the mediating role of FoMO, the present work might help disentangle inconsistent results on the link between life satisfaction and (excessive) social networking sites use.
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One of the relatively new negative consequences of smartphone use is “phubbing” (snubbing someone while an individual checks their smartphone in the middle of a real-life conversation). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the direct and indirect associations of neuroticism, trait anxiety, and trait fear of missing out with phubbing via state fear of missing out and problematic Instagram use. A total of 423 adolescents and emerging adults aged between 14 and 21 years (53% female) participated in the study. Findings indicated that females had significantly higher scores of phubbing, fear of missing out, problematic Instagram use, trait anxiety, and neuroticism. Path analysis showed that trait fear of missing out and neuroticism were indirectly associated with phubbing via state fear of missing out and problematic Instagram use. State fear of missing out was directly and indirectly associated with phubbing via problematic Instagram use. The present study is the first to demonstrate empirical evidence for the relationship between different dimensions of fear of missing out, problematic Instagram use, and phubbing.
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Aims In light of the rise in research on technological addictions and smartphone addiction in particular, the aim of this paper was to review the relevant literature on the topic of smartphone addiction and determine whether this disorder exists or if it does not adequately satisfy the criteria for addiction. Methods We reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies on smartphone addiction and analyzed their methods and conclusions to make a determination on the suitability of the diagnosis “addiction” to excessive and problematic smartphone use. Results Although the majority of research in the field declares that smartphones are addictive or takes the existence of smartphone addiction as granted, we did not find sufficient support from the addiction perspective to confirm the existence of smartphone addiction at this time. The behaviors observed in the research could be better labeled as problematic or maladaptive smartphone use and their consequences do not meet the severity levels of those caused by addiction. Discussion and conclusions Addiction is a disorder with severe effects on physical and psychological health. A behavior may have a similar presentation as addiction in terms of excessive use, impulse control problems, and negative consequences, but that does not mean that it should be considered an addiction. We propose moving away from the addiction framework when studying technological behaviors and using other terms such as “problematic use” to describe them. We recommend that problematic technology use is to be studied in its sociocultural context with an increased focus on its compensatory functions, motivations, and gratifications.
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This study was aimed at exploring links between adolescents’ deep and surface approaches to learning, Fear of Missing Out (FoMO), and Problematic Internet Use (PIU) by using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The analysis corroborated the postulated positive links between surface learning, FoMO, and PIU. Moreover, the FoMO construct represented a complimentary mediation between the surface learning approach and PIU constructs. This study may lead to a plausible inference according to which both FoMO and surface learning share a common core characteristic of decreased levels of self-regulation that might lead to PIU. Having students acquire and practice skills of self-regulation might help them control their levels of FoMO, and consequently their PIU at schools or out-of-school learning environments.
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Recent studies have yielded initial evidence for an association between Internet Use Disorder (IUD), empathy, and life satisfaction. In the present study we sought to replicate these previous findings, and then to extend this research by also examining the relationship between empathy, life satisfaction, and the related phenomenon of Smartphone Use Disorder (SUD). The present study included independent samples from China (N = 612, 162 females) and Germany (N = 304, 207 females), with the same set of questionnaires administered to both samples. IUD was measured with Pawlikowski's s-IAT and SUD was assessed with the short version of Kwon's Smartphone Addiction Scale. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was used to assess individual differences in empathy. Please note that for the German sample data on the empathy quotient (EQ) are also available. Life satisfaction data were collected using items from the SOEP-Questionnaire (Socio-Economic Panel, Germany). In both of our samples we replicated previous findings showing the association between higher IUD, lower empathy, and lower life satisfaction scores. In addition, individuals with higher SUD showed higher scores on the IRI Personal Distress scale in China and Germany, while further associations between IRI dimensions and SUD were only found in the Chinese sample. Personal Distress is known to be highly correlated with the personality trait of Neuroticism, hence higher stress/negative emotionality in tense social situations is related to SUD. In the present study we confirm earlier findings showing the relationship between empathy, life satisfaction, and IUD, and extend some of these findings to SUD. We also emphasize the importance of cross-cultural studies when investigating IUD/SUD in the context of empathy and life satisfaction.
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Within the rise of social networking sites, Facebook has gained a huge amount of popularity and Facebook has been matched with an expanding body of research. Nevertheless, research examining the complex relationships between Facebook addiction and well-being is still insufficient. Previous studies have focused on the direct relationships between Facebook addiction, shyness, loneliness, and subjective well-being. However, no empirical study has dealt with the mediating effect of shyness and loneliness on the relationship between Facebook addiction and subjective well-being. Thus, the present study has examined whether shyness and loneliness mediated the relationship between Facebook addiction and subjective well-being. Our theoretical model was tested using data collected from 280 Turkish university students. Participants completed the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Shyness Scale, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling and bootstrapping. Structural equation modeling results provide evidence of indirect effects of Facebook addiction on subjective well-being fully mediated by shyness and loneliness. Bootstrapping showed that Facebook addiction exerted a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being via shyness and loneliness. The findings emphasized the role of youth shyness and loneliness in explaining the relationship between Facebook addiction and subjective well-being. Limitations, implications, and future directions were discussed.
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The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N = 262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.
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Some of the most frequently used online applications are Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter. These applications allow individuals to communicate with other users, to share information or pictures, and to stay in contact with friends all over the world. However, a growing number of users suffer from negative consequences due to their excessive use of these applications, which can be referred to as Internet-communication disorder. The frequent use and easy access of these applications may also trigger the individual's fear of missing out on content when not accessing these applications. Using a sample of 271 participants, a structural equation model was analyzed to investigate the role of psychopathological symptoms and the fear of missing out on expectancies towards Internet-communication applications in the development of symptoms of an Internet-communication disorder. The results suggest that psychopathological symptoms predict higher fear of missing out on the individual's Internet-communication applications and higher expectancies to use these applications as a helpful tool to escape from negative feelings. These specific cognitions mediate the effect of psychopathological symptoms on Internet-communication disorder. Our results are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016) as they show how Internet-related cognitive bias mediates the relationship between a person's core characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms) and Internet-communication disorder. However, further studies should investigate the role of the fear of missing out as a specific predisposition, as well as specific cognition in the online context.
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Introduction While increased time spent on social media (TSSM) has been associated with depression and anxiety, the independent role of using multiple social media (SM) platforms is unclear. Methods We surveyed a nationally-representative sample of 1787 U.S. young ad