Conference Paper

Technical Architectures for Automotive Systems

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... A technical architecture specifies how the logical components are implemented and then integrated into a hardware platform. The work in [11] presents a historical perspective of technical reference architectures and specifically introduces three generations 1 [12], [13]. ...
... 2) Domain Centralised E/E Architecture -the "in development" architecture: The increasing number of ECUs and the attention to software qualities as scalability, robustness, and maintainability led to a new and more structured architecture [11]. The Domain Centralised E/E architecture adopts a layered architectural style and introduces the concept of domain [17], which is used for grouping ECUs, e.g. ...
Article
In order to increase the ability to build complex, software-intensive systems, as well as to decrease time-to-market for new functionality, automotive companies aim to scale agile methods beyond individual teams. This is challenging, given the specifics of automotive systems that are often safety-critical and consist of software, hardware, and mechanical components. In this article, we investigate the concrete reasons for scaling agility beyond teams, the strategies that support such scaling, and the foreseeable implications that such a drastic organizational change will entail. The investigation is based on a qualitative case study, with data from 20 semistructured interviews with managers and technical experts at two automotive companies. At the core of our findings are observations about establishing an agile vehicle-level feedback loop beyond individual teams. First, we find that automotive original equipment manufacturers aim to decrease the lead time of development. Second, we also identify seven strategies that aim to enable scaled-agile beyond teams. Finally, we extract six foreseeable implications and side effects of scaling agile beyond teams in automotive. By charting the landscape of expected benefits, strategies, and implications of scaling agile beyond teams in automotive, we enable further research and process improvements.
... A technical architecture specifies how the logical components are implemented and then integrated into a hardware platform. The work in [11] presents a historical perspective of technical reference architectures and specifically introduces three generations 1 [12], [13]. ...
... 2) Domain Centralised E/E Architecture -the "in development" architecture: The increasing number of ECUs and the attention to software qualities as scalability, robustness, and maintainability led to a new and more structured architecture [11]. The Domain Centralised E/E architecture adopts a layered architectural style and introduces the concept of domain [17], which is used for grouping ECUs, e.g. ...
Preprint
In order to increase the ability to build complex, software-intensive systems, as well as to decrease time-to-market for new functionality, automotive companies aim to scale agile methods beyond individual teams. This is challenging, given the specifics of automotive systems that are often safety-critical and consist of software, hardware, and mechanical components. This paper investigates the concrete reasons for scaling agility beyond teams, the strategies that support such scaling, and foreseeable implications that such a drastic organizational change will entail. The investigation is based on a qualitative case study, with data from 20 semi-structured interviews with managers and technical experts at two automotive companies. At the core of our findings are observations about establishing an agile vehicle-level feedback loop beyond individual teams. (I) We find that automotive OEMs aim to decrease lead-time of development. (II) We also identify 7 strategies that aim to enable scaled-agile beyond teams. (III) Finally, we extract 6 foreseeable implications and side-effects of scaling agile beyond teams in automotive. By charting the landscape of expected benefits, strategies, and implications of scaling agile beyond teams in automotive, we enable further research and process improvements.
... With the advent of software and embedded systems, vehicles have transitioned from being mechanic-intensive to softwareintensive systems [37]. In modern vehicles, software systems consist of multi-criticality functions, where a function can have stringent to lax real-time requirements based on its safetycriticality. ...
... Traditionally, automotive technical architectures have been realised using embedded systems in heavily distributed architectures. Currently, embedded systems are being replaced in favour of general-purpose highperformance computers in more centralised architectures [37]. ...
... The paper [42] describes the E/E architectures, including functional, logical, and technical aspects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Modern autonomous vehicles with an electric/electronic (E/E) architecture represent the next big step in the automation and evolution of smart and self-driving vehicles. This technology is of significant interest nowadays and humans are currently witnessing the development of the different levels of automation for their vehicles. According to recent demand, the components of smart vehicles are centrally or zonally connected, as well as connected to clouds to ensure the seamless automation of driving functions. This necessity has a downside, as it makes the system vulnerable to malicious attacks from hackers with unethical motives. To ensure the control, safety, and security of smart vehicles, attaining and upholding automotive cybersecurity standards is inevitable. The ISO/SAE 21434 Road vehicle—Cybersecurity engineering standard document was published in 2021 and can be considered the Bible of automotive cybersecurity. In this paper, a comparison between four different E/E architectures was made based on the aforementioned standard. One of them is the traditional distributed architecture with many electronic control units (ECUs). The other three architectures consist of centralized or zonally distributed high-performance computers (HPCs). As the complexity of autonomous E/E systems are on the rise, the traditional distributive method is compared against the HPC (brain)-based architectures to visualize a comparative scenario between the architectures. The authors of this paper analyzed the threats and damage scenarios of the architectures using the ISO/SAE 21434 standard, “Microsoft Threat Analysis Tool - STRIDE”, TARA, and “Ansys Medini Analyze”. Security controls are recommended to mitigate the threats and risks in all of these studied architectures. This work attempted to mitigate the gap in the scholarly literature by creating a comparative image of the E/E architectures on a generalized level. The exploratory method of this research provides the reader with knowledge on four different architecture types, their fundamental properties, advantages, and disadvantages along with a general overview of the threats and vulnerabilities associated with each in light of the ISO/SAE 21434 standard. The improvement possibilities of the studied architectures are provided and their advantages and disadvantages are highlighted herein.
... lights in front and rear), which means that cables need to be laid out from front to back of the vehicle for each domain. The vehicle software (SW) is also organized following this logical distribution, mapping the software functionalities to the related hardware that is present in the vehicle [8]. However, we are seeing that this is changing due to the increase in functionalities and their complexity, which usually involve different sensors and actuators from mixed domains, requiring a paradigm shift. ...
Article
Full-text available
The automotive industry has started its transformation towards Software-Defined Vehicles. This transformation is driven by the rise of the number of vehicle features, the high complexity of these features and their constraining availability requirements which affect all the players (Original Equipment Manufacturers, Tier1 and Tier2) of the sector. In the context of this transformation, our target, from functional safety point of view, is to, inter alia, provide an easy-to-use and safety-compliant execution and development flow and simplify the development and argumentation for safety by providing a) a pre-certified execution environment with safety design patterns and best-in-class safety measures and b) processes and tooling to minimize the system integrator’s effort. Therefore, in this work we propose a top-down approach where we first define a New Generation In-Vehicle Network, NGIVN, capable of fulfilling the performance (e.g. high bandwidth, low end-2-end delay), safety-related availability (e.g. Autonomous Driving / Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems (AD/ADAS) up to SAE level 5) and safety requirements of modern vehicles. Also, we illustrate the advantages of this approach by deriving the functional and safety attributes of an Automotive Gateway SoC, named Elastic Gateway and destined to be part of the NGIVN. Through the deployment of the Elastic Gateway functional safety concept we demonstrate the flexibility provided by our approach with regards to the design of elements of the NGIVN.
... 8 https://www.webstandards.org. [32] describes three technical reference architectures representing three generations of automotive systems. In the web browser domain, the work in [24] describes a RA for web browsers based on two open-source implementations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Reference architectures (RAs) are successfully used to represent families of concrete software architectures in several domains such as automotive, banking, and the Internet of Things. RAs inspire architects when designing concrete architectures, and they help to guarantee compliance with architectural decisions, regulatory requirements, as well as architectural qualities. Despite their importance, reference architectures still suffer from a number of open technical issues, including (i) the lack of a common interpretation, a precise notation for their representation and documentation, and (ii) the lack of conformance mechanisms for checking the compliance of concrete architectures to their related reference architecture, architectural decisions, regulatory requirements, etc. This paper addresses these two issues by introducing a model-driven approach that leverages (i) a domain-independent metamodel for the representation of reference architectures and (ii) the combination of model transformation and weaving techniques for the automatic conformance checking of concrete architectures. We evaluate the applicability, effectiveness, and generalizability of our approach using illustrative examples from the web browsers and automotive domains, including an assessment from an independent practitioner.
... We use the architecture of a system in two contexts: (i) to generate FSRs from hazardous events by mapping hazardous events to functional components of the system; (ii) to identify whether one or more safety tactics are used for the implementation of a functional component. The first context needs a functional decomposition view of the system [28], known as functional architecture view [13,14,18,50]. In the automotive domain, the functional architecture view outlines functional composition, functional entities, their interfaces, interactions, inter-dependencies, behavior, and constraints in a vehicle [13]. ...
Preprint
The scope of automotive functions has grown from a single-vehicle as an entity to multiple vehicles working together as an entity, referred to as cooperative driving. The current automotive safety standard, ISO 26262, is designed for single vehicles. With the increasing number of cooperative driving capable vehicles on the road, it is now imperative to systematically assess the functional safety of architectures of these vehicles. Many methods are proposed to assess architectures with respect to different quality attributes in the software architecture domain, but to the best of our knowledge, functional safety assessment of automotive architectures is not explored in the literature. We present a method, that leverages existing research in software architecture and safety engineering domains, to check whether the functional safety requirements for a cooperative driving scenario are fulfilled in the technical architecture of a vehicle. We apply our method on a real-life academic prototype for a cooperative driving scenario, platooning, and discuss our insights.
... Different description of architectures can be found in literature both from a technical or a functional point of view, but also with different scopes, for example, focused on methodologies, design and concept, or focused to actual implementation on a platform. For example, reference [13] defines three different technical architectures references for automotive systems focusing on the distribution of processing and communication hardware components within a vehicle. On the software side, reference [14] presents an approach for interconnecting two environments, ROS2 and Adaptive AUTOSAR [15], frameworks that are based on a Data Distribution Service (DDS) middleware and can cooperate in the whole self-driving system. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the last 10 years, huge advances have been made in the areas of sensor technologies and processing platforms, pushing forward developments in the field of autonomous vehicles, mostly represented by self-driving cars. However, the complexity of these systems has been also increased in terms of the hardware and software within them, especially for the perception stage in which the goal is to create a reliable representation of the vehicle and the world. In order to manage this complexity, several architectural models have been proposed as guidelines to design, develop, operate and deploy self-driving solutions for real applications. In this work, a review on autonomous driving architectures is presented, classifying them into technical or functional architectures depending on the domain of their definition. In addition, the perception stage of self-driving solutions is analysed as a component of the architectures, detailing into the sensing part and how data fusion is used to perform localisation, mapping and object detection. Finally, the paper is concluded with additional thoughts on the actual status and future trends in the field.
Chapter
In this paper, we propose a conceptual framework to facilitate the design and development of an automation system in which time-sensitive networking (TSN) is utilized for the backbone network and OPC UA is used for modeling of data exchange over TSN. As the configuration of OPC UA over TSN in a large automation setup can be a challenging task and requires specific expertise, we propose to add an abstract modeling layer that adopts the concepts of model-based development and component-based software engineering to facilitate the development of these systems. The proposed conceptual model can be automatically translated to the OPC UA modeling format. Such a modeling view will significantly reduce the complexity of OPC UA configurations, specially in large automation systems. Another benefit of the proposed framework is that the engineers, who do not have high levels of expertise in OPC UA, will be able to easily configure the OPC UA nodes in the automation system that utilize TSN for backbone communication.
Article
Modern automotive software systems consist of hundreds of heterogeneous software applications, belonging to separated function domains and often developed within distributed automotive ecosystems consisting of original equipment manufactures, tier-1 and tier-2 companies. Hence, the development of modern automotive software systems is a formidable challenge. A well-known instrument for coping with the tremendous heterogeneity and complexity of modern automotive software systems is the use of architectural languages as a way of enabling different and specific views over these systems. However, the use of different architectural languages might come with the cost of reduced interoperability and automation as different languages might have weak to no integration. In this article, we tackle the challenge of integrating two architectural languages heavily used in the automotive domain for the design and timing analysis of automotive software systems: AMALTHEA and Rubus Component Model. The main contributions of this paper are (i) a mapping scheme for the translation of an AMALTHEA architecture into a Rubus Component Model architecture where high-precision timing analysis can be run, and the back annotation of the analysis results on the starting AMALTHEA architecture; (ii) the implementation of the proposed scheme, which uses the concept of model transformations for enabling a full-fledged automated integration; (iii) the application of such automation on three industrial automotive systems being the brake-by-wire, the full blown engine management system and the engine management system. We discuss and evaluate the proposed contributions using an online, experts survey and the above-mentioned use cases. Based on the evaluation results, we conclude that the proposed automation mechanism is correct and applicable in industrial contexts. Besides, we observe that the performance of the automation mechanism does not degrade when translating large models with several thousands of elements. Eventually, we conclude that experts in this field find the proposed contribution industrially relevant.
Article
The scope of automotive functions has grown from a single vehicle as an entity to multiple vehicles working together as an entity, referred to as cooperative driving. The current automotive safety standard, ISO 26262, is designed for single vehicles. With the increasing number of cooperative driving capable vehicles on the road, it is now imperative to systematically assess the functional safety of architectures of these vehicles. Many methods are proposed to assess architectures with respect to different quality attributes in the software architecture domain, but to the best of our knowledge, functional safety assessment of automotive architectures is not explored in the literature. We present a method, that leverages existing research in software architecture and safety engineering domains, to check whether the functional safety requirements for a cooperative driving scenario are fulfilled in the technical architecture of a vehicle. We apply our method on a real-life academic prototype for a cooperative driving scenario, platooning, and discuss our insights.
Conference Paper
In addition to the megatrends electrification, automation and connectivity, the whole mobility business model is experiencing substantial transformation through increasing car sharing services, less individual traffic and introducing new environmental protection measures. This leads to new modular vehicle concepts. These new modular and reconfigurable vehicle concepts should also consider the new trends such as automated/autonomous driving, connected vehicles and OTA updates. In addition, high security and safety requirements must be fulfilled. All this leads to an increasing complexity of the Electric/Electronic architecture (E/E-A) for modular vehicles. The adaptation of the existing approaches in the E/E-A design to those becomes challenging especially regarding the aspect of distributed and integrated E/E modules in different vehicle parts. We analyzed existing concepts for E/E-A design targeting the mentioned new trends and showed their limits for application in modular vehicle concepts. Based on that, we conducted a gap analysis to cover the needs for the considered aspects and integrated the results in a generic E/E-A model consisting of drive module, additional vehicle parts and cloud/infrastructure module. The resulting architecture is based on modular distributed services leading to a seamless serviceoriented architecture which is able to handle the new challenges.
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, electric vehicles (EVs) have emerged as a sustainable transportation alternative to traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) cars, with automotive software as the key driver behind the advancements. A well-defined information and communication technology (ICT) architecture, comprised of electronics and software, can increase an EV’s energy and cost efficiency, safety and comfort. With connected and autonomous electric vehicles (CAEVs) fast becoming a reality, the importance of software in vehicles increases tenfold. This paper serves as an introduction into the field of electromobility and automotive software. It provides an overview of the software and ICT architecture found in CAEVs and identifies future trends and challenges in automotive software development.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nowadays software and electronics play a fundamental role for commercial vehicles in order for a driver to manually operate them effectively and safely in different transport applications. Although the overall design thinking in the commercial vehicle industry is still very much oriented towards a geometric perspective and thus physical modules, which for software means binaries related to physical electronic boxes. Furthermore, there are many incentives for a higher degree of automation for commercial vehicles to gain productivity, while at the same time facing very different demands on final transport applications. In addition, the environmental impact drives the need to reduce the fossil fuel usage by introducing electrified propulsion torque, which could be distributed over several vehicle units. In order to manage this variety of final applications a product line oriented approach is used that will also be challenged by the need to support a feature range from manual to fully automated vehicles and alternative powertrains, possibly distributed torque supply and electrification of many things. In order to deal with different transport applications; wide feature range; and a transition from traditionally closed embedded systems towards interconnected machines and systems there is a need to shift the traditional ECU-oriented mindset. In this paper a supplementary perspective is added to the traditional geometry-oriented perspective - a functionality perspective, which facilitates reasoning about functionality and thus application software. The paper proposes a reference architecture that is based on horizontal and vertical layering of functionality.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Technological advances enable realization of increasingly complex customer features in the automotive sector. Traffic jam pilot or predictive energy management depict examples of recently introduced features that span across different conventional vehicle domains. The increased interconnectivity and functional complexity impose new requirements on the automotive systems engineering practice. The resulting challenge is to develop integrated approaches that combine the established procedures with innovative techniques. To address this challenge, we present a comprehensive taxonomy for existing automotive features. Based on this characterization, established industrial and new research approaches for logical system architectures are consolidated. We introduce levels of hierarchy in the logical system architecture to facilitate systems engineering of innovative functions and highly distributed features. The systematic approach provides a novel rationale for the evolution from functional chains to functional networks in the automotive industry.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The automotive domain is challenged by the increasing importance of Information Technology (IT) based functions. To show the possibilities of modern IT systems, a demonstrator car was developed in RACE (Robust and Reliant Automotive Computing Environment for Future eCars) based on a completely redesigned E/E architecture, which supports the integration of mixed-criticality components and offers features like PlugaPlay. This paper presents the architecture and components of this vehicle prototype, which is equipped with modern systems such as Steer-by-Wire without mechanical fallback. It was designed to support future driver assistance systems, e.g. to carry out autonomous parking maneuvers onto an inductive charging station, a task, which is hard to achieve accurately enough for a human driver. Therefore, a special emphasis lies on the description of the sensor set for automated operation.
Thesis
Full-text available
Nowadays, 90 percent of the innovation in vehicles is enabled by software. Over the past thirty years different methods have been developed to tackle the increasing complexity and to decrease the development costs of the automotive software systems. In the scope of this thesis, automotive architectural modeling and quality evaluation methods have been addressed. According to the ISO 42010 standard, an Architecture Description language (ADL) and an Architecture Framework (AF) are the key mechanisms used in architecture descriptions. ADLs can exist without respective AFs. However, the successful application of an ADL can depend on the proper definition of an AF, since an AF enables better organization and application of an ADL with clear separation of concerns. Although automotive ADLs have been developed over the last decade, only in recent years, automotive companies started to take initiative in defining an architecture framework for automotive systems, e.g., the Architecture Design Framework by Renault. The first draft of the Automotive Architecture Framework (AAF) was already proposed half a decade ago by Broy. The first contribution of this thesis is the definition of an Architecture Framework for Automotive Systems (AFAS), which fills a major gap between existing automotive AFs and ADLs that was identified during the literature review and the evaluation of automotive ADLs. During the evaluation of automotive ADLs, we identified the lack of the capability to ensure the architectural quality. Even though quality models based on the ISO/IEC SQuaRe quality standard have been specified for MATLAB Simulink design models, the quality framework for automotive architectural models has not been defined. Based on a series of structured interviews with architects (from one automotive company) responsible for modeling automotive software at different architectural viewpoints, we identified consistency, modularity, and complexity as the three main pillars of quality for automotive architectures. Modeling hierarchal elements consistently from different architectural viewpoints, and handling data and control complexity are the key needs of automotive architecture modeling. Therefore, the second contribution of this thesis is the definition and development of the quality evaluation framework for automotive software systems. Ensuring consistency between the different architectural viewpoints is one of the key issues regarding architectural quality of automotive systems. Correspondence rules between architectural viewpoints are not formally defined in the scope of the automotive architecture description mechanisms. Therefore, we propose a consistency detection mechanism based on correspondence rules between automotive architectural viewpoints and developed a prototype tool to perform this consistency checking between different architectural viewpoints. The consistency checking approach and the prototype tool were evaluated in the scope of an Adaptive Cruise Control modeling between two separate teams emulating OEM and automotive supplier. To evaluate modularity and complexity, we follow the Goal-Question-Metric (GQM) approach. By conducting a series of interviews with automotive architects and reviewing relevant standards, we have identified complexity and modularity aspects serving as goals in GQM. Then based on the academic and industrial publications, we have identified a series of questions that need to be answered to achieve the aforementioned goals. Automotive architects have again reviewed these questions. Finally, we have defined metrics required to answer the questions, and identified/implemented tools capable of measuring and presenting these metrics. The quality framework has been applied to industrial automotive architectural and design models. Results of the framework application have been evaluated by means of qualitative and quantitative analyses. By applying the framework to three subsequent releases of an architectural model and the corresponding design models, we have observed, for example, that addition of new functionality or bug fixing in design models often come at a price of increased complexity at the design level, and sometimes compromise modularity of the architectural model. To facilitate the quality evaluation process, the framework applies visual analytics approach for the visualization of modularity and complexity with the help of SQuAVisiT toolset. This approach enables early feedback about software quality making it cheaper and easier to reuse and maintain than traditional techniques. In addition to the visualizations, a mechanism for clone management based on Variant Configuration Language (VCL) is developed to manage model clones and variants. The benefits of using VCL as the variability technique includes separating the variability concern from the functionality concern. The variability mechanism has been validated by converting a number of clone pairs with a varied set of differences into generic representations of VCL. To summarize, we defined an architecture framework for automotive software systems with a coherent set of viewpoints and views for automotive ADLs. Having a coherent set of architecture viewpoints and views and analyzing automotive specific needs for architecture description mechanisms, we identified consistency, modularity, and complexity as the three main quality attributes for automotive software systems. We developed a correspondence rule based method for ensuring consistency between different architectural viewpoints and defined metric sets for assessing modularity and complexity as part of the quality framework. The quality framework is also extended by the quality visualization and clone detection mechanisms to improve software quality.
Article
Full-text available
The term 'System of Systems' (SoS) has been used since the 1950s to describe systems that are composed of independent constituent systems, which act jointly towards a common goal through the synergism between them. Examples of SoS arise in areas such as power grid technology, transport, production and military enterprises. SoS engineering is challenged by the independence, heterogeneity, evolution and emergence properties found in SoS. This paper focuses on the role of model-based techniques within the SoS engineering field. A review of existing attempts to define and classify SoS is used to identify several dimensions that characterise SoS applications. The SoS field is exemplified by a series of representative systems selected from the literature on SoS applications. Within the area of model-based techniques the survey specifically reviews the state of the art for SoS modelling, architectural description, simulation, verification and testing. Finally, the identified dimensions of SoS characteristics are used to identify research challenges and future research areas of model-based SoS Engineering.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Architectural Technical Debt has recently received the attention of the scientific community, as a suitable metaphor for describing sub-optimal architectural solutions having short-term benefits but causing a long-term negative impact. We study such phenomenon in the context of Volvo Car Group, where the development of modern cars includes complex systems with mechanical components, electronics and software working together in a complicated network to perform an increasing number of functions and meet the demands of many customers. This puts high requirements on having an architecture and design that can handle these demands. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to manage Architecture Technical Debt, in order to make sure that the advantages of sub-optimal solutions do not lead to the payment of a large interest. We conducted a case study at Volvo Car Group and we discovered that architectural violations in the detailed design had an impact on the efficiency of the communication between components, which is an essential quality in cars and other embedded systems. Such interest is not studied in literature, which usually focuses on the maintainability aspects of Technical Debt. To explore how this Architectural Technical Debt and its interest could be communicated to stakeholders, we developed a visual tool. We found that not only was the Architectural Debt highly interesting for the architects and other stakeholders at VCG, but the proposed visualization was useful in increasing the awareness of the impact that Architectural Technical Debt had on efficiency.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The design of electric vehicles require a complete paradigm shift in terms of embedded systems architectures and software design techniques that are followed within the conventional automotive systems domain. It is increasingly being realized that the evolutionary approach of replacing the engine of a car by an electric engine will not be able to address issues like acceptable vehicle range, battery lifetime performance, battery management techniques, costs and weight, which are the core issues for the success of electric vehicles. While battery technology has crucial importance in the domain of electric vehicles, how these batteries are used and managed pose new problems in the area of embedded systems architecture and software for electric vehicles. At the same time, the communication and computation design challenges in electric vehicles also have to be addressed appropriately. This paper discusses some of these research challenges.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper discusses the concepts of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and of Architecture Frameworks (AF) and presents some preliminary results of current initiatives at Renault on these subjects. We advocate the adoption of a MBSE approach, i.e., the application of modeling to support a SE methodology covering the SE design process and activities and supporting the methods that are needed to carry out these activities. This results in the definition of an architectural design framework for the automotive systems development currently implemented in a SysML specialization. It is expected that this work will contribute to foster the reflection on an architecture framework for the automotive industry and stimulate discussions across the automotive community.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Vehicular environments impose a set of new requirements on today's wireless communication systems. Vehicular safety communications applications cannot tolerate long connection establishment delays before being enabled to communicate with other vehicles encountered on the road. Similarly, non-safety applications also demand efficient connection setup with roadside stations providing services (e.g. digital map update) because of the limited time it takes for a car to drive through the coverage area. Additionally, the rapidly moving vehicles and complex roadway environment present challenges at the PHY level. The IEEE 802.11 standard body is currently working on a new amendment, IEEE 802.1 lp, to address these concerns. This document is named wireless access in vehicular environment, also known as WAVE. As of writing, the draft document for IEEE 802.11p is making progress and moving closer towards acceptance by the general IEEE 802.11 working group. It is projected to pass letter ballot in the first half of 2008. This paper provides an overview of the latest draft proposed for IEEE 802.11p. It is intended to provide an insight into the reasoning and approaches behind the document.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Abstract,Case study is a suitable research methodology,for software engineering,research since it studies contemporary phenomena in its natural context. However, the understanding of what constitutes a case study varies, and hence the quality of the resulting studies. This paper aims,at providing,an introduction to case study methodology,and,guidelines for researchers,conducting,case studies and,readers studying,reports of such,studies. The content is based on the authors’ own,experience from conducting,and reading case studies. The terminology,and,guidelines are compiled,from,different methodology,handbooks,in other research domains, in particular social science and information systems, and adapted to the needs,in software,engineering. We,present,recommended,practices for software engineering,case studies as well,as empirically,derived,and,evaluated,checklists for researchers and readers of case study research. Keywords,Casestudy.Research methodology.Checklists .Guidelines
Article
Full-text available
Two paradigms characterize much of the research in the Information Systems discipline: behavioral science and design science. The behavioral-science paradigm seeks to develop and verify theories that explain or predict human or organizational behavior. The design-science paradigm seeks to extend the boundaries of human and organizational capabilities by creating new and innovative artifacts. Both paradigms are foundational to the IS discipline, positioned as it is at the confluence of people, organizations, and technology. Our objective is to describe the performance of design-science research in Information Systems via a concise conceptual framework and clear guidelines for understanding, executing, and evaluating the research. In the design-science paradigm, knowledge and understanding of a problem domain and its solution are achieved in the building and application of the designed artifact. Three recent exemplars in the research literature are used to demonstrate the application of these guidelines. We conclude with an analysis of the challenges of performing high-quality design-science research in the context of the broader IS community.
Chapter
Although architecture frameworks have not been standardized in the automotive industry, different types of architecture viewpoints and views have been introduced recently as part of automotive architecture frameworks. In this chapter, we first present a literature review which has been carried out to discover the existing architecture frameworks and architecture description languages for the automotive industry as well as their benefits and gaps. We propose an architecture framework for automotive systems (AFAS) based on the extracted viewpoints from existing automotive architecture description mechanisms.
Article
http://regot.chalmers.se/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/2019_JSME_Wohlrab.pdf Agile methods are increasingly introduced in automotive companies in the attempt to become more efficient and flexible in the system development. The adoption of agile practices influences communication between stakeholders and makes companies rethink the management of artifacts and documentation like requirements, safety compliance documents, and architecture models. Practitioners aim to reduce irrelevant documentation but face a lack of guidance to determine what artifacts are needed and how they should be managed. This paper presents artifacts, challenges, guidelines, and practices for the continuous management of systems engineering artifacts in automotive based on a theoretical and empirical understanding of the topic. In collaboration with 53 practitioners from six automotive companies, we conducted a design‐science study involving interviews, a questionnaire, focus groups, and practical data analysis of a systems engineering tool. The guidelines suggest the distinction between artifacts that are shared among different actors in a company (boundary objects) and those that are used within a team (locally relevant artifacts). We propose an analysis approach to identify boundary objects and three practices to manage systems engineering artifacts in industry.
Conference Paper
The need to support software architecture evolution has been well recognized, even more since the rise of agile methods. However, assuring the conformance between architecture descriptions and the implementation remains challenging. Inconsistencies emanate among multiple architecture descriptions, and between architecture descriptions and code. As a consequence, architecture descriptions are not always trusted and used to the extent that their authors wish for. In this paper, we present two surveys with 93 and 72 participants to examine architectural inconsistencies, with a focus on how they evolve over time and can be mitigated using practical guidelines. We identified the importance of capturing emerging elements to keep the architecture description consistent with the implementation, and consider the current-state and future-state architecture separately. Consequences of inconsistencies typically arise at later stages, especially if an architecture description concerns multiple teams. Our guidelines suggest to limit the upfront architecture to stable decisions, while paying attention to concerns that matter across team borders. In the ideal case, companies should aim to integrate architects into the teams to capture emerging aspects with time.
Conference Paper
Most of the innovation in automotive is nowadays coming from electronics and software. The pressure of reducing time to market and increasing flexibility while keeping quality are leading motivations for these companies to embrace system-wide Continuous Integration and Delivery (CI&D), which in the scope of complex automotive value-chains, implies inter-organizational CI&D. In this paper, we investigate the challenges and impediments posed by inter-organizational CI&D in the automotive domain, i.e. continuous software development that involves agile interaction between an OEM (the car manufacturer) and its software suppliers. In particular, we focus on legal contracts that regulate the agreements between these companies and transparency intended as the degree/level of information that is shared between the various companies in the value-chain. The main findings of this study show that (i) inter-organizational transparency is considered positive but not a necessary condition for inter-organizational CI&D, (ii) transparency has positive effects on information sharing among different companies, and (iii) legal contracts are an impediment for inter-organizational CI&D. The results of the study provide useful insights for practitioners that work in similar settings. In addition, the identified challenges and impediments define a research agenda for researchers.
Article
The automotive domain is living an extremely challenging historical moment shocked by many emerging business and technological needs. Electrification, autonomous driving, and connected cars are some of the driving needs in this changing world. Increasingly, vehicles are Becoming software-intensive complex systems and most of the innovation within the automotive industry is based on electronics and software. Modern vehicles can have over 100 Electronic Control Units (ECUs), Which are small computers, together executing gigabytes of software. ECUs are connected to each other through Several networks within the car, and the car is increasingly connected with the outside world. These novelties ask for a change on how the software is engineered and produced and for a disruptive renovation of the electrical and software architecture of the car. In this paper, we describe the current investigation of Volvo Cars to create an architecture framework able to cope with the complexity and needs of present and future vehicles. Specifically, we presented scenarios that describe demands for the architectural framework and introduce three new viewpoints that need to be taken into account for future architectural decisions: Continuous Integration and Deployment, Ecosystem and Transparency, and car as a constituent of a System of Systems. Our results are based on a series of focus groups with experts in automotive engineering and architecture from different companies and universities.
Conference Paper
Future vehicles are expected to evolve towards enabling fully electric and autonomous driving. However, technically this evolution requires fundamental changes of traditional automotive engineering principles. Specifically, challenges arise for the Electric/Electronic (E/E) vehicle architectures as underlying basis for almost all car functionalities. Higher demands on vehicle system’s flexibility and dependability have to be incorporated. We present a novel approach for such future E/E-architectures which considers these requirements as first principles by exploiting runtime adaptation capabilities. Based on use cases, a generic hardware and software architecture is presented which enables technology-independent realization of the provided concepts. Additionally, the incorporated generic failure management and design support are introduced. The approach has been evaluated in different prototype demonstrators, including an e-vehicle prototype compromising enhanced driving functionality. Thereby, the advantages of the concepts for future vehicle E/E-architectural development could be highlighted. Full-text available at: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-417477.html
Chapter
The complexity of E/E systems increases because of many new functionalities interacting across domain boundaries as for example in the area of automated driving and parking and powertrain electrification. Today’s challenge is to manage a growing number of functional requests within and across domain boundaries. Therefore E/E architecture concepts have to be developed. Important elements of the architecture are electronic control units (ECU) / vehicle computers and their hardware and software concepts.
Article
As the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) of self-driving vehicles increase, it is necessary to investigate the Electrical/Electronic(E/E) system architectures for autonomous driving, beyond proof-of-concept prototypes. Relevant patterns and anti-patterns need to be raised into debate and documented. This paper presents the principal components needed in a functional architecture for autonomous driving, along with reasoning for how they should be distributed across the architecture. A functional architecture integrating all the concepts and reasoning is also presented.
Data
Two paradigms characterize much of the research in the Information Systems discipline: behavioral science and design science. The behavioral-science paradigm seeks to develop and verify theories that explain or predict human or organizational behavior. The design-science paradigm seeks to extend the boundaries of human and organizational capabilities by creating new and innovative artifacts. Both paradigms are foundational to the IS discipline, positioned as it is at the confluence of people, organizations, and technology. Our objective is to describe the performance of design-science research in Information Systems via a concise conceptual framework and clear guidelines for understanding, executing, and evaluating the research. In the design-science paradigm, knowledge and understanding of a problem domain and its solution are achieved in the building and application of the designed artifact. Three recent exemplars in the research literature are used to demonstrate the application of these guidelines. We conclude with an analysis of the challenges of performing high-quality design-science research in the context of the broader IS community.
Article
One of the main goals of an applied research field such as software engineering is the transfer and widespread use of research results in industry. To impact industry, researchers developing technologies in academia need to provide tangible evidence of the advantages of using them. This can be done trough step-wise validation, enabling researchers to gradually test and evaluate technologies to finally try them in real settings with real users and applications. The evidence obtained, together with detailed information on how the validation was conducted, offers rich decision support material for industry practitioners seeking to adopt new technologies and researchers looking for an empirical basis on which to build new or refined technologies. This paper presents model for evaluating the rigor and industrial relevance of technology evaluations in software engineering. The model is applied and validated in a comprehensive systematic literature review of evaluations of requirements engineering technologies published in software engineering journals. The aim is to show the applicability of the model and to characterize how evaluations are carried out and reported to evaluate the state-of-research. The review shows that the model can be applied to characterize evaluations in requirements engineering. The findings from applying the model also show that the majority of technology evaluations in requirements engineering lack both industrial relevance and rigor. In addition, the research field does not show any improvements in terms of industrial relevance over time.
Article
This paper presents a modeling approach for the development of software for electronic control units in the automotive domain. The approach supports the development of two related architecture models in the overall development process: the logical architecture provides a graphical, quite abstract representation of a typically large set of automotive functions. On this abstraction level no design decisions are taken. The technical architecture provides a software and a hardware representation in separated views: the software architecture describes the software realization of functions as software components, whereas the hardware architecture models hardware ntities, on which the software components are deployed. Logical as well as technical architectures only model structural information, but no behavioural information. A tight integration of both architecture levels—on the conceptual and on the tool level—with related development phases such as requirements engineering, behaviour modeling, code generation as well as version and configuration management resulting in a seamless overall development process is presented. This architecture modeling approach has been developed within a safety-relevant project at BMW Group. Positive as well as negative experiences with the application of this approach are described.
How kets can contribute to the re-industrialisation of europe
  • P Van Staa
P. van Staa, "How kets can contribute to the re-industrialisation of europe," in European Technology Congress, Wroc law, June 12-13, 2014: http:// docplayer.net/ 21724658-Date-2012-how-kets-cancontribute-to-the-re-industrialisation-of-europe.html, 2014.
Understanding vehicle
  • M Mody
  • J Jones
  • K Chitnis
  • R Sagar
  • G Shurtz
  • Y Dutt
  • M Koul
  • M Biju
  • A Dubey
Systems of systems engineering: Basic concepts, model-based techniques, and research directions
  • C B Nielsen
  • P G Larsen
  • J Fitzgerald
  • J Woodcock
  • J Peleska
C. B. Nielsen, P. G. Larsen, J. Fitzgerald, J. Woodcock, and J. Peleska, "Systems of systems engineering: Basic concepts, modelbased techniques, and research directions," ACM Comput. Surv., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 18:1-18:41, Sep. 2015. [Online]. Available: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2794381
Keynote of martin hiller at icsa 2017, around minute 34
  • M Hiller
M. Hiller, "Keynote of martin hiller at icsa 2017, around minute 34: https://youtu.be/VP1AhGGCFeI," 2017.
Autosar techincal overview, version 4.3
  • T A Consortium
T. A. Consortium, "Autosar techincal overview, version 4.3." (2016), http://autosar.org.
Introduction To OMG's Unified Modeling Language (UML)
"Introduction To OMG's Unified Modeling Language (UML)." OMG Group, May 2016. [Online]. Available: {http://www.omg.org/ gettingstarted/what is uml.htm}