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Creativity And Its Development Through Plastic Arts In Children Of Child Education

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DOI: 10.15405/epsbs.2020.05.10
OPIICS 2019
International Conference of Psychology, Sociology, Education, and Social Sciences
CREATIVITY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PLASTIC
ARTS IN CHILDREN OF CHILD EDUCATION
Jessy Barba Ayala (a)*, Cristian Guzmán Torres (b)
*Corresponding author
(a) Technical University of the North, Av. 17 de Julio, Ibarra, Ecuador, jvbarba@utn.edu.ec
(b) Technical University of the North, Av. 17 de Julio, Ibarra, Ecuador, ceguzman@utn.edu.ec
Abstract
This investigation explains how creative development in children in early education can be supported
through the use of visual arts. The children are capable of expressing emotions and feelings, discovering
their own distinct artistic expression, and developing their representation of the world through
communicating in an artistic manner. The objective of this study is to diagnose the level of creative thought
in children between the ages of five and six and how it is improved through strategies involving graphic
and visual arts. The method used in this study is based on a quantitative approach with a pre-experimental
design meth odolog y with a corr elative scope. Th e sample group is from a population where N=137, from
7 educational institutions that is extracted from n=37 in a simple random manner where the experimental
group was taken from the remains of the control group. For the assessment we applied a creative scale of
10 items, each assigned a point between one and four for a cumulation of 40 points; in a scale showing
reliability of a=0.7, which indicates adequate reliability. The results were derived from the statistical t
application that shows a relationship from the students, the correlation results are from the pre and post
tests for the experimental group. Here is significant evidence that the students that prepared with techniques
involving graphic arts increased in creative thought. In conclusion it is important to utilize the graphic and
visual arts in a consistent manner, planning and orientating the creative thought development of children.
2357-1330 © 2020 Published by European Publisher.
Keywords: Creativity, plastic arts, creative thi nking, plastic graph t echniques.
https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.05.10
Corresponding Author: Jessy Barba Ayala
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1. Introduction
This investigation explains how creative development in children in early education can be
supported through the use of visual arts. The children are capable of expressing emotions and feelings,
discovering their own distinct artistic expression, and developing their representation of the world through
communicating in an artistic manner. The objective of this stud y is to diagnose the level of creative thought
in children between the ages of five and six and how it is improved through strategies involving graphic
and visual arts. The method used in this study is based on a quantitative approach with a pre-experimental
design methodology with a correlative scope. The sample group is from a population where N=137, from
7 educational institutions that is extracted from n=37 in a simple random manner where the experimental
group was taken from the remains of the control group. For the assessment we applied a creative scale of
10 items, each assigned a point between one and four for a cumulation of 40 points; in a scale showing
reliability of a=0.7, which indicates adequate reliability. The results were derived from the statistical t
application that shows a relationship from the students, the correlation results are from the pre and post
tests for the experimental group. The results demonstrated t= 0.8, and a value of p<0.05. Here is significant
evidence that the students that prepared with techniques involving graphic arts increased in creative
thought. In conclusion it is important to utilize the graphic and visual arts in a consistent manner, planning
and orientating the creative thought development of children.
A very important part of early life is the personal and social development of children, development
of personal identity, and acquirement of fundamental capacities and learning of the basic guidelines that
integrate social life The advancement of science demonstrates that the process and change that takes place
in areas of the brain during infancy shows the existence of a period of intense production and establishment
of connections between neurons that begin in the preschool years. If this is true, the knowledge is
provisional and the study in neuroscience is continued and benefits with the diversity of data, the value and
opportunity joined with the experiences of children and above all their creative development.
The study explains how the creative development of children is first and foremost obtained through
the visual arts; with this the children are able to express their emotions and feelings, discover their own
distinct artistic expression and in this pr ocess of evolution that allows the world to be represented and
communicated in a creative form.
Every time that we ask our selves, “what if instead of this I do that?” and “if I try it would it be a
new way to do them?” We have learned to do new things, when this is done, not for necessity of survival,
but with a critical attitude we are before a creative person (Corte, 2010). It is a reality that children confront
daily issues that are more diverse and complex, issues that require them to familiarize themselves in a new
environment requiring new forms of adaptability, above all based on creative thought that we acquire since
childhood.
In this environment creativity is elevated to a fundamental tool that resolves new situations, this is
key if we want childr en to think independently, are able to adapt well to situations in their lives, they can
reason and question, are sensitive to the environment and are able to incline themselves to exploring the
world around them, to obtain novel solutions to problems and learn to understand themselves. A child
develops in their first six year s much of the capacity to shape their future, the capacity of belief. Even
https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.05.10
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though all children are creative, there exists ways to stimulate this capacity in a form that is permanent and
potent (Fernández, Eizaguirre, & Arandia, 2014).
1.1. Creative thinking
Children develop in different contexts to grow up happily. In their first area of development is a
familiar context; in the first years of life one learns the unique and truths that satisfy immediate needs
(Sanchez, 2006). After this, children begin to develop in a context greatly amplified with their classmates
and friends, and neighbors, it is here that children are able to discuss with friends, share rewards, overcome
fears, etc.
According to (Gallardo, 2014), creative thought is a capacity specific to humanity that allows for
beliefs, elaborate products and put into practice solutions that solve real world. problems. From this point
of view the author implies that creative development is comprised of cognitive and affective motivation,
here lies intimate unity and leadership of the subject in a form connected as an intentional process that
develops the person and puts into practice the human activities: communication, music, dance, painting,
drama, literature, science, and other manifestations of psychosocial performances.
According to Klimenko (2011), creativity is a basic component that influences the integral
development of the personality generally and in individual children, how future citizens that will have to
confront a changing world that demands solutions to problems and to contribute significant understanding
of distinct areas of action that they will encounter. A pedagogical aspect to understand is the essence of
creativity in the physiological category, it’s a task necessary as well as complex for the lesson to be the
final multilayered development for diverse theories, traditionally and always more contemporary that they
understand different perspectives.
Creative thought in children is a vehicle of all activity, it is a dialogue between reality and fanta sy,
between the real and what is possible, between what is and what could be, the capacity of creative thought
gives meaning to our lives, because the majority of interesting concepts, important and human, are a result
of creativity, where we believe that feeling is living completely. Moreover, the creativity that is the capacity
to believe in something new, different and original, is from where the development of creative thought is
formed in the individual, and more so in children, this is obligated to think in new ways that realize those
activities, it’s about thinking outside of the box and to be original in the process and creation of ideas.
Creativity is a process of discovery or production of a new concept that satisfies a demand in a
determined social situation, in which one expresses the link between cognitive aspects and effects of the
personality. Next, in both points of view the authors agree in that creativity develops internally as a product
or creation of something new, there always exists an external stimulation that must be achieved through
school, family and social life (Mikjans, 2005).
It is this that Chacón Araya (2011) is referred to as “a specific faculty to be human that allows one
to believe with originality, flexibility and fluidity that is joined with material values and new knowledge
that is the purpose that satisfies personal and social needs” (p.37). In those that consider the personal
characteristics and the underlying neuro-sociology premises as the influence of the socio-cultural
environment and the internal stimulation that gives one the attachment to learning and that triggers their
behavior. Accordin g to Chacón Araya (2011) creativity is the capacity that a person has to create material
https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.05.10
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products, solve problems that the conflict is the strength that unwraps the creative potential of the person
and that guide them to do the activities that go from easy to difficult, from known to discovery.
On the other hand Gallardo (2014) indicates that creativity is an integrative process that when is
interacted with the subject and the object of the activity, the cognitive, affective, motivational, strong-
willed, emotional and other elements that interact in creativity in a way that integrates the person, the
process and the product as a whole. It is proven that when a child is well oriented on the activity to be
executed, when he or she observes the world around him or her, experiences the examples of the teacher or
peer is more capable as to what to do and how a task if he/she is motivated by its accomplishment.
According to Logan (2010) the development of creativity needs contradictory impulses to emerge
and its specified through the principles of units of knowledge and creativity, the character of creativity. Of
history and the logic and intuitive unit. The knowledge and the activity interrelate in the cognitive process
that the subject does in a creative way.
Rodriguez (2009) affirms that the capacity to utilize the knowledge and materials to different
products to the existing, also to demonstrate originality, people should get rid of paradigms, schemes and
beliefs.
For Casas (2013) the combining or creative activity is the capacity of the brain, not only to keep and
reproduce past experience but to combine, transform and create ideas and outcome of a new conduct about
the previous experience. A peculiarity of the creative process gradually evolves, it starts in childhood and
it continues into adulthood.
While Valencia and Orlando (2015) says that the functions of the creative process manifests in the
imagination, the fantasy and the composition is given by the experiences of real situations of the context
where the subject is found. An important aspect is expressed when the subject confronts the resolution of
tasks and activities that initiates and puts into practice ordinary cognitive processes, metacognitive
components, emotional and motivational self- regulation that favor the integral for mation of the student.
On the other hand, Klimenko (2011) and Mikjans (2005) say that a holistic vision about the relation
between the creative action and its impact on the development of capacities and abilities of the child.
Asserted in this context is the possibility to stimulate the creative capacity of the students. Creative thought
is can be stimulated and trained. Some people are born with the natural ability to develop creative thought,
while others have to make an effor t to achieve it.
However, it is possible for anybody to become a great creative thinker. Having been born with this
natural skill or have been working on it depends on the person. When a person develops creative thinking,
he finds day after day original ideas and more frequently the results are astonishing, the creative thinker
begins to discover w to see the world from other perspectives and that higher ideas are very different from
others. Their responses to the problems are never the most obvious and in many cases are revolutionary,
the creative thinker is valuable in all aspects because she never falls into common solutions, they can
contribute to solve almost 100 percent of problems.
A creative thinker stands out from others present in his capabilities to generate multiple ideas at the
same time, she doesn’t resign easily and brings the most original responses before a situation that requires
urgent resolution.
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1.2. Fine Arts
Early education plays a very important role in children learning through different expressions of art
such as music, theatre, painting, literature and dance. Restrepo, Jimenez, and Moreno (2016) say that
“These expressions are linked to knowledge of their own body through sensorial perceptions, searching to
broaden their skill through stimulation of all intelligences and general creative thought” (p.10). In this the
fine arts help to express feelings, emotions and imagination that facilitate different forms of expression and
communication.
Fine arts also play an important role in the development of the child’s creativity in an academic
level, through drawing techniques, sculpture and painting the child practices and improves his flexibility
Through these techniques the child also learns to express feelings, thoughts and emotions.
The mind develops through experiences, education with arts and games that allow enrichment
through the development of emotional talent and knowledge. This development in children facilitates their
own creativity.
Artistic education is fundamental in a child’s academic education. For one’s creative thought to
develop one has to intervene with the social environment that surrounds him or her This expression not
only helps the creative process of children through motor skills, emotions or language difficulties, it also
helps expression because they express their feelings and emotions through ludic activity.
1.3. Graphic Techniques
Graphic techniques are strategies that are used in the first years of basic education. Guangasi (2015)
indicates that “These techniques develop fine motor control, with the objective of preparing children for
the learning process and especially reading and writing are based in practical activities from their own
culture” (p. 37). This is the reason why graphic techniques have a ver y important role in the children due
to the development of fine motor skills helping to coordinate the corporal movements at the same time
develop reading and writing skills in order to have equal personal development.
Drawing is an inherit skill in children, this technique favours reading-writing creativity among
others, through drawings they express how they feel. Guangasi (2015) affirms that: “The drawing of a child
is important because through practice and habit develops the self and encourages abilities of human talent
to enjoy that activity” (p. 24). For children drawing is the activity where they express all transformations
that they go through over time.
Finger painting is an activity of experimentation with visual, tactile and kinetic aspects. This
technique consists of painting with fingers or hands using a mixture of paint of different colors and the
desire to get messy, producing satisfaction and liberation to the child. Finger-painting techniques help with
the evolution and expression of the child’s personality.
Sculptor is a technique that allows children to develop fine motor skills by working with materials
such as sand, clay, plastics, dough, all while with hand and finger exercises. This supports the child as he
begins reading and writing, using pencils, tracing letters and practicing focus (Tamay, 2017). This technique
also helps to canalize aggressive feelings and behaviours.
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Cutting (of appropriate materials) is a technique that consists of cutting with scissors or with fingers
or tearing apart pieces of paper or cardstock and pasting on a specified surface. This practice supports
acquisition of motor skills. It also helps with creative expression.
Collaging consists of pasting different materials onto paper or other objects combining different
subjects using graphic design techniques and drawing (Pasquel, 2017). This technique promotes the use of
creativity and imagination as well as improving the children’s fine motor skills.
Building and construction assists in identifying sizes, colours, shapes and form using different
materials. The children will develop their gross and fine motor skills, mental functions, attention and
perception, reasoning skills, concentration and precision of movement while maintaining an environment
of gender equality. This technique can used be used on its own or combined with other techniques so that
there is a wide variety of possibilities.
2. Problem Statement
It is evident that the development of creative thought is constant throughout life and it’s used in
everyday situations that a person faces. However, the fist years in life have an important role in its
development. The first years of education stimulate the fostering of this development of learners in all
scopes, including creativity as a superior cognitive process.
The problem that is analysed in this study is to determine if graphic design techniques stimulate and
support the development of creative thought in children in early education.
3. Research Questions
Which level of creative thought to children in the fir st grade possess?
Do graphic design techniques stimulate the development of the creative thought?
4. Purpose of the Study
To diagnose the level of creative thought of children of five to six years old and how this may
improve when using graphic design strategies.
5. Research Methods
The methodology selected for this work is based on a qualitative focus with a pre-
experimental method
design, its reach is correlated and perspective, using measurements
from pre and postest that try to ana lyse the
change in creative thought in first grade students using graphic design strategies, These were applied in the
months of May and June of the 2018 - 2019 school year in Ecuador, in the province of Imbabura, in the
city of Ibarra.
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5.1. Participants
The sample has been selected form a population where N=137 from 7 educational institutions in the
city of Ibarra (Ecuador), of which a simple random sample was extracted of n=37 to create the experimental
group with X= 5.4 years old and S=0.54 of which 16 were male and 21 were male.
5.2. Investigative Process
Once the request was approved by the proper authorities in each institution the test of creative
thought was given over the course of two weeks, with the results of the experimental group were determined
by the one that were intervened with the graphic design techniques that were applied to develop creative
thought over 64 hours of planning and introduced in two The sample has been selected form a population
where N=137 from 7 educational institutions in the city of Ibarra (Ecuador), of which a simple random
sample was extracted of n=37 to create the experimental group with X= 5.4 years old and S=0.54 of which
16 were male and 21 were male weekly periods of four hours each; then at the end of the application the
post test was administered. The data was stored in a database created with SPSS 22.0 where statistical
calculations were made, descriptive and correlated as well as tables and graphs.
5.3. Instrument
For the evaluation a scale of creativity was applied which consists of 10 items, each given a range
between one and four giving a total of 40 points; the scale shows a a= 0.7 showing that the instrument is
reliable.
6. Findings
The findings in the variables were:
6.1. Descriptive Statistics
The Publisher data shown in table 1 refers to the average age of the children studied its standard
deviation as well as the average general scores of creative thoughts in the pre and posttests.
Table 01. Descriptive Statistics
N
Minimun
Maximun
Mean
Standard deviation
Edad
37
5,0
7,0
5,449
,5138
Creativity pretest
37
18,0
40,0
28,963
4,6800
Creativity test
37
32,0
40,0
36,270
2,5347
N° valid (by list)
37
Creative th ought is an important factor in problem solving and encoun tering new experiences, it’s
important in development during early education. The results show that the pre-test scores in creative
thought are an X=28.9 and an S=4.6. The results are compacted, the average is close to the maximum
obtained, however it does not indicate a high score, after the intervention of graphic design techniques the
results of the postest demonstrate that the students reached a score of X=36.2 and an S=2.5, also it is evident
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that the minimum score reached surpasses the pre-test score as well as the average obtained by the group
in creative thought.
6.2. Correlation Statistics
When the measurement of the pre and postest are correlated (see table 2) it is identified that the
graphic design techniques have stimulated creative thought of the children whom the intervention was
applied.
Table 02. Correlation of Paired Samples
N
Correlation
Sig.
37
,843
,000
The correlation of paired samples shows that there is a linear relation between the scores of pre and
posttests with an r=0.84, that is significant with a value of p≤0.05.
Table 03. Test of Paired Samples
Paired Differences
t gl Sig.
(bilateral)
Mean Standard
deviation
Mean
standard
error
95% Confidence
interval of the
difference
lower
upper
Par 1 Creativity
pretest
-Creativity test
-7,7838 3,1193 ,5128
-8,238
-6,7438
-15,179
36
,000
To establish whether there is a significant difference between the pre-test and postest of creative
thought, we have applied the statistic to the student for related samples (see table 3) to correlate the results
of the first test and the second evaluation, this one was done after the intervention of graphic design
strategies the statistics describes t=15.17 and a value of p<0.05; this significance of this is that there is
statistical evidence that demonstrates that students worked with graphic design techniques guided the
development of creative thought impr oving their scores.
7. Conclusion
Creative thought is a superior cognitive process that can be developed and stimulated. After
analysing the results, the importance of developing creative thought is evident and that fine arts, especially
graphic arts and techniques are improved in children.
Children that develop their creativity tend to have original thoughts more frequently. The results
obtained with the use of graphic art techniques predicted factors of creative thought positively; these
techniques must be practiced with institutional design creating chaotic systematic contexts, since creative
thought is an important factor in problem solving an d facing new experiences.
Fine arts have a fundamental role in the development of creativity in children at the level of primary
school, because, through different graphic design techniques the child exercises and improves their
https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.05.10
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cognitive flexibility, therefore these techniques contribute to the children learning to express feelings,
thoughts and emotions. For this reason, it is important that teachers who apply these techniques do so
consistently, planning and guiding the development of creative thought in children.
The appropriate context for stimulating creativity of students is in the classroom, this gives the
potential to stimulate the creative capacities and abilities through the arts.
The base of the results of the study concludes that creative thought in children is the principle
foundation of all activity, it also suggests that between fact and fiction, real and possible, fantasy and reality,
the capacity of creative thought gives sense to the existence of individuals because the majority of situations
are transcendental, important and human and are the result of creativity. When we create, we feel that we
are living fully?
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Article
Full-text available
Actividad de aprendizaje creadora, Atmósferas creativas, Capacidad creativa, Creatividad, Enseñanza desarrolladora, Prácticas de enseñanza.
Article
Full-text available
El presente artículo tiene como objetivos resumir el estado actual del conocimiento en el campo de la creatividad y presentar una nueva perspectiva de lo planteado por diferentes autores sobre este tema particular. A la vez, se busca establecer un acercamiento a la utilización de este concepto dentro del campo educativo, principalmente el universitario, y su relación específica con las ciencias del movimiento humano. La creatividad toma una importancia primordial dentro del desarrollo humano de acuerdo con los diferentes enfoques de investigación y los diversos modelos conceptuales que se han propuesto a través de los años. Esta conclusión se basa en los resultados de las innumerables investigaciones sobre creatividad. Por esa razón, se busca integrar los trabajos publicados por algunos autores con respecto a este complejo constructo. En primera instancia, se reúnen y se discuten algunos conceptos que tienen relación con esta visión.. También se discuten las teorías sobre la creatividad y luego se plantean y se describen algunas características que parecen comunes en las personas creativas. Además, se detallan aspectos básicos sobre la importancia de la creatividad en la educación y en las ciencias del movimiento humano. Finalmente, se proponen algunas líneas de investigación, especialmente en el área de las ciencias del movimiento humano. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the state of the knowledge in creativity research and to present a new perspective to what has been published before. A secondary aim is to look for a different approach to use this construct in the educational area, mainly at the college level, and how it relates to the human movement sciences. Based on different research and conceptual approaches carried out throughout the years, it has been proposed that the creativity is a fundamental piece of the human development process. This conclusion is based on the results of several investigations on creativity; therefore, it seems important to integrate the knowledge from the works published by some authors in regard to this complex construct. First, in order to better understand the problem, a series of concepts related to creativity are discussed. Secondly, different theories on creativity are presented; then, common characteristics of creative people are described. Key factors are detailed on the importance of creativity in education and especially within the human movement sciences. Finally, potential research on creativity within the human movement sciences is suggested.
El espacio del niño y sus conceptos [The child's space and concepts
  • M Casas
Casas, M. (2013). El espacio del niño y sus conceptos [The child's space and concepts]. México: Editorial Trillas.
Inteligencia creativa: Arte y creatividad en educación [Creative intelligence: Art and creativity in education
  • M Corte
Corte, M. (2010). Inteligencia creativa: Arte y creatividad en educación [Creative intelligence: Art and creativity in education]. México: Editorial Trillas.
Creatividad e Innovación: Claves para intervenir en contextos de aprendizaje REICE
  • I Fernández
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Fernández, I., Eizaguirre, A., & Arandia, M. (2014). Creatividad e Innovación: Claves para intervenir en contextos de aprendizaje REICE [Creativity and Innovation: Keys to intervening in learning contexts REICE].
Las técnicas grafo plásticas y su incidencia en el desarrollo artístico en los niños de los primeros años de educación inicial de la escuela Paulo Freire [Plastic graphic techniques and their impact on artistic development in children of the early years of
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Gallardo, M. (2014). La creatividad en la escuela [Creativity at school]. Jaén: Universidad de Jaén. Guangasi, L. (2015). Las técnicas grafo plásticas y su incidencia en el desarrollo artístico en los niños de los primeros años de educación inicial de la escuela Paulo Freire [Plastic graphic techniques and their impact on artistic development in children of the early years of initial education of the Paulo Freire school].
Expresión y creatividad en preescolar
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Mikjans, C. (2005). Expresión y creatividad en preescolar [Expression and creativity in preschool].
La Influencia Del Arte En El Desarrollo Del Pensamiento Creativo En La Primera Infancia [The Influence of Art in the Development of Creative Thinking in Early Childhood
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Restrepo, L., Jimenez, J., & Moreno, D. (2016). La Influencia Del Arte En El Desarrollo Del Pensamiento Creativo En La Primera Infancia [The Influence of Art in the Development of Creative Thinking in Early Childhood]. Retrieved from https://repository.upb.edu.co/bitstream/handle/20.500.11912/ 3564/La%20Ifluencia%20Del%20Arte%20En%20El%20Desarrollo%20Del%20Pensamiento%20
Manual de creatividad
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Rodriguez, M. (2009). Manual de creatividad [Creativity manual]. México: Editorial Trillas.